Special Issue "Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dimitrios Stagos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Thessaly, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Larissa, Greece
Interests: Antioxidant activity of plant extracts, plant polyphenols and other natural products; Physiological adaptive mechanisms of human organism to oxidative stress conditions; Chemopreventive (anticarcinogenic) activity of plant extracts, plant polyphenols and other natural products; Anti-angiogenic activity of chemical compounds (natural or synthetic); Biochemical and physiological role of human aldehyde dehydrogenases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant polyphenols are secondary metabolites characterised by one or more hydroxyl groups binding to one or more aromatic rings. Several thousand polyphenolic molecules have been identified in higher plants, including edible ones. Plant polyphenols are divided into two major groups, flavonoids and non-flavonoids. Flavonoids can be divided into flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanidins, flavones, flavanones, and chalcones. Non-flavonoids include stilbene, phenolic acids, saponin, and tannins. Among the important biological properties exhibited by plant polyphenols, their antioxidant activity has raised a great interest . A number of studies have shown that plant polyphenols could be used as antioxidants against different oxidative stress-induced diseases. We invite you to submit your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research concerns and critical thinking on the antioxidant activity of polyphenolic plant extracts. The identification of the polyphenolic composition of plant extracts in the submitted articles is required. Your contribution can include both in vitro and in vivo studies relating to different aspects of the antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extracts, such as structure–activity relationships, regulation of endogenous antioxidant responses, and their role in signaling, metabolism, cell cycle, gene regulation, cellular stress, and prevention of diseases.

Dr. Dimitrios Stagos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antioxidant activity
  • polyphenols
  • plant extracts

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Alpha-Glucosidase and Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Novel Abietane Diterpenes from Salvia africana-lutea
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100421 - 20 Sep 2019
Abstract
The re-investigation of a methanolic extract of Salvia africana-lutea collected from the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa (SA), afforded four new abietane diterpenes, namely 19-acetoxy-12-methoxycarnosic acid (1), 3β-acetoxy-7α-methoxyrosmanol (2), 19-acetoxy-7α-methoxyrosmanol (3), 19-acetoxy-12-methoxy carnosol (4), and [...] Read more.
The re-investigation of a methanolic extract of Salvia africana-lutea collected from the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa (SA), afforded four new abietane diterpenes, namely 19-acetoxy-12-methoxycarnosic acid (1), 3β-acetoxy-7α-methoxyrosmanol (2), 19-acetoxy-7α-methoxyrosmanol (3), 19-acetoxy-12-methoxy carnosol (4), and two known named clinopodiolides A (5), and B (6), in addition to four known triterpenes, oleanolic, and ursolic acids (7, 8), 11,12-dehydroursolic acid lactone (9) and β-amyrin (10). The chemical structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was determined on the basis of one and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), ultra violet (UV), fourier transform infrared (IR), in comparison with literature data. The in vitro bio-evaluation against alpha-glucosidase showed strong inhibitory activities of 8, 10, and 7, with the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 11.3 ± 1.0, 17.1 ± 1.0 and 22.9 ± 2.0 µg/mL, respectively, while 7 demonstrated the strongest in vitro alpha-amylase inhibitory activity among the tested compounds with IC50 of 12.5 ± 0.7 µg/mL. Additionally, some of the compounds showed significant antioxidant capacities. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of S. africana-lutea is a rich source of terpenoids, especially abietane diterpenes, with strong antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities that can be helpful to modulate the redox status of the body and could therefore be an excellent candidate for the prevention of the development of diabetes, a disease where oxidase stress plays an important role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
A Polyphenolic Extract from Olive Mill Wastewaters Encapsulated in Whey Protein and Maltodextrin Exerts Antioxidant Activity in Endothelial Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080280 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to compare maltodextrin and whey protein as encapsulation carriers for olive mill wastewater (OMWW) phenolic extract for producing antioxidant powder, by using spray drying under 17 different conditions. In some samples, gelatin was also added in [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to compare maltodextrin and whey protein as encapsulation carriers for olive mill wastewater (OMWW) phenolic extract for producing antioxidant powder, by using spray drying under 17 different conditions. In some samples, gelatin was also added in the encapsulation mixture. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro by using the DPPH, ABTS•+, reducing power and DNA plasmid strand breakage assays. The results showed that both materials were equally effective for producing antioxidant powder, although by using different conditions. For example, inlet/outlet temperature of the spray drying did not seem to affect the maltodextrin samples’ antioxidant activity, but whey protein samples showed better antioxidant activity at lower temperatures. Gelatin use decreased antioxidant activity, especially in whey protein samples. The two most potent samples, one encapsulated in maltodextrin and the other in whey protein, were examined for their antioxidant effects in human endothelial cells by assessing glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Both samples significantly enhanced the antioxidant molecule of GSH, while maltodextrin sample also decreased ROS. The present findings suggested both materials for encapsulation of OMWW extract for producing antioxidant powder which may be used in food products, especially for the protection from ROS-induced endothelium pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
HPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS Characterization, Antioxidant Activities and Inhibitory Ability of Digestive Enzymes with Molecular Docking Analysis of Various Parts of Raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.)
