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Volume 11, January

Antioxidants, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 259 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Průchová et al. used mitochondria isolated from wild-type and phospholipase A (iPLA) ablated mice to demonstrate that tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) activates iPLA, with consequent liberation of fatty acids (FAs) and lysophospholipids. The released FAs interact with the adenine nucleotide translocase, leading to increased proton transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane and consequent attenuation of mitochondrial superoxide production. Detailed lipidomic analysis reveals a typical glycerophospholipid cleavage pattern for TBHP-activated iPLA and clarifies the role of iPLA in cardiolipin remodeling in the brain. Moreover, iPLA-KO mice were more sensitive to stimulation by pro-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide, supporting the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of iPLA in vivo. View this paper
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Article
The Effect of Traditional and Cyclodextrin-Assisted Extraction Methods on Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover) Extracts Antioxidant Potential
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020435 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 586
Abstract
Red clover is the subject of numerous studies because of its antioxidant properties, the positive influence of isoflavones on the health, and its potential use in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. The right excipients, such as cyclodextrins, can increase the profile [...] Read more.
Red clover is the subject of numerous studies because of its antioxidant properties, the positive influence of isoflavones on the health, and its potential use in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. The right excipients, such as cyclodextrins, can increase the profile of valuable phenolic compounds in extraction media to obtain rich in antioxidants, extracts that can be used in nutraceuticals production. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of red clover aerial parts, aqueous and ethanolic extracts prepared using traditional and cyclodextrins-assisted methods. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was established using ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS-post column methods. It was determined that cyclodextrins significantly increased total phenolic content (compared with control)—using β-cyclodextrin 20.29% (in aqueous samples); γ-cyclodextrin 22.26% (in ethanolic samples). All the samples prepared with excipients demonstrated a strong relationship between total phenolic content and DPPH assay. Study showed that for extraction with water, the highest amounts of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity will be achieved with β-cyclodextrin, but extractions with ethanol will give the best results with γ-cyclodextrin. Therefore, cyclodextrins are a great and safe tool for obtaining rich, red clover flower extracts that are high in antioxidant activity, which can be used in the pharmaceutical industry for nutraceuticals production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds from Plants with Antioxidant Properties)
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Article
Reactive Oxygen Species Differentially Modulate the Metabolic and Transcriptomic Response of Endothelial Cells
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020434 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of both physiological and pathophysiological signal transduction in the cardiovascular system. The effects of ROS on cellular processes depend on the concentration, localization, and duration of exposure. Cellular stress response mechanisms have evolved to mitigate the [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of both physiological and pathophysiological signal transduction in the cardiovascular system. The effects of ROS on cellular processes depend on the concentration, localization, and duration of exposure. Cellular stress response mechanisms have evolved to mitigate the negative effects of acute oxidative stress. In this study, we investigate the short-term and long-term metabolic and transcriptomic response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to different types and concentrations of ROS. To generate intracellular H2O2, we utilized a lentiviral chemogenetic approach for overexpression of human D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). DAO converts D-amino acids into their corresponding imino acids and H2O2. HUVEC stably overexpressing DAO (DAO-HUVEC) were exposed to D-alanine (3 mM), exogenous H2O2 (10 µM or 300 µM), or menadione (5 µM) for various timepoints and subjected to global untargeted metabolomics (LC-MS/MS) and RNAseq by MACE (Massive analysis of cDNA ends). A total of 300 µM H2O2 led to pronounced changes on both the metabolic and transcriptomic level. In particular, metabolites linked to redox homeostasis, energy-generating pathways, and nucleotide metabolism were significantly altered. Furthermore, 300 µM H2O2 affected genes related to the p53 pathway and cell cycle. In comparison, the effects of menadione and DAO-derived H2O2 mainly occurred at gene expression level. Collectively, all types of ROS led to subtle changes in the expression of ribosomal genes. Our results show that different types and concentration of ROS lead to a different metabolic and transcriptomic response in endothelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Redox Metabolism)
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Phenolic Compounds, Vitamins C and E and Antioxidant Activity of Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Pojark) in Relation to Their Origin
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020433 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Honeysuckles are frost tolerant plants providing early-ripening fruits with health-promoting properties which have been used in traditional medicine in China. This study evaluates the impact of the climatic conditions of two areas on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity (AOA; by DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and [...] Read more.
Honeysuckles are frost tolerant plants providing early-ripening fruits with health-promoting properties which have been used in traditional medicine in China. This study evaluates the impact of the climatic conditions of two areas on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity (AOA; by DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and photochemiluminescence assays) of eight cultivars of honeysuckle berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Pojark) of various ripening times. Expectedly, chemical composition and AOA values varied depending on the cultivars, locality and selected methods. Berries from Lednice (the area with more sunshine) showed higher average contents of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAC; pH differential absorbance method), vitamins C and E and total phenolics (high-performance liquid chromatography). In contrast, berries from Žabčice (the area with more rain) performed higher average contents of total phenolics and flavonoids (UV/VIS spectroscopic analyses). Interestingly, fundamental amounts of chlorogenic acid were determined irrespective of the locality. Regarding TMAC and vitamin C content, early ripening Amphora from both areas has been assessed as the best cultivar; concerning the content of phenolic compounds, Fialka from both areas and Amphora from Lednice is considered as the most valuable. The obtained results may facilitate the selection of the most valuable cultivars for both producers and consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds from Plants with Antioxidant Properties)
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Article
Supplementation with a Cocoa–Carob Blend, Alone or in Combination with Metformin, Attenuates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy, Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Zucker Diabetic Rats
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020432 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the main causes of mortality among diabetic patients, with oxidative stress and inflammation major contributors to its development. Dietary flavonoids show strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, although their potential additive outcomes in combination with antidiabetic drugs have [...] Read more.
