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Antioxidants, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Interleukin 6 (IL-6), as a multifunctional cytokine, may be involved in the mobilization of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview A Review of the Effects of Leucine Metabolite (β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate) Supplementation and Resistance Training on Inflammatory Markers: A New Approach to Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100148
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from the breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid, leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who participate in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on
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β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from the breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid, leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who participate in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation that have received less attention. Because of the small number of published studies, it has not been possible to conclude the exact effects of HMB on cardiovascular parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers. Thus, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data presented here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate the pro-inflammatory response following an intense bout of resistance exercise in athletes. Also, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption with resistance training does not improve cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress markers greater than resistance training alone. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, long-term studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with the body’s inflammatory condition, antioxidative defense system, and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Open AccessReview Cytoprotective Effects of Natural Compounds against Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100147
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants, has been witnessed in pathophysiological states of many disorders. Compounds identified from natural sources have long been recognized to ameliorate oxidative stress due to their inherent antioxidant activities. Here, we summarize the cytoprotective
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Oxidative stress, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants, has been witnessed in pathophysiological states of many disorders. Compounds identified from natural sources have long been recognized to ameliorate oxidative stress due to their inherent antioxidant activities. Here, we summarize the cytoprotective effects and mechanisms of natural or naturally derived synthetic compounds against oxidative stress. These compounds include: caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) found in honey bee propolis, curcumin from turmeric roots, resveratrol abundant in grape, and 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole (CDDO-Im), a synthetic triterpenoid based on naturally occurring oleanolic acid. Cytoprotective effects of these compounds in diseases conditions like cardiovascular diseases and obesity to decrease oxidative stress are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessReview Redox for Repair: Cold Physical Plasmas and Nrf2 Signaling Promoting Wound Healing
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100146
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Chronic wounds and ulcers are major public health threats. Being a substantial burden for patients and health care systems alike, better understanding of wound pathophysiology and new avenues in the therapy of chronic wounds are urgently needed. Cold physical plasmas are particularly effective
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Chronic wounds and ulcers are major public health threats. Being a substantial burden for patients and health care systems alike, better understanding of wound pathophysiology and new avenues in the therapy of chronic wounds are urgently needed. Cold physical plasmas are particularly effective in promoting wound closure, irrespective of its etiology. These partially ionized gases deliver a therapeutic cocktail of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species safely at body temperature and without genotoxic side effects. This field of plasma medicine reanimates the idea of redox repair in physiological healing. This review compiles previous findings of plasma effects in wound healing. It discusses new links between plasma treatment of cells and tissues, and the perception and intracellular translation of plasma-derived reactive species via redox signaling pathways. Specifically, (i) molecular switches governing redox-mediated tissue response; (ii) the activation of the nuclear E2-related factor (Nrf2) signaling, together with antioxidative and immunomodulatory responses; and (iii) the stabilization of the scaffolding function and actin network in dermal fibroblasts are emphasized in the light of wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nrf2 in Dermatological Pathologies)
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Open AccessReview Oxidative Stress and Arterial Dysfunction in Peripheral Artery Disease
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100145
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease characterized by a narrowing of the arteries in the lower extremities. Disease manifestations are the result of more than just reduced blood flow, and include endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and inflammation. Growing evidence suggests that