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080274 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The anti-oxidative phenolic compounds in plant extracts possess multiple pharmacological functions. However, the phenolic characterization and in vitro bio-activities in various parts of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) have not been investigated systematically. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of leaves (LE), [...] Read more.
The anti-oxidative phenolic compounds in plant extracts possess multiple pharmacological functions. However, the phenolic characterization and in vitro bio-activities in various parts of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) have not been investigated systematically. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of leaves (LE), fruit pulp (FPE), and seed extracts (SE) in raspberry were analyzed by HR-HPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS method, and their antioxidant activities and digestive enzymes inhibitory abilities were also investigated. The molecular docking analysis was used to delineate their inhibition mechanisms toward type II diabetes related digestive enzymes. Regardless of LE, FPE, or SE, 50% methanol was the best solvent for extracting high contents of phenolic compounds, followed by 50% ethanol and 100% methanol. The LE of raspberry displayed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). A total of nineteen phenolic compounds were identified. The quantitative results showed that gallic acid, ellagic acid, and procyanidin C3 were the major constituents in the three extracts. The various parts extracts of raspberry all exhibited the strong antioxidant activities, especially for LE. Moreover, the powerful inhibitory effects of the three extracts against digestive enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) were observed. The major phenolic compounds of the three extracts also showed good inhibitory activities of digestive enzyme in a dose-dependent manner. The underlying inhibitory mechanisms of the main phenolic compounds against digestive enzymes were clarified by molecular docking analysis. The present study demonstrated that the various parts of raspberry had strong antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes, and can potentially prevent oxidative damage or diabetes-related problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Manitoba-Grown Red-Osier Dogwood Extracts on Recovering Caco-2 Cells from H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080250 - 28 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Red-osier dogwood, a native species of flowering plant in North America, has been reported to have anti-oxidative properties because of abundant phenolic compounds; this could be promising as a functional food or a feed additive. In the present study, an oxidative damage model [...] Read more.
Red-osier dogwood, a native species of flowering plant in North America, has been reported to have anti-oxidative properties because of abundant phenolic compounds; this could be promising as a functional food or a feed additive. In the present study, an oxidative damage model using 1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Caco-2 cells was established to evaluate the antioxidative effects of red-osier dogwood extracts (RDE). The results showed that 1.0 mM H2O2 pre-exposure for 3 h significantly decreased cell viability, and increased interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Caco-2 cells were treated with 100 µg/mL RDE for 24 h after pre-exposure to H2O2. It was found that the decreased cell viability caused by H2O2 was significantly restored by a subsequent 100 µg/mL RDE treatment. Furthermore, the IL-8 secretion and ROS level were significantly blocked by RDE, accompanied by the enhanced gene expression of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the enhanced protein expression of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2). Moreover, RDE improved barrier functions in Caco-2 cells. Using RDE reduced the diffusion of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and increased the transepithelial resistance (TEER) value. The relative mRNA level of tight junction claudin-1, claudin-3, and occludin was elevated by RDE. These extracts also repaired the integrity of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) damaged by H2O2 and increased the protein expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-3 in the H2O2-pretreated cells. These results illustrated that RDE reduced the ROS level and enhanced the barrier function in oxidative-damaged epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation of Strong Antioxidants from Paeonia Officinalis Roots and Leaves and Evaluation of Their Bioactivities
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080249 - 27 Jul 2019
Abstract
Paeonia officinalis extracts from leaves and roots were tested for their antioxidant potential using in vitro chemical (Folin-Ciocalteu, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity HOSC)) and cellular [...] Read more.