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the main causes of mortality among diabetic patients, with oxidative stress and inflammation major contributors to its development. Dietary flavonoids show strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, although their potential additive outcomes in combination with antidiabetic drugs have been scarcely explored. The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of a cocoa–carob blend (CCB) diet, rich in flavonoids, alone or in combination with metformin, in the development of DCM. Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) were fed with a CCB rich-diet or a control diet, with or without metformin for 12 weeks. Glucose homeostasis, cardiac structure and function, and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers were analysed. CCB improved glucose homeostasis, and mitigated cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and fibrosis in ZDF rats. Mechanistically, CCB counteracted oxidative stress in diabetic hearts by down-regulating NADPH oxidases, reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and modulating the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)/ nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway, overall improving antioxidant defence. Moreover, CCB suppressed inflammatory and fibrotic reactions by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines. Noteworthy, several of these effects were further improved in combination with metformin. Our results demonstrate that CCB strongly prevents the cardiac remodelling and dysfunction observed in diabetic animals, highlighting its potential, alone or in adjuvant therapy, for treating DCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Cardiomyopathy)
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Review
Phytochemical Contents and Pharmacological Potential of Parkia speciosa Hassk. for Diabetic Vasculopathy: A Review
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020431 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and is considered a major health problem in the world. It is associated with endothelial dysfunction which causes progressive vascular damage. DM is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications such [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and is considered a major health problem in the world. It is associated with endothelial dysfunction which causes progressive vascular damage. DM is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Medicinal plants may act as an alternative resource or adjunctive treatment option in the treatment of diabetes and its cardiovascular complications. Parkia speciosa (Fabaceae) is a plant found abundantly in the Southeast Asian region. Its seeds, with or without pods, and roots have long been used as a traditional medicine in this region to treat hypertension and diabetes. Studies have shown its numerous beneficial pharmacological properties. Extracts of P. speciosa, particularly from its seeds and empty pods, show the presence of polyphenols. They also exhibit potent antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive properties. Its hypoglycemic properties are reported to be associated with the presence of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmat-4-en-3-one. The current review aimed to provide an overview of the current status of P. speciosa, its pharmacological potential, and its phytochemical content in attenuating diabetic vasculopathy. Glycemic status, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are known to play pivotal roles in the initiation and severity of diabetic cardiovascular diseases; thus, targeting these factors might be beneficial for preventing and/or treating diabetic vasculopathy. Full article
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Review
The Effects of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 (NFE2)-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) Activation in Preclinical Models of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020430 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
Oxidative stress, resulting from an imbalance between the formation of damaging free radicals and availability of protective antioxidants, can contribute to peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as products of the mitochondrial metabolism such as superoxide anions, hydrogen [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress, resulting from an imbalance between the formation of damaging free radicals and availability of protective antioxidants, can contribute to peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as products of the mitochondrial metabolism such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals, are common free radicals. Nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor encoded by the NFE2L2 gene and is a member of the cap ‘n’ collar subfamily of basic region leucine zipper transcription factors. Under normal physiological conditions, Nrf2 remains bound to Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 in the cytoplasm that ultimately leads to proteasomal degradation. During peripheral neuropathy, Nrf2 can translocate to the nucleus, where it heterodimerizes with muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis proteins and binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs). It is becoming increasingly clear that the Nrf2 interaction with ARE leads to the transcription of several antioxidative enzymes that can ameliorate neuropathy and neuropathic pain in rodent models. Current evidence indicates that the antinociceptive effects of Nrf2 occur via reducing oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we will summarize the preclinical evidence supporting the role of Nrf2 signaling pathways and Nrf2 inducers in alleviating peripheral neuropathic pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Chronic Pain II)
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Article
Vasoactive Properties of a Cocoa Shell Extract: Mechanism of Action and Effect on Endothelial Dysfunction in Aged Rats
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020429 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
Cocoa has cardiovascular beneficial effects related to its content of antioxidant phytochemicals. Cocoa manufacturing produces large amounts of waste, but some by-products may be used as ingredients with health-promoting potential. We aimed to investigate the vasoactive actions of an extract from cocoa shell [...] Read more.
Cocoa has cardiovascular beneficial effects related to its content of antioxidant phytochemicals. Cocoa manufacturing produces large amounts of waste, but some by-products may be used as ingredients with health-promoting potential. We aimed to investigate the vasoactive actions of an extract from cocoa shell (CSE), a by-product containing theobromine (TH), caffeine (CAF) and protocatechuic acid (PCA) as major phytochemicals. In carotid and iliac arteries from 5-month and 15-month-old rats, we investigated CSE vasoactive properties, mechanism of action, and the capacity of CSE, TH, CAF and PCA to improve age-induced endothelial dysfunction. Vascular function was evaluated using isometric tension recording and superoxide anion production by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining and confocal microscopy. CSE caused endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, blocked by L-NAME, but not indomethacin, regardless of sex, age, or vessel type. CSE maximal responses and EC50 were significantly lower compared to acetylcholine (ACh). Arterial preincubation with CSE, TH, CAF or PCA, significantly reduced the number of vascular DHE-positive cells. Compared to adult males, iliac arteries from aged males exhibited reduced ACh concentration-dependent vasodilatation but larger CSE responses. In iliac arteries from aged male and female rats, preincubation with 10−4 M CSE and PCA, but not TH or CAF, improved ACh-relaxations. In conclusion, CSE has vasodilatory properties associated with increased nitric oxide bioavailability, related to its antioxidant phytochemicals, being particularly relevant PCA. Therefore, CSE is a potential food ingredient for diseases related to endothelial dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Review
Metabolism, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Redox Homeostasis in Pulmonary Hypertension
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020428 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) represents a group of disorders characterized by elevated mean pulmonary artery (PA) pressure, progressive right ventricular failure, and often death. Some of the hallmarks of pulmonary hypertension include endothelial dysfunction, intimal and medial proliferation, vasoconstriction, inflammatory infiltration, and in situ [...] Read more.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) represents a group of disorders characterized by elevated mean pulmonary artery (PA) pressure, progressive right ventricular failure, and often death. Some of the hallmarks of pulmonary hypertension include endothelial dysfunction, intimal and medial proliferation, vasoconstriction, inflammatory infiltration, and in situ thrombosis. The vascular remodeling seen in pulmonary hypertension has been previously linked to the hyperproliferation of PA smooth muscle cells. This excess proliferation of PA smooth muscle cells has recently been associated with changes in metabolism and mitochondrial biology, including changes in glycolysis, redox homeostasis, and mitochondrial quality control. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms that have been reported to contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic changes, and redox biology in PH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Lung Diseases)
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Review
Nuclear SOD1 in Growth Control, Oxidative Stress Response, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Cancer
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020427 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 701
Abstract
SOD1 is the major superoxide dismutase responsible for catalyzing dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. It is well known as an essential antioxidant enzyme for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. SOD1 dysregulation has been associated with many diseases, including amyotrophic lateral [...] Read more.