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Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease characterized by a narrowing of the arteries in the lower extremities. Disease manifestations are the result of more than just reduced blood flow, and include endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and inflammation. Growing evidence suggests that these factors lead to functional impairment and decline in PAD patients. Oxidative stress also plays an important role in the disease, and a growing amount of data suggest a link between arterial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In this review, we present the current evidence for the involvement of endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and inflammation in the pathophysiology of PAD. We also discuss the links between these factors and oxidative stress, with a focus on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Finally, the potential therapeutic role of NOX2 antioxidants for improving arterial function and functional status in PAD patients is explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of a Two-Year Home-Based Exercise Training Program on Oxidized LDL and HDL Lipids in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with and without Type-2 Diabetes
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100144
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
We investigated the effect of two-year home-based exercise training program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein LDL (ox-LDL) and high-density lipoprotein HDL (ox-HDL) lipids in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), both with and without type-2 diabetes (T2D). Analysis of lipoprotein-oxidized lipids was based on
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We investigated the effect of two-year home-based exercise training program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein LDL (ox-LDL) and high-density lipoprotein HDL (ox-HDL) lipids in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), both with and without type-2 diabetes (T2D). Analysis of lipoprotein-oxidized lipids was based on the determination of baseline conjugated dienes in lipoprotein lipids. In order to study the effect of an exercise load on ox-LDL and ox-HDL lipids patients in both CAD and CAD + T2D intervention, groups were divided in three based on exercise load (high, medium, and low). During the two-year home-based exercise training program, the study showed that only higher training volume resulted in a decreased concentration of ox-LDL, while the two groups with lower training volumes showed no change. This result indicates that the training load needs to be sufficiently high in order to decrease the concentration of atherogenic ox-LDL lipids in patients with CAD and CAD + T2D. Interestingly, the concentration of ox-HDL did not change in any of the subgroups. This could indicate that the lipid peroxide-transporting capacity of HDL, suggested by results from exercise training studies in healthy adults, may not function similarly in CAD patients with or without T2D. Moreover, the lipid-lowering medication used may have had an influence on these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidized LDL Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Three Main Chlorogenic Acids in Water Extracts of Coffee Leaves by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to an Electrochemical Detector
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100143
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Coffee is a beverage widely consumed in the world. The coffee species most commercialized worldwide are Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora). Roasted coffee beans are the most used, but coffee leaves are also consumed as infusion in several
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Coffee is a beverage widely consumed in the world. The coffee species most commercialized worldwide are Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora). Roasted coffee beans are the most used, but coffee leaves are also consumed as infusion in several countries for traditional medicinal purposes. They contain several interesting phenolic antioxidant compounds mainly belonging to chlorogenic acids (CGAs). In the present work, a liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (LC-EC) method was developed for the determination of three main chlorogenic acid isomers, namely 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), in coffee leaves aqueous extracts. Samples from eight coffee species, namely; Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, Coffea liberica, Coffea humilis, Coffea mannii, Coffea charrieriana, Coffea anthonyi, and Coffea liberica var. liberica, were grown and collected in tropical greenhouses. Linearity of the calibration graphs was observed in the range from the limit of quantification to 1.0 × 10−5 M, with R2 equal to 99.9% in all cases. High sensitivity was achieved with a limit of detection of 1.0 × 10−8 M for 3-CQA and 5-CQA (i.e., 3.5 µg/L) and 2.0 × 10−8 M for 4-CQA (i.e., 7.1 µg/L). The chromatographic profile of the samples harvested for each Coffea species was studied comparatively. Obtained raw data were pretreated for baseline variations and shifts in retention times between the chromatographic profiles. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the pretreated data. According to the results, three clusters of Coffea species were found. In the water sample extracts, 5-CQA appeared to be the major isomer, and some species contained a very low amount of CQAs. Fluctuations were observed depending on the Coffea species and harvesting period. Significant differences between January and July were noticed regarding CQAs content. The species with the best CQAs/caffeine ratio was identified. The LC-EC data were validated by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mitochondrial Arabidopsis thaliana TRXo Isoforms Bind an Iron–Sulfur Cluster and Reduce NFU Proteins In Vitro
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100142
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