Paeonia officinalis extracts from leaves and roots were tested for their antioxidant potential using in vitro chemical (Folin-Ciocalteu, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity HOSC)) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Leaf extracts were stronger antioxidants than root extracts, while methanol was a more effective solvent than water in chemical assays. However, the selected water extract of leaves was a stronger antioxidant in CAA than the methanol extract (0.106 vs. 0.046 µmol quercetin equivalents/mg). Twenty compounds were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectrometer, while on-line screening of their antioxidant capacity by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a DPPH-scavenging detector revealed that gallic acid derivatives are the major peony antioxidants. Root water and leaf methanol extracts inhibited α-amylase in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 value for the strongest inhibitor, the methanol extract of leaves, was 1.67 mg/mL. In addition, the cytotoxicity assessment of extracts using human Caco-2 cells demonstrated that none of them possessed cytotoxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Black Locust (Robiniae Pseudoacaciae) Flowers and Comparison with Conventional Methods
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080248 - 27 Jul 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from black locust (Robiniae pseudoacaciae) flowers using central composite design. The ethanol concentration (33–67%), extraction temperature (33–67 °C), and extraction time (17–33 min) were analyzed as the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from black locust (Robiniae pseudoacaciae) flowers using central composite design. The ethanol concentration (33–67%), extraction temperature (33–67 °C), and extraction time (17–33 min) were analyzed as the factors that impact the total phenolic content. The liquid-to-solid ratio of 10 cm3 g−1 was the same during extractions. The optimal conditions were found to be 59 °C, 60% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction time of 30 min. The total phenolic content (TPC = 3.12 gGAE 100 g−1 dry plant material) and antioxidant activity (IC50 = 120.5 µg cm−3) of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were compared with those obtained by maceration (TPC = 2.54 gGAE 100 g−1 dry plant material, IC50 = 150.6 µg cm−3) and Soxhlet extraction (TPC = 3.22 gGAE 100 g−1 dry plant material, IC50 = 204.2 µg cm−3). The ultrasound-assisted extraction gave higher total phenolic content and better antioxidant activity for shorter extraction time so that it represents the technique of choice for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The obtained extract, as the source of antioxidants, can be applied in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutraceutical Properties of Mulberries Grown in Southern Italy (Apulia)
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070223 - 16 Jul 2019
Abstract
In this work, for the first time, were analyzed mulberry genotypes grown in Apulia (Southern Italy, Salento region) were analyzed. Two local varieties of Morus alba (cv. Legittimo nero and cv. Nello) and one of Morus nigra were characterized for content [...] Read more.
In this work, for the first time, were analyzed mulberry genotypes grown in Apulia (Southern Italy, Salento region) were analyzed. Two local varieties of Morus alba (cv. Legittimo nero and cv. Nello) and one of Morus nigra were characterized for content in simple sugars, organic acids, phenols, anthocyanins; fruit antioxidant activity (AA) was also evaluated by three different methods (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH; 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS; and Ferric reducing antioxidant potential, FRAP test). The results showed that the sugars amount ranged between 6.29 and 7.66 g/100 g fresh weight (FW) while the malic and citric acids content was low, at about 0.1–1 g/100 g FW. Mulberries are a good source of phenols which are present in higher values in M. nigra and M. alba cv. Legittimo nero (485 and 424 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/ 100 g FW, respectively). The high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector/mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/MS) analysis identified 5 main anthocyanin compounds present in different concentrations in each variety of mulberry: cyanidin 3-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was determined in Morus alba Legittimo (about 300 mg/100 g FW) while the lowest content (about 25 mg/100 g FW) was measured in M. alba cv. Nello. Morus nigra showed a good AA in comparison with the different M. alba genotypes with all the used methods; its AA was equal to 33, 26 and 21 μmols Trolox/g FW when using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP tests, respectively. All genotypes showed an anti-inflammatory activity (measured by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory assay) which was also compared with two commercial anti-inflammatory drugs. The data obtained support the high biological qualities of mulberry fruits and their diffusion in human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Myrtus communis L. Pericarp
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070205 - 02 Jul 2019
Abstract
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction of phenolics from pericap of Myrtus communis using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The results were compared with those obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and conventional solvent extraction (CSE) methods. The individual compounds of the [...] Read more.