SOD1 is the major superoxide dismutase responsible for catalyzing dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. It is well known as an essential antioxidant enzyme for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. SOD1 dysregulation has been associated with many diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cancer, accelerated aging, and age-related diseases. Recent studies also revealed that SOD1 can serve as a regulatory protein in cell signaling, transcription, and ribosome biogenesis. Notably, SOD1 is localized in the nucleus under both normal and pathological conditions, contributing to oxidative stress response and growth control. Moreover, increasing evidence points to the importance of nuclear SOD1 in the pathogenesis of ALS and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase in Health and Disease)
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Article
Ursolic Acid Protects Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Induced Drosophila Ulcerative Colitis Model by Inhibiting the JNK Signaling
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020426 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Ursolic acid (UA) is a bioactive molecule widely distributed in various fruits and vegetables, which was reported to play a therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by toxic chemicals. However, the underlying mechanism has not been well clarified in vivo. Here, using [...] Read more.
Ursolic acid (UA) is a bioactive molecule widely distributed in various fruits and vegetables, which was reported to play a therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by toxic chemicals. However, the underlying mechanism has not been well clarified in vivo. Here, using a Drosophila UC model induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), we investigated the defensive effect of UA on intestinal damage. The results showed that UA could significantly protect Drosophila from the damage caused by SDS exposure. Further, UA alleviated the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by SDS and upregulated the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and catalase (CAT). Moreover, the proliferation and differentiation of intestine stem cells (ISCs) as well as the excessive activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent JAK/STAT signaling pathway induced by SDS were restored by UA. In conclusion, UA prevents intestine injury from toxic compounds by reducing the JNK/JAK/STAT signaling pathway. UA may provide a theoretical basis for functional food or natural medicine development. Full article
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Article
Improvement of Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts by 3,5,7-Trimethoxyflavone from Black Ginger (Kaempferia parviflora)
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020425 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during intrinsic (chronological aging) and extrinsic (photoaging) skin aging. Therefore, antioxidants that inhibit ROS production may be involved in delaying skin aging. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of compounds isolated from black ginger, Kaempferia [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during intrinsic (chronological aging) and extrinsic (photoaging) skin aging. Therefore, antioxidants that inhibit ROS production may be involved in delaying skin aging. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of compounds isolated from black ginger, Kaempferia parviflora, a traditional medicinal plant, on normal human dermal fibroblasts in the context of inflammation and oxidative stress. The isolated compounds were structurally characterized as 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (1), 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyflavone (2), 5-hydroxy-3,7,3,4-tetramethoxyflavone (3), 7,4-dimethylapigenin (4), 3,7,4-trimethylkaempferol (5), and 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone (6), using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analyses. These flavonoids were first evaluated for their ability to suppress extracellular matrix degradation in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Of these, 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone (6) significantly inhibited the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced high expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 by cells. We further found that 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone suppressed the excessive increase in ROS, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Akt, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)and increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, was also suppressed by 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone (6). Taken together, our results indicate that 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone (6) isolated from K. parviflora is a potential candidate for ameliorating skin damage. Full article
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Article
Measurement of Redox Biomarkers in the Whole Blood and Red Blood Cell Lysates of Dogs
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020424 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
The evaluation of the biomarkers of oxidative status is usually performed in serum, however, other samples, such as red blood cells (RBCs) lysates or whole blood (WB), can be used. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a comprehensive panel of [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the biomarkers of oxidative status is usually performed in serum, however, other samples, such as red blood cells (RBCs) lysates or whole blood (WB), can be used. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a comprehensive panel of redox biomarkers can be measured in the WB and RBCs of dogs, and their possible changes “in vitro” after the addition of different concentrations of ascorbic acid. The panel was integrated by biomarkers of the antioxidant status, such as cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), thiol and paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1), and of the oxidant status, such as total oxidant status (TOS), peroxide-activity (POX-Act), reactive oxygen-derived compounds (d-ROMs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). All the assays were precise and accurate in WB and RBCs lysates. In addition, they showed changes after ascorbic acid addition that are in line with previously published results, being WB more sensitive to detect these changes in our experimental conditions. In conclusion, the panel of assays used in this study can be measured in the WB and RBCs of the dog. In particular, the higher sensitivity to detect changes in our experimental conditions and its easier sample preparation makes WB a promising sample for the evaluation of redox status in dogs, with also potential applications to other animal species and humans. Full article
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Article
Effect of Crushing Peanuts on Fatty Acid and Phenolic Bioaccessibility: A Long-Term Study
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020423 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
Background: Peanuts are consumed worldwide and have been linked to multiple health benefits. Processing may affect the bioavailability of peanut bioactive compounds. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the effects of crushing peanuts on the bioavailability of fatty acids and phenolic compounds in healthy [...] Read more.