In plants, the mitochondrial thioredoxin (TRX) system generally comprises only one or two isoforms belonging to the TRX h or o classes, being less well developed compared to the numerous isoforms found in chloroplasts. Unlike most other plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two
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In plants, the mitochondrial thioredoxin (TRX) system generally comprises only one or two isoforms belonging to the TRX h or o classes, being less well developed compared to the numerous isoforms found in chloroplasts. Unlike most other plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two TRXo isoforms whose physiological functions remain unclear. Here, we performed a structure–function analysis to unravel the respective properties of the duplicated TRXo1 and TRXo2 isoforms. Surprisingly, when expressed in Escherichia coli, both recombinant proteins existed in an apo-monomeric form and in a homodimeric iron–sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-bridged form. In TRXo2, the [4Fe-4S] cluster is likely ligated in by the usual catalytic cysteines present in the conserved Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys signature. Solving the three-dimensional structure of both TRXo apo-forms pointed to marked differences in the surface charge distribution, notably in some area usually participating to protein–protein interactions with partners. However, we could not detect a difference in their capacity to reduce nitrogen-fixation-subunit-U (NFU)-like proteins, NFU4 or NFU5, two proteins participating in the maturation of certain mitochondrial Fe-S proteins and previously isolated as putative TRXo1 partners. Altogether, these results suggest that a novel regulation mechanism may prevail for mitochondrial TRXs o, possibly existing as a redox-inactive Fe-S cluster-bound form that could be rapidly converted in a redox-active form upon cluster degradation in specific physiological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems)
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Open AccessArticle CoQ10 Supplementation in Patients Undergoing IVF-ET: The Relationship with Follicular Fluid Content and Oocyte Maturity
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100141
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Background: The target of the reduced fecundity with aging is the oocyte. The follicular fluid and its components are strongly linked with the environment of the maturing oocyte. The aim of the present study was to evaluate CoQ10 bioavailability in follicular fluids after
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Background: The target of the reduced fecundity with aging is the oocyte. The follicular fluid and its components are strongly linked with the environment of the maturing oocyte. The aim of the present study was to evaluate CoQ10 bioavailability in follicular fluids after oral supplementation and its possible implication in oocyte maturation. Methods: Fifteen female partners of infertile couples, aged 31–46, undergoing IVF-ET and taking 200 mg/day oral CoQ10 were compared to unsupplemented patients. CoQ10 content, its oxidative status and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated also in relation to oocyte maturation indexes. Results: CoQ10 supplementation produced a significant increase in follicular content and a significant improvement of its oxidative status. Follicular fluid total antioxidant capacity highlighted a significant decrease in patients supplemented with CoQ10, specially in women >35 years. CoQ10 supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity of fluid from follicles containing mature oocyte, moreover CoQ10 oxidative status was also significantly reduced but in follicles containing immature oocyte. Conclusions: Our observation leads to the hypothesis that the oral supplementation of CoQ10 may improve follicular fluid oxidative metabolism and oocyte quality, specially in over 35-year-old women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CoQ10 in Longevity)
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Open AccessArticle Oxidation of Methionine 77 in Calmodulin Alters Mouse Growth and Behavior
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100140
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
Methionine 77 in calmodulin can be stereospecifically oxidized to methionine sulfoxide by mammalian methionine sulfoxide reductase A. Whether this has in vivo significance is unknown. We therefore created a mutant mouse in which wild type calmodulin-1 was replaced by a calmodulin containing a
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Methionine 77 in calmodulin can be stereospecifically oxidized to methionine sulfoxide by mammalian methionine sulfoxide reductase A. Whether this has in vivo significance is unknown. We therefore created a mutant mouse in which wild type calmodulin-1 was replaced by a calmodulin containing a mimic of methionine sulfoxide at residue 77. Total calmodulin levels were unchanged in the homozygous M77Q mutant, which is viable and fertile. No differences were observed on learning tests, including the Morris water maze and associative learning. Cardiac stress test results were also the same for mutant and wild type mice. However, young male and female mice were 20% smaller than wild type mice, although food intake was normal for their weight. Young M77Q mice were notably more active and exploratory than wild type mice. This behavior difference was objectively documented on the treadmill and open field tests. The mutant mice ran 20% longer on the treadmill than controls and in the open field test, the mutant mice explored more than controls and exhibited reduced anxiety. These phenotypic differences bore a similarity to those observed in mice lacking calcium/calmodulin kinase IIα (CaMKIIα). We then showed that MetO77 calmodulin was less effective in activating CaMKIIα than wild type calmodulin. Thus, characterization of the phenotype of a mouse expressing a constitutively active mimic of calmodulin led to the identification of the first calmodulin target that can be differentially regulated by the oxidation state of Met77. We conclude that reversible oxidation of methionine 77 in calmodulin by MSRA has the potential to regulate cellular function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases and Oxidative Damage)