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction of phenolics from pericap of Myrtus communis using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The results were compared with those obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and conventional solvent extraction (CSE) methods. The individual compounds of the optimized extract obtained by UAE were identified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn). The yield of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was affected more significantly by ethanol concentration, irradiation time, liquid solvent-to-solid ratio (p < 0.0001) and amplitude (p = 0.0421) and optimal parameters conditions set by the RSM model were 70% (v/v), 7.5 min and 30%, respectively. The experimental yield of TPC (241.66 ± 12.77 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight) confirmed the predicted value (235.52 ± 9.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight), allowing also to confirm the model validity. Under optimized conditions, UAE was more efficient than MAE and CSE in extracting antioxidants, which comprised mostly myricetin glycosides. Globally, the present work demonstrated that, compared to MAE and CSE, UAE is an efficient method for phenolic extraction from M. communis pericarp, enabling to reduce the working time and the solvent consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of 30 Chinese Teas
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060180 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Tea has been reported to prevent and manage many chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases, and the antioxidant capacity of tea may be responsible for these health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of fat-soluble, water-soluble, and bound-insoluble [...] Read more.
Tea has been reported to prevent and manage many chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases, and the antioxidant capacity of tea may be responsible for these health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of fat-soluble, water-soluble, and bound-insoluble fractions of 30 Chinese teas belonging to six categories, namely green, black, oolong, dark, white, and yellow teas, were systematically evaluated, applying ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays. In addition, total phenolic contents of teas were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the contents of 18 main phytochemical compounds in teas were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results found that several teas possessed very strong antioxidant capacity, and caffeine, theaflavine, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, as well as eight catechins, were the main antioxidant compounds in them. Thus, these teas could be good natural sources of dietary antioxidants, and their extracts might be developed as food additives, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activity and Anthocyanin Contents in Olives (cv Cellina di Nardò) during Ripening and after Fermentation
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050138 - 18 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The olive tree “Cellina di Nardò” (CdN) is one of the most widespread cultivars in Southern Italy, mainly grown in the Provinces of Lecce, Taranto, and Brindisi over a total of about 60,000 hectares. Although this cultivar is mainly used for oil production, [...] Read more.
The olive tree “Cellina di Nardò” (CdN) is one of the most widespread cultivars in Southern Italy, mainly grown in the Provinces of Lecce, Taranto, and Brindisi over a total of about 60,000 hectares. Although this cultivar is mainly used for oil production, the drupes are also suitable and potentially marketable as table olives. When used for this purpose, olives are harvested after complete maturation, which gives to them a naturally black color due to anthocyanin accumulation. This survey reports for the first time on the total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin characterization, and antioxidant activity of CdN olive fruits during ripening and after fermentation. The antioxidant activity (AA) was determined using three different methods. Data showed that TPC increased during maturation, reaching values two times higher in completely ripened olives. Anthocyanins were found only in mature olives and the concentrations reached up to 5.3 g/kg dry weight. AA was determined for the four ripening stages, and was particularly high in the totally black olive fruit, in accordance with TPC and anthocyanin amounts. Moreover, the CdN olives showed a higher TPC and a greater AA compared to other black table olives produced by cultivars commonly grown for this purpose. These data demonstrate the great potential of black table CdN olives, a product that combines exceptional organoleptic properties with a remarkable antioxidant capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity against Staphylococcus aureus of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladode Polyphenolic Extracts
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050117 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Plant extracts are a rich source of natural compounds with antimicrobial properties, which are able to prevent, at some extent, the growth of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of polyphenolic extracts from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica [...] Read more.
Plant extracts are a rich source of natural compounds with antimicrobial properties, which are able to prevent, at some extent, the growth of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of polyphenolic extracts from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. to inhibit the growth of some enterobacteria and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes at two stages of development were analysed for total phenolic content and antioxidant activity by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) (in vitro assays) and by cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells (CAA-RBC) (ex vivo assay). The Liquid Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS–TOF) analysis of the polyphenolic extracts revealed high levels of piscidic acid, eucomic acid, isorhamnetin derivatives and rutin, particularly in the immature cladode extracts. Opuntia cladodes extracts showed a remarkable antioxidant activity (in vitro and ex vivo), a selective inhibition of the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, and an inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. Our results suggest and confirm that Opuntia ficus-indica cladode extracts could be employed as functional food, due to the high polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity, and used as natural additive for food process control and food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Antioxidant Capacity and Anthocyanin Content of Cornelian Cherry Fruit Extract
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050114 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Red fruits are considered a major source of antioxidant compounds in the human diet. They usually contain anthocyanins, phenolic pigments that confer them multiple health-promoting properties. The health benefits of these bioactive phytocompounds are strongly related to their bioavailability, which has been reported [...] Read more.