Background: Peanuts are consumed worldwide and have been linked to multiple health benefits. Processing may affect the bioavailability of peanut bioactive compounds. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the effects of crushing peanuts on the bioavailability of fatty acids and phenolic compounds in healthy adults. Methods: 44 participants from the ARISTOTLE study consumed 25 g/day of whole peanuts (WP) or 32 g/day of peanut butter (PB) for 6 months. Fatty acids and phenolic compounds in peanut products and biological samples were assessed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection and liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. Results: Plasma concentrations of very long chain saturated fatty acids (VLCSFAs) increased significantly after 6 months of WP or PB intake (p < 0.001 in both cases). Participants in the WP group excreted twice as many VLCSFAs in feces as those in the PB group (p = 0.012). The most abundant polyphenols found in WP and PB were p-coumaric and isoferulic acids. Urinary excretion of isoferulic acid increased after the intake of WP and PB (p = 0.032 and p = 0.048, respectively), with no significant difference observed between interventions. Conclusion: The crushing step in peanut butter production seems to enhance the bioavailability of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Processing on Antioxidant Rich Foods)
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Lipophilic Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Exerts Anti-Cervical Cancer Effects in HeLa Cells and a HeLa-Derived Xenograft Zebrafish Model
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020422 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Lipophilic grape seed proanthocyanidin (LGSP) synthesized from GSP and lauric acid exhibits an excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. However, its anti-cervical cancer activity is still unknown. In this study, the in vitro anti-cervical cancer activity of LGSP on HeLa cell lines was investigated [...] Read more.
Lipophilic grape seed proanthocyanidin (LGSP) synthesized from GSP and lauric acid exhibits an excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. However, its anti-cervical cancer activity is still unknown. In this study, the in vitro anti-cervical cancer activity of LGSP on HeLa cell lines was investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, and its effect was explored by a HeLa-derived xenograft zebrafish model. LGSP exhibited an excellent anti-proliferative effect on HeLa cells by increasing the level of reactive oxygen species, which further induced cell apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in the G2/M phase. LGSP-treated HeLa cells showed a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, and activation of cleaved caspase-9/3 and cleavage of PARP, thus indicating that LGSP induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial/caspase-mediated pathway. In the zebrafish model, LGSP effectively suppressed the growth of a HeLa xenograft tumor. These data suggest that LGSP may be a good candidate for the prevention or treatment of cervical cancer. Full article
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Article
Medicarpin Increases Antioxidant Genes by Inducing NRF2 Transcriptional Level in HeLa Cells
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020421 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 442
Abstract
The nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress and drug detoxification. Therefore, it is important to find NRF2 inducers to protect cells from excessive oxidative damage. Here, we investigated the [...] Read more.
The nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress and drug detoxification. Therefore, it is important to find NRF2 inducers to protect cells from excessive oxidative damage. Here, we investigated the effect of medicarpin isolated from the root of Robinia pseudoacacia L. on the activity of NRF2 in HeLa cells. Medicarpin significantly induced the antioxidant response elements (ARE)-luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, medicarpin not only induced HO-1, GCLC, and NQO1 mRNA by translocating NRF2 to the nucleus but also induced the mRNA level of NRF2. To verify the NRF2 induction mechanism by medicarpin, ~2 kb of NRF2 promoter-luciferase assay was executed. As a result, medicarpin significantly induced NRF2-luciferase activity. Moreover, medicarpin strongly inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of NRF2. Thus, medicarpin might protect cells by promoting the NRF2 transcriptional activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Chemopreventive Activity of Natural Compounds)
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Neurolocomotor Behavior and Oxidative Stress Markers of Thiazole and Thiazolidinedione Derivatives against Nauphoeta cinerea
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020420 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Thiazolidine compounds NJ20 {(E)-2-(2-(5-bromo-2-methoxybenzylidene)hydrazinyl)-4-(4-nitrophenyl)thiazole} and NW05 [(2-(benzo (d) (1,3) dioxol-4-ylmethylene)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-thiosemicarbazone] potentiated the effect of norfloxacin in resistant bacteria; however, there are no reports on their effects on Nauphoeta cinerea in the literature. The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavioral effects [...] Read more.
Thiazolidine compounds NJ20 {(E)-2-(2-(5-bromo-2-methoxybenzylidene)hydrazinyl)-4-(4-nitrophenyl)thiazole} and NW05 [(2-(benzo (d) (1,3) dioxol-4-ylmethylene)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-thiosemicarbazone] potentiated the effect of norfloxacin in resistant bacteria; however, there are no reports on their effects on Nauphoeta cinerea in the literature. The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavioral effects and oxidative markers of NW05 and NJ20 in lobster cockroach N. cinerea. To evaluate the behavioral study, a video tracking software was used to evaluate the locomotor points and the exploratory profile of cockroaches in the horizontal and vertical regions of a new environment. The total concentration of thiol and reduced glutathione (GSH), substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), free iron (II) content and mitochondrial viability were determined. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by the DPPH method. Both substances induced changes in the behavior of cockroaches, showing a significant reduction in the total distance covered and in the speed. In the cell viability test (MTT), there was a significant reduction for NJ20 (1 mM). NJ20 caused a significant increase in total levels of thiol and non-protein thiol (NPSH), although it also slightly increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Both compounds (NW05 and NJ20) caused a significant reduction in the content of free iron at a concentration of 10 mM. In conclusion, the compound NJ20 caused moderate neurotoxicity (1 mM), but had good antioxidant action, while NW05 did not show toxicity or significant antioxidant activity in the model organism tested. It is desirable to carry out complementary tests related to the antioxidant prospection of these same compounds, evaluating them at different concentrations. Full article
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Article
CoenzymeQ10 and Ischemic Preconditioning Potentially Prevent Tourniquet-Induced Ischemia/Reperfusion in Knee Arthroplasty, but Combined Pretreatment Possibly Neutralizes Their Beneficial Effects
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020419 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Tourniquet (TQ) use during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) induces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. This study aims to determine the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC), either alone or in combination, on I/R-induced mitochondrial respiration alteration in peripheral [...] Read more.