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Open AccessArticle On the Characterization and Correlation of Compositional, Antioxidant and Colour Profile of Common and Balsamic Vinegars
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100139
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Commercially available common and balsamic vinegars were examined, using a combination of spectrophotometric, chromatographic, colorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, radical scavenging capacity, phenolic profile, colour parameters, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H
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Commercially available common and balsamic vinegars were examined, using a combination of spectrophotometric, chromatographic, colorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, radical scavenging capacity, phenolic profile, colour parameters, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectra were comparatively studied. The main scope was the assessment of vinegar antioxidant and metabolic profiles and the identification of the most appropriate features influencing their type and subtypes. Red grape balsamic vinegars exhibited the strongest antioxidant profile. High total phenolic content and radical scavenging-antioxidant activity of vinegars was strongly correlated with high hue-angle and colour density values and low lightness and a* values. FT-IR spectra analysis confirmed the presence of organic acids and carbohydrates and, in combination with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), the occurrence of phenolic compounds. NMR spectroscopy enabled the identification of 27 characteristic metabolites in each type of vinegar. The combination of all applied techniques provides critical information on compositional differences among the vinegars and could serve as an application tool for similar fermentation products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reduction of Real-Time Imaging of M1 Macrophage Chemotaxis toward Damaged Muscle Cells is PI3K-Dependent
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100138
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Macrophages migrate and invade into damaged muscle rapidly and are important for muscle repair and subsequent regeneration. The exact cellular and biological events that cause macrophage migration toward injured muscle are not completely understood. In this study, the effect of macrophage differentiation on
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Macrophages migrate and invade into damaged muscle rapidly and are important for muscle repair and subsequent regeneration. The exact cellular and biological events that cause macrophage migration toward injured muscle are not completely understood. In this study, the effect of macrophage differentiation on the chemotactic capability to invade local damaged muscle was investigated using an in vitro model of muscle injury. We used C2C12 cell myoblasts and J774 cell macrophages, and the “killed-C2C12” cells were combined with live C2C12 cells as a partially damaged muscle model. The cultured J774 cells, with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were treated with Ly294002 (Ly), which is an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). In order to evaluate the polarization effect of LPS stimulation on J774 cells, expression of cell surface Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD11c and CCR2, and expression of F-actin intensity, were analyzed by flow cytometry. The real-time horizontal chemotaxis assay of J774 cells was tested using the TAXIScan device. The expressions of TLR4, CD11c, and F-actin intensity in LPS-treated cells were significantly higher than those in Ctrl cells. In LPS-treated cells, the chemotactic activity toward damaged muscle cells completely disappeared. Moreover, the reduced chemotaxis depended far more on directionality than velocity. However, Ly treatment reversed the reduced chemotactic activity of the LPS-treated cells. In addition, cell-adhesion and F-actin intensity, but not CCR2 expression, in LPS-treated cells, was significantly reduced by Ly treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that the PI3K/Akt activation state drives migration behavior towards damaged muscle cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle Antiradical and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity Evaluations of Averrhoa bilimbi L. Leaves and Tentative Identification of Bioactive Constituents through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and Molecular Docking Approach
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100137
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The active constituents were tentatively identified through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and molecular docking approaches. The n-butanol fraction of A. bilimbi crude methanolic leaves extract displayed significant DPPH radical scavenging effect with IC50 (4.14 ± 0.21 μg/mL) (p < 0.05), as well as xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 (64.84 ± 3.93 μg/mL) (p < 0.05). Afzelechin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside and cucumerin A were tentatively identified as possible metabolites that contribute to the antioxidant activity of the n-butanol fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessReview Peroxiredoxins in Colorectal Cancer: Predictive Biomarkers of Radiation Response and Therapeutic Targets to Increase Radiation Sensitivity?