Red fruits are considered a major source of antioxidant compounds in the human diet. They usually contain anthocyanins, phenolic pigments that confer them multiple health-promoting properties. The health benefits of these bioactive phytocompounds are strongly related to their bioavailability, which has been reported to be low. The aim of the present study is to investigate the changes in antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content of Cornelian cherry fruit extract during gastrointestinal digestion. Thus, the work was designed using a simulated in vitro digestion model. The antioxidant capacity (AA) was tested by the 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazolyne-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) method, while quantification of anthocyanins (TAC) was accomplished by the means of the pH differential method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that gastric digestion had no significant effect on the TAC of the extract, while the AA slightly increased. After duodenal digestion, only 28.33% of TAC and 56.74% of AA were maintained. Cornelian cherries’ anthocyanins were stable in stomach, so they can be absorbed in order to manifest their antioxidant capacity at the cellular level. The duodenal digestion dramatically decreased the TAC and AA level in the fruit extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Epicatechin Reduces Spatial Memory Deficit Caused by Amyloid-β25–35 Toxicity Modifying the Heat Shock Proteins in the CA1 Region in the Hippocampus of Rats
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050113 - 30 Apr 2019
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dementia and the aggregation of the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). Aβ25–35 is the most neurotoxic sequence, whose mechanism is associated with the neuronal death in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dementia and the aggregation of the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). Aβ25–35 is the most neurotoxic sequence, whose mechanism is associated with the neuronal death in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus (Hp) and cognitive damage. Likewise, there are mechanisms of neuronal survival regulated by heat shock proteins (HSPs). Studies indicate that pharmacological treatment with flavonoids reduces the prevalence of AD, particularly epicatechin (EC), which shows better antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of EC on neurotoxicity that causes Aβ25–35 at the level of spatial memory as well as the relationship with immunoreactivity of HSPs in the CA1 region of the Hp of rats. Our results show that EC treatment reduces the deterioration of spatial memory induced by the Aβ25–35, in addition to reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in the Hp of the animals treated with EC + Aβ25–35. Likewise, the immunoreactivity to HSP-60, -70, and -90 is lower in the EC + Aβ25–35 group compared to the Aβ25–35 group, which coincides with a decrease of dead neurons in the CA1 region of the Hp. Our results suggest that EC reduces the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25–35, as well as the HSP-60, -70, and -90 immunoreactivity and neuronal death in the CA1 region of the Hp of rats injected with Aβ25–35, which favors an improvement in the function of spatial memory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Polyphenols in Almond Skins after Blanching Modulate Plasma Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Healthy Humans
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040095 - 10 Apr 2019
Abstract
Almond skins are a waste byproduct of blanched almond production. Polyphenols extracted from almond skins possess antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we examined the pharmacokinetic profile of almond skin polyphenols (ASP) and their effect on measures of oxidative stress. In [...] Read more.
Almond skins are a waste byproduct of blanched almond production. Polyphenols extracted from almond skins possess antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we examined the pharmacokinetic profile of almond skin polyphenols (ASP) and their effect on measures of oxidative stress. In a randomized crossover trial, seven adults consumed two acute ASP doses (225 mg (low, L) or 450 mg (high, H) total phenols) in skim milk or milk alone. Plasma flavonoids, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH), oxidized GSH (GSSG), and resistance of low- density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation were measured over 10 h. The H dose increased catechin and naringenin in plasma, with maximum concentrations of 44.3 and 19.3 ng/mL, respectively. The GSH/GSSG ratio at 3 h after the H doses was 212% of the baseline value, as compared to 82% after milk (p = 0.003). Both ASP doses upregulated GPx activity by 26–35% from the baseline at 15, 30, 45, and 120 min after consumption. The in vitro addition of α-tocopherol extended the lag time of LDL oxidation at 3 h after L and H consumption by 144.7% and 165.2% of that at 0 h compared to no change after milk (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, ASP are bioavailable and modulate GSH status, GPx activity, and the resistance of LDL to oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Polyphenolic Composition of Rosa canina, Rosa sempervivens and Pyrocantha coccinea Extracts and Assessment of Their Antioxidant Activity in Human Endothelial Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040092 - 06 Apr 2019
Abstract