Tourniquet (TQ) use during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) induces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. This study aims to determine the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC), either alone or in combination, on I/R-induced mitochondrial respiration alteration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pain following TKA. Forty-four patients were allocated into four groups: control, CoQ10, IPC, and CoQ10 + IPC. CoQ10 dose was 300 mg/day for 28 days. IPC protocol was three cycles of 5/5-min I/R time. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) of PBMCs were measured seven times, at baseline and during ischemic/reperfusion phases, with XFe 96 extracellular flux analyzer. Postoperative pain was assessed for 48 h. CoQ10 improved baseline mitochondrial uncoupling state; however, changes in OCRs during the early phase of I/R were not significantly different from the placebo. Compared to ischemic data, IPC transiently increased basal OCR and ATP production at 2 h after reperfusion. Clinically, CoQ10 significantly decreased pain scores and morphine requirements at 24 h. CoQ10 + IPC abolished analgesic effect of CoQ10 and mitochondrial protection of IPC. In TKA with TQ, IPC enhanced mitochondrial function by a transient increase in basal and ATP-linked respiration, and CoQ10 provides postoperative analgesic effect. Surprisingly, CoQ10 + IPC interferes with beneficial effects of each intervention. Full article
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Article
Stabilization of PE with Pomegranate Extract: Contradictions and Possible Mechanisms
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020418 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Dry pomegranate peel was extracted with acetone and the extract was added to a Phillips type polyethylene. The concentration of the extract was changed from 0 to 1000 ppm in six steps and stabilization efficiency was checked by the multiple extrusion of the [...] Read more.
Dry pomegranate peel was extracted with acetone and the extract was added to a Phillips type polyethylene. The concentration of the extract was changed from 0 to 1000 ppm in six steps and stabilization efficiency was checked by the multiple extrusion of the polymer followed by the characterization of chemical structure, processing, and residual stability. The results confirmed the excellent processing stabilization efficiency of the extract, but also the poor long-term stability of PE containing it in accordance with previously published results. The extract is amorphous and its solubility is relatively large in the polymer; thus, these factors cannot be the reason for the poor stabilization efficiency in an oxygen-rich environment. Chemical factors like the self-interaction of the polyphenol molecules, the stability of the radicals forming after hydrogen abstraction, and the lack of hydrogens with the necessary reactivity must be considered during the evaluation of the efficiency of the extract. These factors as well as the insufficient number of active hydrogens hinder the reaction of the additive molecules with oxygen-centered radicals, thus leading to inferior long-term stability. The extract can be used for the processing stabilization of polymers, but for applications requiring long-term stability, it must be combined with other natural antioxidants like flavonoids or Vitamin E. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants in Polymer Technology)
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Article
Impact of Seminal Plasma Antioxidants on Donkey Sperm Cryotolerance
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020417 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 539
Abstract
This study investigated whether the activities of the antioxidant components of donkey seminal plasma (SP)—both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase-like (CAT), glutathione peroxidase-like (GPX), and paraoxonase type 1 (PON1)) and non-enzymatic (measured in terms of total thiol, copper-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric-reducing ability [...] Read more.
This study investigated whether the activities of the antioxidant components of donkey seminal plasma (SP)—both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase-like (CAT), glutathione peroxidase-like (GPX), and paraoxonase type 1 (PON1)) and non-enzymatic (measured in terms of total thiol, copper-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC))—and oxidative stress index (OSI) are related to sperm cryotolerance. For this purpose, 15 ejaculates from jackasses (one per individual) were collected and split into two aliquots. The first one was used for measuring the activities levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and OSI in SP, whereas the other aliquot was cryopreserved. Before cryopreservation, sperm quality parameters (concentration, motility, and viability) were evaluated. After thawing, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, lipid disorder, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and calcium intracellular levels were also determined. Based on the percentages of total motility (TM) and of sperm with an intact plasma membrane (SYBR14+/PI) after thawing, samples were classified as good-freezability (GFE) or poor-freezability (PFE) ejaculates through cluster analyses. The SP activity levels of enzymatic (SOD and PON1) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (CUPRAC, FRAP, and TEAC) were higher (p < 0.05) in GFE than in PFE, whereas SP-OSI was higher (p < 0.05) in PFE than in GFE. In addition, the activity levels of SOD, PON1, GPX, CUPRAC, FRAP, and TEAC were positively (p < 0.05) related to post-thaw sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity and negatively to intracellular ROS levels. The SP-OSI was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) to post-thaw sperm quality parameters and positively to intracellular ROS levels. It can thus be concluded that donkey SP antioxidants are related to sperm cryotolerance and that measurements of antioxidants PON1, SOD, CUPRAC, FRAP, and TEAC, as well as SP-OSI, could be used as markers of sperm cryotolerance. Further research addressing the relationship of these antioxidants and SP-OSI with sperm cryotolerance and their potential use as freezing markers is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants and Male Reproduction)
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Review
N-Acetyl-Cysteine: Modulating the Cysteine Redox Proteome in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020416 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
In the last twenty years, significant progress in understanding the pathophysiology of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases has been made. However, the prevention and treatment of these diseases remain without clinically significant therapeutic advancement. While we still hope for some potential genetic therapeutic approaches, the [...] Read more.