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100136
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the Western world, with one-third of cases located in the rectum. Preoperative radiotherapy is the standard of care for many patients with rectal cancer but has a highly variable response rate. The ability
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the Western world, with one-third of cases located in the rectum. Preoperative radiotherapy is the standard of care for many patients with rectal cancer but has a highly variable response rate. The ability to predict response would be of great clinical utility. The response of cells to ionizing radiation is known to involve immediate damage to biomolecules and more sustained disruption of redox homeostasis leading to cell death. The peroxiredoxins are an important group of thiol-dependent antioxidants involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress and regulating signaling pathways involved in cellular responses to oxidative stress. All six human peroxiredoxins have shown increased expression in CRC and may be associated with clinicopathological features and tumor response to ionizing radiation. Peroxiredoxins can act as markers of oxidative stress in various biological systems but they have not been investigated in this capacity in CRC. As such, there is currently insufficient evidence to support the role of peroxiredoxins as clinical biomarkers, but it is an area worthy of investigation. Future research should focus on the in vivo response of rectal cancer to radiotherapy and the redox status of peroxiredoxins in rectal cancer cells, in order to predict response to radiotherapy. The peroxiredoxin system is also a potential therapeutic target for CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Peroxiredoxins in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Astaxanthin on the Proliferation and Migration of Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100135
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Astaxanthin (ASX) is a marine-based ketocarotenoid; an accessory pigment in plants in that it has many different potential functions. ASX is an antioxidant that is notably more potent than many other antioxidants. Antioxidants have anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress-reducing properties to potentially reduce the
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Astaxanthin (ASX) is a marine-based ketocarotenoid; an accessory pigment in plants in that it has many different potential functions. ASX is an antioxidant that is notably more potent than many other antioxidants. Antioxidants have anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress-reducing properties to potentially reduce the incidence of cancer or inhibit the expansion of tumor cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ASX would inhibit proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro. We found that application of ASX significantly reduced proliferation rates and inhibited breast cancer cell migration compared to control normal breast epithelial cells. Based on these results, further investigation of the effects of ASX on not only breast cancer cells, but other forms of tumor cells, should be carried out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Rosa rugosa Depending on Degree of Ripeness
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100134
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Maturity stage affects the bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant capacity in the fruit. This study was designed to identify and quantify carotenoids, as well as to evaluate vitamin E, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of Rosa rugosa hips
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Maturity stage affects the bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant capacity in the fruit. This study was designed to identify and quantify carotenoids, as well as to evaluate vitamin E, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of Rosa rugosa hips at different degrees of ripeness. HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis showed different types of carotenoids at different stages of maturity of R. rugosa hips with significant differences (p ˂ 0.05), where the maximum concentration was observed at late harvesting. In the hips investigated, only α-tocopherol was detected, the maximum concentration of both vitamin E and vitamin C was obtained in the orange hips with significant difference (p ˂ 0.05). On the other hand, the highest hydrophilic and lipophilic TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) values, as well as total phenolic contents, were determined in the mature hips (red colour) with significant difference (p < 0.0001) and (p < 0.001) respectively, whereas ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) showed lower activity in the mature hips with significant difference (p ˂ 0.05). Late harvesting is recommended if a high content of carotenoids is desired, while harvesting should be carried out earlier if a higher vitamin E and vitamin C content is desired, which in turn affects the antioxidants capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Open AccessReview Effect of Natural Food Antioxidants against LDL and DNA Oxidative Changes
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100133
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
Radical oxygen species formed in human tissue cells by many endogenous and exogenous pathways cause extensive oxidative damage which has been linked to various human diseases. This review paper provides an overview of lipid peroxidation and focuses on the free radicals-initiated processes of