The aim of the present study was the investigation of the antioxidant activity of plant extracts from Rosa canina, Rosa sempervivens and Pyrocantha coccinea. The results showed that the bioactive compounds found at higher concentrations were in the R. canina extract: hyperoside, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was the investigation of the antioxidant activity of plant extracts from Rosa canina, Rosa sempervivens and Pyrocantha coccinea. The results showed that the bioactive compounds found at higher concentrations were in the R. canina extract: hyperoside, astragalin, rutin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin; in the R. sempervirens extract: quinic acid, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, astragalin and hyperoside; and in the P. coccinea extract: hyperoside, rutin, (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, astragalin, vanillin, syringic acid and chlorogenic acid. The total polyphenolic content was 290.00, 267.67 and 226.93 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g dw, and the total flavonoid content 118.56, 65.78 and 99.16 mg Catechin Equivalent (CE)/g dw for R. caninna, R. sempervirens and P. coccinea extracts, respectively. The extracts exhibited radical scavenging activity in DPPH and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS)•+ assays and protection from ROO•-induced DNA damage in the following potency order: R. canina > R. sempervirens > P. coccinea. Finally, treatment with R. canina and P. coccinea extract significantly increased the levels of the antioxidant molecule glutathione, while R. canina extract significantly decreased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in endothelial cells. The results herein indicated that the R. canina extract in particular may be used for developing food supplements or biofunctional foods for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions of endothelium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Rosemary, Pomegranate and Olive Extracts in Fish Patties
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040086 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Natural extracts (rich in bioactive compounds) that can be obtained from the leaves, peels and seeds, such as the studied extracts of Pomegranate (P), Rosemary (RA, Nutrox OS (NOS) and Nutrox OVS (NOVS)), and olive (Olea europaea) extracts rich in hydroxytyrosol [...] Read more.
Natural extracts (rich in bioactive compounds) that can be obtained from the leaves, peels and seeds, such as the studied extracts of Pomegranate (P), Rosemary (RA, Nutrox OS (NOS) and Nutrox OVS (NOVS)), and olive (Olea europaea) extracts rich in hydroxytyrosol (HYT-F from olive fruit and HYT-L from olive leaf) can act as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food products to replace synthetic additives. The total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazolin) -6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORACH)) and their antimicrobial power (using the diffusion disk method with the Escherichia Coli, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Staphilococcus Aureus strains) were measured. The results showed that all the extracts were good antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds in vitro. On the other hand, their antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity was also measured in fish products acting as preservative agents. For that, volatile fatty acid compounds were analysed by GS-MS at day 0 and 11 from elaboration, together with total vial count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC), E. Coli, and L. monocytogenes content at day 0, 4, 7 and 11 under refrigerated storage. The fish patties suffered rapid lipid oxidation and odour and flavour spoilage associated with slight rancidity. Natural extracts from pomegranate, rosemary, and hydroxytyrosol delayed the lipid oxidation, measured as volatile compounds, and the microbiological spoilage in fish patties. Addition of natural extracts to fish products contributed to extend the shelf life of fish under retail display conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Physico-Chemical Parameters, Phenolic Profile, In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Volatile Compounds of Ladastacho (Lavandula stoechas) from the Region of Saidona
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040080 - 28 Mar 2019
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to characterize Lavandula stoechas (Ladastacho) from the region of Saidona by means of physico-chemical parameters, phenolic profile, in vitro antioxidant activity and volatile compounds. Physico-chemical parameters (pH, acidity, salinity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and liquid [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to characterize Lavandula stoechas (Ladastacho) from the region of Saidona by means of physico-chemical parameters, phenolic profile, in vitro antioxidant activity and volatile compounds. Physico-chemical parameters (pH, acidity, salinity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and liquid resistivity) were determined using conventional methods. The phenolic profile was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS), whereas a quantitative determination was also accomplished using the total phenolics assay. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl assay. Finally, volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). The results showed that Lavandula stoechas aqueous extract had a slightly acidic pH, low salinity content and considerable electrochemical properties (electrical conductivity and liquid resistivity along with electric potential). In addition, aqueous fractions showed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity, whereas phenolic compounds, such as caffeic acid, quercetin-O-glucoside, lutelin-O-glucuronide and rosmarinic acid, were identified. Finally, numerous volatile compounds were found to dominate the volatile pattern of this flowering plant, producing a strong, penetrating, cool and menthol-like odour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic Profiles, and Organic Acid Contents of Fruit Vinegars
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040078 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fruit vinegars are popular condiments worldwide. Antioxidants and organic acids are two important components of the flavors and health benefits of fruit vinegars. This study aimed to test the antioxidant activities, phenolic profiles, and organic acid contents of 23 fruit vinegars. The results [...] Read more.