In the last twenty years, significant progress in understanding the pathophysiology of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases has been made. However, the prevention and treatment of these diseases remain without clinically significant therapeutic advancement. While we still hope for some potential genetic therapeutic approaches, the current reality is far from substantial progress. With this state of the issue, emphasis should be placed on early diagnosis and prompt intervention in patients with increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases to slow down their progression, poor prognosis, and decreasing quality of life. Accordingly, it is urgent to implement interventions addressing the psychosocial and biochemical disturbances we know are central in managing the evolution of these disorders. Genomic and proteomic studies have shown the high molecular intricacy in neurodegenerative diseases, involving a broad spectrum of cellular pathways underlying disease progression. Recent investigations indicate that the dysregulation of the sensitive-cysteine proteome may be a concurrent pathogenic mechanism contributing to the pathophysiology of major neurodegenerative diseases, opening new therapeutic opportunities. Considering the incidence and prevalence of these disorders and their already significant burden in Western societies, they will become a real pandemic in the following decades. Therefore, we propose large-scale investigations, in selected groups of people over 40 years of age with decreased blood glutathione levels, comorbidities, and/or mild cognitive impairment, to evaluate supplementation of the diet with low doses of N-acetyl-cysteine, a promising and well-tolerated therapeutic agent suitable for long-term use. Full article
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Article
Modulation of Antioxidant Defense in Farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed with a Diet Supplemented by the Waste Derived from the Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Basil (Ocimum basilicum)
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020415 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 590
Abstract
Phytotherapy is based on the use of plants to prevent or treat human and animal diseases. Recently, the use of essential oils and polyphenol-enriched extracts is also rapidly increasing in the aquaculture sector as a means of greater industrial and environmental sustainability. Previous [...] Read more.
Phytotherapy is based on the use of plants to prevent or treat human and animal diseases. Recently, the use of essential oils and polyphenol-enriched extracts is also rapidly increasing in the aquaculture sector as a means of greater industrial and environmental sustainability. Previous studies assessed the antibacterial and antiparasitic effects of these bioactive compounds on fish. However, studies on the modulation of oxidative stress biomarkers are still scant to date. Thus, in this study, the modulation of antioxidant defense against oxidative stress exerted by fish diets supplemented with a basil supercritical extract (F1-BEO) was assessed in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The F1-BEO extracted with supercritical fluid extraction was added to the commercial feed flour (0.5, 1, 2, 3% w/w) and mixed with fish oil to obtain a suitable compound for pellet preparation. Fish were fed for 30 days. The levels of stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glyoxalase I, glyoxalase II, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione and malondialdehyde showed a boost in the antioxidant pathway in fish fed with a 0.5% F1-BEO-supplemented diet. Higher F1-BEO supplementation led to a failure of activity of several enzymes and the depletion of glutathione levels. Malondialdehyde concentration suggests a sufficient oxidative stress defense against lipid peroxidation in all experimental groups, except for a 3% F1-BEO-supplemented diet (liver 168.87 ± 38.79 nmol/mg prot; kidney 146.86 ± 23.28 nmol/mg prot), compared to control (liver 127.76 ± 18.15 nmol/mg prot; kidney 98.68 ± 15.65 nmol/mg prot). Our results suggest supplementing F1-BEO in fish diets up to 0.5% to avoid potential oxidative pressure in farmed trout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils)
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Article
Effect of Dietary Grapes on Female C57BL6/J Mice Consuming a High-Fat Diet: Behavioral and Genetic Changes
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020414 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
(1) Background: Adverse effects of a chronic high-fat diet (HFD) on murine behavior, cognition, and memory are well established. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, that are known for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, are present in grapes. The objective of this work [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Adverse effects of a chronic high-fat diet (HFD) on murine behavior, cognition, and memory are well established. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, that are known for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, are present in grapes. The objective of this work was to determine if the dietary intake of grapes has the potential of alleviating HFD-induced deficiencies. (2) Methods: The effect of dietary grape intake was studied using behavioral assays and high throughput genome-wide RNA transcriptome analyses with female C57BL6/J mice. (3) Results: Mice that were fed a HFD from 3-weeks of age showed anxiety-like behaviors compared with the standard diet (STD). This HFD-induced effect was attenuated by supplementing the HFD with 1% grape powder (HF1G) (open field test). Similar results were observed with the novel object recognition test; there was a significant difference in time spent exploring a novel object between the HFD and the HF1G groups. There was no significant difference between the HFD1G and the STD groups. Based on the RNA-Seq analysis, genetic expression in the brain varied as a result of diet, with 210, 360, and 221 uniquely expressed genes in the STD, HFD, and HF1G groups, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed that the HFIG group mapped more closely with the STD group than the HFD group. Focusing on some specific areas, based on genetic expression, Dopamine receptor 2 (Drd2) was increased in the HFD group and normalized in the HF1G group, relative to the STD group. In addition, as judged by cluster hierarchy, the expression of genes that are associated with the dopamine receptor 2 pathway were increased in the HFD group, whereas the pattern that was derived from mouse brain from the HF1G group showed greater similarity to the STD group. KEGG pathway analyses were consistent with these results. For example, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction (KEGG ID: mmu04080) was altered due to HFD compared with STD, but normalized by grape supplementation or the HFD; there was no significant difference between the STD and HF1G groups. In addition, the expression of genes related to feeding behavior, such as Adora2a, Th, and Trh, were also increased in the HFD group compared with the STD group, and attenuated by grape supplementation. (4) Conclusions: Dietary grape consumption has positive effects on behavior and cognition that are impaired by a HFD. Attenuation of these effects correlates with global transcriptional changes in mouse brain. Full article
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Review
Can Antioxidants Reduce the Toxicity of Bisphenol?
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020413 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 709
Abstract
BPA is still the subject of extensive research due to its widespread use, despite its significant toxicity resulting not only from its negative impact on the endocrine system but also from disrupting the organism’s oxidative homeostasis. At the molecular level, bisphenol A (BPA) [...] Read more.