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Radical oxygen species formed in human tissue cells by many endogenous and exogenous pathways cause extensive oxidative damage which has been linked to various human diseases. This review paper provides an overview of lipid peroxidation and focuses on the free radicals-initiated processes of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative modification and DNA oxidative damage, which are widely associated with the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis, respectively. The article subsequently provides an overview of the recent human trials or even in vitro investigations on the potential of natural antioxidant compounds (such as carotenoids; vitamins C and E) to monitor LDL and DNA oxidative changes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Oxidative Stress in the Male Germline: A Review of Novel Strategies to Reduce 4-Hydroxynonenal Production
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100132
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
Germline oxidative stress is intimately linked to several reproductive pathologies including a failure of sperm-egg recognition. The lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) is particularly damaging to the process of sperm-egg recognition as it compromises the function and the stability of several germline proteins. Considering
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Germline oxidative stress is intimately linked to several reproductive pathologies including a failure of sperm-egg recognition. The lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) is particularly damaging to the process of sperm-egg recognition as it compromises the function and the stability of several germline proteins. Considering mature spermatozoa do not have the capacity for de novo protein translation, 4HNE modification of proteins in the mature gametes has uniquely severe consequences for protein homeostasis, cell function and cell survival. In somatic cells, 4HNE overproduction has been attributed to the action of lipoxygenase enzymes that facilitate the oxygenation and degradation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Accordingly, the arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) enzyme has been intrinsically linked with 4HNE production, and resultant pathophysiology in various complex conditions such as coronary artery disease and multiple sclerosis. While ALOX15 has not been well characterized in germ cells, we postulate that ALOX15 inhibition may pose a new strategy to prevent 4HNE-induced protein modifications in the male germline. In this light, this review focuses on (i) 4HNE-induced protein damage in the male germline and its implications for fertility; and (ii) new methods for the prevention of lipid peroxidation in germ cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals)
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Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms of the Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase System from Neisseria meningitidis
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100131
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis, an obligate pathogenic bacterium in humans, has acquired different defense mechanisms to detect and fight the oxidative stress generated by the host’s defense during infection. A notable example of such a mechanism is the PilB reducing system, which repairs oxidatively-damaged
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Neisseria meningitidis, an obligate pathogenic bacterium in humans, has acquired different defense mechanisms to detect and fight the oxidative stress generated by the host’s defense during infection. A notable example of such a mechanism is the PilB reducing system, which repairs oxidatively-damaged methionine residues. This review will focus on the catalytic mechanism of the two methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) domains of PilB, which represent model enzymes for catalysis of the reduction of a sulfoxide function by thiols through sulfenic acid chemistry. The mechanism of recycling of these MSR domains by various “Trx-like” disulfide oxidoreductases will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases and Oxidative Damage)
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Open AccessReview Redox Signaling of NADPH Oxidases Regulates Oxidative Stress Responses, Immunity and Aging
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100130
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that transient or physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases act as a redox signal to re-establish homeostasis. The capacity to re-establish homeostasis progressively declines during aging but is maintained in
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An accumulating body of evidence suggests that transient or physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases act as a redox signal to re-establish homeostasis. The capacity to re-establish homeostasis progressively declines during aging but is maintained in long-lived animals to promote healthy aging. In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, ROS generated by dual oxidases (Duox) are important for extracellular matrix integrity, pathogen defense, oxidative stress resistance, and longevity. The Duox enzymatic activity is tightly regulated and under cellular control. Developmental molting cycles, pathogen infections, toxins, mitochondrial-derived ROS, drugs, and small GTPases (e.g., RHO-1) can activate Duox (BLI-3) to generate ROS, whereas NADPH oxidase inhibitors and negative regulators, such as MEMO-1, can inhibit Duox from generating ROS. Three mechanisms-of-action have been discovered for the Duox/BLI-3-generated ROS: (1) enzymatic activity to catalyze crosslinking of free tyrosine ethyl ester in collagen bundles to stabilize extracellular matrices, (2) high ROS bursts/levels to kill pathogens, and (3) redox signaling activating downstream kinase cascades to transcription factors orchestrating oxidative stress and immunity responses to re-establish homeostasis. Although Duox function at the cell surface is well established, recent genetic and biochemical data also suggests a novel role for Duoxs at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to control redox signaling. Evidence underlying these mechanisms initiated by ROS from NADPH oxidases, and their relevance for human aging, are discussed in this review. Appropriately controlling NADPH oxidase activity for local and physiological redox signaling to maintain cellular homeostasis might be a therapeutic strategy to promote healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Aging)