Fruit vinegars are popular condiments worldwide. Antioxidants and organic acids are two important components of the flavors and health benefits of fruit vinegars. This study aimed to test the antioxidant activities, phenolic profiles, and organic acid contents of 23 fruit vinegars. The results found that the 23 fruit vinegars varied in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 0.15–23.52 μmol Fe(II)/mL), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, 0.03–7.30 μmol Trolox/mL), total phenolic content (TPC, 29.64–3216.60 mg gallic acid equivalent/L), and total flavonoid content (TFC, 2.22–753.19 mg quercetin equivalent/L) values. Among the 23 fruit vinegars, the highest antioxidant activities were found in balsamic vinegar from Modena (Galletti), Aceto Balsamico di Modena (Monari Federzoni), red wine vinegar (Kühne), and red wine vinegar (Galletti). In addition, polyphenols and organic acids might be responsible for the antioxidant activities of fruit vinegars. The most widely detected phenolic compounds in fruit vinegars were gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid, with tartaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and succinic acid the most widely distributed organic acids. Overall, fruit vinegars are rich in polyphenols and organic acids and can be a good dietary source of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for Carnosol, Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid in Food Matrices and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Rosemary Extract as a Food Additive
Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030076 - 26 Mar 2019
Abstract
Antioxidants are used to prevent the oxidation of foods. When used for food additive purposes, the dosage should be regulated and the functionality evaluated to ensure stability. In this study, we performed a method validation for the quantitative analysis of rosemary extract residues [...] Read more.
Antioxidants are used to prevent the oxidation of foods. When used for food additive purposes, the dosage should be regulated and the functionality evaluated to ensure stability. In this study, we performed a method validation for the quantitative analysis of rosemary extract residues and evaluated the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract in food matrices. The validated method was able to determine rosemary extract under the optimized high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) conditions. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by peroxide value, acid value, and in terms of the residual antioxidant levels in lard oil. For HPLC-PDA analysis, the limit of detection and quantification of rosemary extracts was ranged from 0.22 to 1.73 μg/mL, 0.66 to 5.23 μg/mL and the recoveries of the rosemary extracts ranged from 70.6 to 114.0%, with relative standard deviations of between 0.2% and 3.8%. In terms of antioxidant activity, carnosic acid performed better than carnosol. Furthermore, by evaluation of the residual antioxidant level using HPLC, we found that carnosic acid is more stable in lard oil than carnosol. These results indicate that rosemary extract can be used as an antioxidant and that the analytical method is suitable for the determination of rosemary extract in various food samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Microwave-Assisted Extraction Process of Bioactive Compounds from Annatto Seeds (Bixa orellana L.)
Antioxidants 2019, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8020037 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study deals with the extraction, optimization, and evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bioactive compounds obtained from the seeds of annatto using microwave-assisted extraction as compared to leaching. Annatto seeds were subjected to a microwave treatment of 2450 MHz and [...] Read more.
This study deals with the extraction, optimization, and evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bioactive compounds obtained from the seeds of annatto using microwave-assisted extraction as compared to leaching. Annatto seeds were subjected to a microwave treatment of 2450 MHz and power of 700 watts using a response surface design involving four factors: pH (4–11), solvent concentration (ethanol) (50–96%), solvent-to-seed ratio (2–10), and microwave exposure time (0–5 min). The contents of polyphenol compounds and bixin were taken as response variables. Subsequently, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were assessed at the optimal processing conditions predicted by the experimental design. Microwaves, solvent concentration, and the solvent-to-seed ratio showed a statistically significant effect for the extraction of polyphenol compounds and bixin. Thus, microwaves accelerated the extraction of those compounds and the slight increase in temperature caused some degradation of the polyphenol compounds. The microwave-assisted extraction increased the contents of polyphenols and bixin along with their antioxidant activity as compared to leaching extraction. However, this technique does not significantly improve the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Far Infrared Irradiation Enhances Nutraceutical Compounds and Antioxidant Properties in Angelica gigas Nakai Powder
Antioxidants 2018, 7(12), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7120189 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of far infrared irradiation (FIR) on nutraceutical compounds, viz. total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity, of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN). The FIR treatment was applied for 30 min with varied temperatures [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of far infrared irradiation (FIR) on nutraceutical compounds, viz. total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity, of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN). The FIR treatment was applied for 30 min with varied temperatures of 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, and 240 °C. Results showed that FIR increased total phenolic and flavonoid content in AGN at 220 °C. The HPLC results revealed higher quantities of decursin (62.48 mg/g) and decursinol angelate (41.51 mg/g) at 220 °C compared to control (38.70 mg/g, 27.54 mg/g, respectively). The antioxidant capacity of AGN was also increased at 220 °C, as measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the phosphomolybdenum (PPMD) method. A further increase of the FIR temperature caused a reduction of compound content. In addition, the results also showed a strong correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant properties of AGN powder. These findings will help to further improve the nutraceutical profile of AGN powder by optimizing the FIR conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activities of Dialium indum L. Fruit and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) of the Active Fractions
Antioxidants 2018, 7(11), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7110154 - 01 Nov 2018
Abstract
The fruit of Dialium indum L. (Fabaceae) is one of the edible wild fruits native to Southeast Asia. The mesocarp is consumed as sweets while the exocarp and seed are regarded as waste. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the [...] Read more.