BPA is still the subject of extensive research due to its widespread use, despite its significant toxicity resulting not only from its negative impact on the endocrine system but also from disrupting the organism’s oxidative homeostasis. At the molecular level, bisphenol A (BPA) causes an increased production of ROS and hence a change in the redox balance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulation of cell signaling pathways. Importantly, these changes accumulate in animals and humans, and BPA toxicity may be aggravated by poor diet, metabolic disorders, and coexisting diseases. Accordingly, approaches using antioxidants to counteract the negative effects of BPA are being considered. The preliminary results that are described in this paper are promising, however, it should be emphasized that further studies are required to determine the optimal dosage and treatment regimen to counteract BPA toxicity. It also seems necessary to have a more holistic approach showing, on the one hand, the influence of BPA on the overall human metabolism and, on the other hand, the influence of antioxidants in doses that are acceptable with the diet on BPA toxicity. This is due in part to the fact that in many cases, the positive effect of antioxidants in in vitro studies is not confirmed by clinical studies. For this reason, further research into the molecular mechanisms of BPA activity is also recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Cancer)
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Article
Protective Effect of Liposomal Epigallocatechin-Gallate in Experimental Gentamicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020412 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Our study aimed to assess the effect of liposomal epigallocatechin-gallate (LEGCG) compared with epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) solution on hepatic toxicity induced by gentamicin (G) administration in rats. Five groups were evaluated, a control group (no G administration) and four groups that received G (1 [...] Read more.
Our study aimed to assess the effect of liposomal epigallocatechin-gallate (LEGCG) compared with epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) solution on hepatic toxicity induced by gentamicin (G) administration in rats. Five groups were evaluated, a control group (no G administration) and four groups that received G (1 mL, i.p, 80 mg/kg b.w. (body weight/day), for 7 days) to which we associated daily administration 30 min before G of EGCG (G-EGCG, 2.5 mg/0.1 kg b.w.), LEGCG (G-LEGCG, 2.5 mg/0.1 kg b.w.) or silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w./day). The nitro-oxidative stress (NOx), catalase (CAT), TNF-α, transaminases, creatinine, urea, metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9, and liver histopathological changes were evaluated. LEGCG exhibited better efficacy than EGCG, improving the oxidant/antioxidant balance (p = 0.0125 for NOx and 0.0032 for CAT), TNF-α (p < 0.0001), MMP-2 (p < 0.0001), aminotransferases (p = 0.0001 for AST and 0.0136 for ALT), creatinine (p < 0.0001), urea (p = 0.0006) and histopathologic liver changes induced by gentamicin. Our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of EGCG with superior results of the liposomal formulation for hepatoprotection in experimental hepatic toxicity induced by gentamicin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds from Plants with Antioxidant Properties)
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Article
Culture Conditions Affect Antioxidant Production, Metabolism and Related Biomarkers of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020411 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyta) is a worldwide-distributed diatom with the ability to adapt and survive in different environmental habitats and nutrient-limited conditions. In this research, we investigated the growth performance, the total lipids productivity, the major categories of fatty acids, and the antioxidant content [...] Read more.
Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyta) is a worldwide-distributed diatom with the ability to adapt and survive in different environmental habitats and nutrient-limited conditions. In this research, we investigated the growth performance, the total lipids productivity, the major categories of fatty acids, and the antioxidant content in P. tricornutum subjected for 15 days to nitrogen deprivation (N−) compared to standard culture conditions (N+). Furthermore, genes and pathways related to lipid biosynthesis (i.e., glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, citrate synthase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase) and photosynthetic activity (i.e., ribulose-1,5-bisphospate carboxylase/oxygenase and fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c binding protein B) were investigated through molecular approaches. P. tricornutum grown under starvation condition (N−) increased lipids production (42.5 ± 0.19 g/100 g) and decreased secondary metabolites productivity (phenolic content: 3.071 ± 0.17 mg GAE g−1; carotenoids: 0.35 ± 0.01 mg g−1) when compared to standard culture conditions (N+). Moreover, N deprivation led to an increase in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and a decrease in genes related to photosynthesis. These results could be used as indicators of nitrogen limitation for environmental or industrial monitoring of P. tricornutum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Metabolism in Plants and Algae)
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Article
The Antinociceptive Potential of Camellia japonica Leaf Extract, (−)-Epicatechin, and Rutin against Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020410 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system. Currently, prescribed treatments are still unsatisfactory or have limited effectiveness. Camellia japonica leaves are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.; however, their antinociceptive efficacy has not yet been [...] Read more.
Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system. Currently, prescribed treatments are still unsatisfactory or have limited effectiveness. Camellia japonica leaves are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.; however, their antinociceptive efficacy has not yet been explored. We examined the antinociceptive efficacy and underlying mechanism of C. japonica leaf extract (CJE) in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain models. To test the antinociceptive activity of CJE, three types of allodynia were evaluated: punctate allodynia using von Frey filaments, dynamic allodynia using a paintbrush and cotton swab, and cold allodynia using a cold plate test. CCI rats developed neuropathic pain representing increases in the three types of allodynia and spontaneous pain. In addition, CCI rats showed high phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), transcription factors, and nociceptive mediators in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). The ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 levels and neuroinflammation also increased following CCI surgery in the spinal cord. CJE and its active components have potential antinociceptive effects against CCI-induced neuropathic pain that might be mediated by MAPK activation in the DRG and microglial activation in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that CJE, (−)-epicatechin, and rutin could be novel candidates for neuropathic pain management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Chronic Pain II)
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Article
Phenylpropanoid Glycoside and Phenolic Acid Profiles and Biological Activities of Biomass Extracts from Different Types of Verbena officinalis Microshoot Cultures and Soil-Grown Plant
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020409 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Different types of microshoot cultures (agar, stationary liquid, agitated, and bioreactors) of Verbena officinalis were optimized for biomass growth and the production of phenylpropanoid glycosides and phenolic acids. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the presence of verbascoside, isoverbascoside, [...] Read more.