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Open AccessReview Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in NRF2- and Sirtuin-Dependent Maintenance of Cellular Redox Balance
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100129
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has arisen as a critical gasotransmitter signaling molecule modulating cellular biological events related to health and diseases in heart, brain, liver, vascular systems and immune response. Three enzymes mediate the endogenous production of H2S: cystathione β-synthase
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has arisen as a critical gasotransmitter signaling molecule modulating cellular biological events related to health and diseases in heart, brain, liver, vascular systems and immune response. Three enzymes mediate the endogenous production of H2S: cystathione β-synthase (CBS), cystathione γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). CBS and CSE localizations are organ-specific. 3-MST is a mitochondrial and cytosolic enzyme. The generation of H2S is firmly regulated by these enzymes under normal physiological conditions. Recent studies have highlighted the role of H2S in cellular redox homeostasis, as it displays significant antioxidant properties. H2S exerts antioxidant effects through several mechanisms, such as quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), by modulating cellular levels of glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx-1) or increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes (AOE), by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2). H2S also influences the activity of the histone deacetylase protein family of sirtuins, which plays an important role in inhibiting oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes and during the aging process by modulating AOE gene expression. This review focuses on the role of H2S in NRF2 and sirtuin signaling pathways as they are related to cellular redox homeostasis. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Role of Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Oxidative Stress Tolerance and Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus and Other Bacteria
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100128
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRA1 and MSRB) are proteins overproduced in Staphylococcus aureus during exposure with cell wall-active antibiotics. Later studies identified the presence of two additional MSRA proteins (MSRA2 and MSRA3) in S. aureus. These MSR proteins have been characterized in many
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Methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRA1 and MSRB) are proteins overproduced in Staphylococcus aureus during exposure with cell wall-active antibiotics. Later studies identified the presence of two additional MSRA proteins (MSRA2 and MSRA3) in S. aureus. These MSR proteins have been characterized in many other bacteria as well. This review provides the current knowledge about the conditions and regulatory network that mimic the expression of these MSR encoding genes and their role in defense from oxidative stress and virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases and Oxidative Damage)
Open AccessArticle Involvement of Neutrophil Dynamics and Function in Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Effect of Hydrogen Bath
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100127
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of neutrophil dynamics and function in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and the effect of molecular hydrogen (H2) intake on these parameters. Nine healthy and active young
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of neutrophil dynamics and function in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and the effect of molecular hydrogen (H2) intake on these parameters. Nine healthy and active young men performed H2 and placebo bath trial in a crossover design. They carried out downhill running (−8% slope) for 30 min at a speed corresponding to 75~85% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Subsequently, they repeated bathing for 20 min per day for one week. Degree of muscle soreness (visual analogue scale: VAS), peripheral leukocyte counts, neutrophil dynamics and function, muscle damage, and inflammation markers were measured. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was significantly correlated with peripheral neutrophil count, VAS, and serum creatine kinase activity, respectively, after downhill running. Peripheral neutrophil count and serum myoglobin concentration were also significantly correlated. Conversely, there were no effects of H2 bath. These results suggest that IL-6 may be involved in the mobilization of neutrophils into the peripheral blood and subsequent EIMD and DOMS after downhill running; however, it is not likely that H2 bath is effective for the inflammatory process that is centered on neutrophils after downhill running. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Open AccessReview A Disturbance in the Force: Cellular Stress Sensing by the Mitochondrial Network
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100126