The fruit of Dialium indum L. (Fabaceae) is one of the edible wild fruits native to Southeast Asia. The mesocarp is consumed as sweets while the exocarp and seed are regarded as waste. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the fruit by using four assays, which measure its capabilities in reducing phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents, neocuproine, 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation. The active fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the seed methanol fraction (SMF) exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with significantly higher (p < 0.05) gallic acid equivalence (GAE), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 31.71; 0.88 µg/mL) than the other fractions. The exocarp dichloromethane fraction (EDF) was the discriminating fraction by having remarkable linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition (IC50 121.43; 2.97 µg/mL). A total of thirty-eight metabolites were detected in derivatized EDF and SMF with distinctive classes of phenolics and amino acids, respectively. Bioautography-guided fractionation of EDF afforded five antioxidant-enriched subfractions with four other detected phenolics. The results revealed the antioxidant properties of D. indum fruit, which has potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Antiradical and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity Evaluations of Averrhoa bilimbi L. Leaves and Tentative Identification of Bioactive Constituents through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and Molecular Docking Approach
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100137 - 08 Oct 2018
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The active constituents were tentatively identified through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and molecular docking approaches. The n-butanol fraction of A. bilimbi crude methanolic leaves extract displayed significant DPPH radical scavenging effect with IC50 (4.14 ± 0.21 μg/mL) (p < 0.05), as well as xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 (64.84 ± 3.93 μg/mL) (p < 0.05). Afzelechin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside and cucumerin A were tentatively identified as possible metabolites that contribute to the antioxidant activity of the n-butanol fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Polyphenols, Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activities of Selected Edible Leaves
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090117 - 30 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of six edible leaves. The total antioxidant capacity of the fresh and cooked leaves was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and singlet [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of six edible leaves. The total antioxidant capacity of the fresh and cooked leaves was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and singlet oxygen scavenging assays. The results revealed that frying caused a reduction in major bioactives and antioxidant activities in all leafy vegetables tested. However, steamed and boiled leaves of C. auriculata and C. asiatica have shown greater levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity compared with fresh leaves. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents of boiled S. grandiflora and G. lactiferum were higher than that of their fresh form. Boiled and steamed O. zeylanica and S. grandiflora have shown higher carotenoids. Boiled and steamed leaves of P. edulis have shown higher antioxidant activity. The impact of cooking on the changes in bioactive concentrations and antioxidant capacities are dependent on the species and the method of cooking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Antidiabetic Effects of Hydroxytyrosol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060188 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
Insulin resistance, a pathological condition characterized by defects in insulin action leads to the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease which is currently on the rise that pose an enormous economic burden to healthcare systems worldwide. The current treatment and [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance, a pathological condition characterized by defects in insulin action leads to the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease which is currently on the rise that pose an enormous economic burden to healthcare systems worldwide. The current treatment and prevention strategies are considerably lacking in number and efficacy and therefore new targeted therapies and preventative strategies are urgently needed. Plant-derived chemicals such as metformin, derived from the French lilac, have been used to treat/manage insulin resistance and T2DM. Other plant-derived chemicals which are not yet discovered, may have superior properties to prevent and manage T2DM and thus research into this area is highly justifiable. Hydroxytyrosol is a phenolic phytochemical found in olive leaves and olive oil reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidiabetic properties. The present review summarizes the current in vitro and in vivo studies examining the antidiabetic properties of hydroxytyrosol and investigating the mechanisms of its action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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