Different types of microshoot cultures (agar, stationary liquid, agitated, and bioreactors) of Verbena officinalis were optimized for biomass growth and the production of phenylpropanoid glycosides and phenolic acids. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the presence of verbascoside, isoverbascoside, leucoseptoside A/isomers, and cistanoside D/isomer was confirmed in the methanolic extracts obtained from all types of in vitro cultures. The compound’s content was determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. The main metabolites in biomass extracts were verbascoside and isoverbascoside (maximum 4881.61 and 451.80 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)). In the soil-grown plant extract, verbascoside was also dominated (1728.97 mg/100 g DW). The content of phenolic acids in the analyzed extracts was below 24 mg/100 g DW. The highest radical scavenging activity was found in the biomass extract from agitated cultures, the most effective reducing power in agar culture extract, and the highest chelating activity in extract from bioreactor cultures. The extracts showed significantly stronger bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.3–2.2 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.6–9 mg/mL) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC 0.6–9 mg/mL, MBC of 0.6–18 mg/mL). The biomass extract from liquid stationary culture showed the strongest antibacterial activity, while the extract from soil-grown herb had the lowest. Full article
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Review
Antioxidant Therapy in Oxidative Stress-Induced Neurodegenerative Diseases: Role of Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery Systems in Clinical Translation
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020408 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Free radicals are formed as a part of normal metabolic activities but are neutralized by the endogenous antioxidants present in cells/tissue, thus maintaining the redox balance. This redox balance is disrupted in certain neuropathophysiological conditions, causing oxidative stress, which is implicated in several [...] Read more.
Free radicals are formed as a part of normal metabolic activities but are neutralized by the endogenous antioxidants present in cells/tissue, thus maintaining the redox balance. This redox balance is disrupted in certain neuropathophysiological conditions, causing oxidative stress, which is implicated in several progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Following neuronal injury, secondary injury progression is also caused by excessive production of free radicals. Highly reactive free radicals, mainly the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), damage the cell membrane, proteins, and DNA, which triggers a self-propagating inflammatory cascade of degenerative events. Dysfunctional mitochondria under oxidative stress conditions are considered a key mediator in progressive neurodegeneration. Exogenous delivery of antioxidants holds promise to alleviate oxidative stress to regain the redox balance. In this regard, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been evaluated. Despite promising results in preclinical studies, clinical translation of antioxidants as a therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases remains elusive. The issues could be their low bioavailability, instability, limited transport to the target tissue, and/or poor antioxidant capacity, requiring repeated and high dosing, which cannot be administered to humans because of dose-limiting toxicity. Our laboratory is investigating nanoparticle-mediated delivery of antioxidant enzymes to address some of the above issues. Apart from being endogenous, the main advantage of antioxidant enzymes is their catalytic mechanism of action; hence, they are significantly more effective at lower doses in detoxifying the deleterious effects of free radicals than nonenzymatic antioxidants. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the potential of antioxidant therapy, challenges in their clinical translation, and the role nanoparticles/drug delivery systems could play in addressing these challenges. Full article
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Article
Benzothiazole Derivatives as Multifunctional Antioxidant Agents for Skin Damage: Structure–Activity Relationship of a Scaffold Bearing a Five-Membered Ring System
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020407 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Skin diseases often give multifactorial damages; therefore, the development of multifunctional compounds represents a suitable approach especially against disorders that are induced by oxidative stress. Thus, taking into account the successful results we achieved on benzimidazoles, we have devised a new series of [...] Read more.
Skin diseases often give multifactorial damages; therefore, the development of multifunctional compounds represents a suitable approach especially against disorders that are induced by oxidative stress. Thus, taking into account the successful results we achieved on benzimidazoles, we have devised a new series of isosteric benzothiazoles and investigated their antioxidant, photoprotective, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Particular attention has been paid to synergistic antioxidant and photoprotective properties. For compounds 9a and 10a, a multifunctional profile was outlined, supported by an excellent filtering capacity, mainly UVB, which has higher capacities than those of the reference PBSA which is currently in the market as a UV sunscreen filter. The two compounds were also the best in terms of growth inhibition of dermatophytes and Candida albicans, and 10a also showed good antioxidant activity. Furthermore, 9a was also effective on melanoma tumor cells (SK-Mel 5), making these compounds good candidates in the development of new skin protective and preventive agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Multifunction Photoprotection)
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Article
Coriolus Versicolor Downregulates TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Cascade in Dinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Treated Mice: A Possible Mechanism for the Anti-Colitis Effect
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020406 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are disorders characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. The focus of the present study was to examine the effect of the fungus Coriolus versicolor (CV), underlining its correlation with Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and nuclear [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are disorders characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. The focus of the present study was to examine the effect of the fungus Coriolus versicolor (CV), underlining its correlation with Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); we aim to evaluate its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect in mice exposed to experimental colitis. The model was induced in mice by colon instillation of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), CV was administered orally (200 mg per kg) daily for 4 days. On day 4, the animals were killed, and the tissues collected for histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. Four days after DNBS administration, CC motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production increased in association with damage to the colon. Neutrophil infiltration, as assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, in the mucosa was associated with overexpression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). Immunohistochemistry for nitrotyrosine and poly-(ADP-Ribose)-polymerase (PARP) showed evident stain in the inflamed colon. Treatment with CV significantly reduced the appearance of colon changes and weight loss. These effects were associated with a remarkable ability of CV to reduce the expression of TLR4 and modulate the pathway of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB). This improved the colon architecture, reduced MPO activity, the release of proinflammatory cytokines, the presence of nitrotyrosine, and the hyperactivation of PARP, as well as the up-regulation of P-selectin and ICAM1. Furthermore, we studied the action of CV on the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which is important for maintaining redox balance, demonstrating that CV by significantly increasing both enzymes is able to counteract the oxidative stress induced by DNBS. Taken together, our results clearly show that this natural compound can be considered as a possible dietary supplement against colitis. Full article
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