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 22 September 2018
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Abstract
As a highly dynamic organellar network, mitochondria are maintained as an organellar network by delicately balancing fission and fusion pathways. This homeostatic balance of organellar dynamics is increasingly revealed to play an integral role in sensing cellular stress stimuli. Mitochondrial fission/fusion balance is
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As a highly dynamic organellar network, mitochondria are maintained as an organellar network by delicately balancing fission and fusion pathways. This homeostatic balance of organellar dynamics is increasingly revealed to play an integral role in sensing cellular stress stimuli. Mitochondrial fission/fusion balance is highly sensitive to perturbations such as loss of bioenergetic function, oxidative stress, and other stimuli, with mechanistic contribution to subsequent cell-wide cascades including inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis. The overlapping activity with m-AAA protease 1 (OMA1) metallopeptidase, a stress-sensitive modulator of mitochondrial fusion, and dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a regulator of mitochondrial fission, are key factors that shape mitochondrial dynamics in response to various stimuli. As such, OMA1 and DRP1 are critical factors that mediate mitochondrial roles in cellular stress-response signaling. Here, we explore the current understanding and emerging questions in the role of mitochondrial dynamics in sensing cellular stress as a dynamic, responsive organellar network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Function in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Cell-Type-Specific Modulation of Hydrogen Peroxide Cytotoxicity and 4-Hydroxynonenal Binding to Human Cellular Proteins In Vitro by Antioxidant Aloe vera Extract
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100125
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
Although Aloe vera contains numerous bioactive components, the activity principles of widely used A. vera extracts are uncertain. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of genuine A. vera aqueous extract (AV) on human cells with respect to the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2
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Although Aloe vera contains numerous bioactive components, the activity principles of widely used A. vera extracts are uncertain. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of genuine A. vera aqueous extract (AV) on human cells with respect to the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Fully developed A. vera leaves were harvested and analyzed for vitamin C, carotenoids, total soluble phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, human cervical cancer (HeLa), human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), human keratinocytes (HaCat), and human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell cultures were treated with AV extract for one hour after treatment with H2O2 or HNE. The cell number and viability were determined using Trypan Blue, and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined by fluorescence, while intracellular HNE–protein adducts were measured for the first time ever by genuine cell-based HNE–His ELISA. The AV extract expressed strong antioxidant capacities (1.1 mmol of Trolox eq/g fresh weight) and cell-type-specific influence on the cytotoxicity of H2O2, as well as on endogenous production of ROS and HNE–protein adducts induced by HNE treatment, while AV itself did not induce production of ROS or HNE–protein adducts at all. This study, for the first time, revealed the importance of HNE for the activity principles of AV. Since HMEC cells were the most sensitive to AV, the effects of AV on microvascular endothelia could be of particular importance for the activity principles of Aloe vera extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals)
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Open AccessReview Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases of Archaea
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100124
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Methionine sulfoxide reductases are found in all domains of life and are important in reversing the oxidative damage of the free and protein forms of methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid particularly sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Archaea are microbes of a
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Methionine sulfoxide reductases are found in all domains of life and are important in reversing the oxidative damage of the free and protein forms of methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid particularly sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Archaea are microbes of a domain of life distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes. Archaea are well known for their ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions that range from habitats of high ROS, such as hypersaline lakes of intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation and desiccation, to hydrothermal vents of low concentrations of dissolved oxygen at high temperature. Recent evidence reveals the methionine sulfoxide reductases of archaea function not only in the reduction of methionine sulfoxide but also in the ubiquitin-like modification of protein targets during oxidative stress, an association that appears evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. Here is reviewed methionine sulfoxide reductases and their distribution and function in archaea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases and Oxidative Damage)
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