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Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 46 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Violence against women is a persistent, cross-cultural feature of societies. A surplus of men is assumed to play a key role because they are the primary perpetrators of violence, yet it is unclear if an excess or, rather, a shortage of men drives negative outcomes. To test these differing views, we examined sexual violence against women in the US. We found that violence does not simply increase with male surplus or shortage, but instead with sex ratio imbalance. However, our findings are particularly challenging to interpret from a ‘more males = more violence’ stance because violence increases most quickly with male scarcity and is lowest at low levels of male excess. Ultimately, these results highlight a need to target the specific type of violent behavior expected to be motivated by the sex ratio, rather than simplistic predictions of male surfeit or deficit leading to excess violence. View this paper
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Article
Asian Australians’ Experiences of Online Racism during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050227 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
Between 13 November 2020 and 11 February 2021, an online national survey of 2003 Asian Australians was conducted to measure the type and frequency of self-identified Asian Australians’ experiences of racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey also aimed to gauge the relationships [...] Read more.
Between 13 November 2020 and 11 February 2021, an online national survey of 2003 Asian Australians was conducted to measure the type and frequency of self-identified Asian Australians’ experiences of racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey also aimed to gauge the relationships between racist experiences and targets’ mental health, wellbeing and sense of belonging. In this paper, we report findings on the type and frequency of online racist experiences and their associations with mental health, wellbeing and belonging. The survey found that 40 per cent of participants experienced racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within that group, 66 per cent experienced racism online. The demographic pattern of those most likely to experience online racism were younger age groups, males, those born in Australia, English speakers at home, non-Christians, and migrants who have been in Australia less than 20 years. Analysis also found a strong correlation between Asian Australians’ experiences of online racism and poor mental health, wellbeing and belonging. The relationship between experiencing racism, non-belonging and morbidity were more pronounced for those who experienced online racism compared to those who experienced racism in other offline contexts. This points to the corrosive nature of online racism on social cohesion, health and belonging. Full article
Article
“There’s Something Very Wrong with the System in This Country”: Multiracial Organizations and Their Responses to Racial Marginalization
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050226 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Multiracial organizing since the 1980s has centered around the need to define and make visible the term multiracial (e.g., U.S. Census). In the contemporary era when multiple race populations are a growing and institutionally recognized demographic, how do multiracial organizations characterize and seek [...] Read more.
Multiracial organizing since the 1980s has centered around the need to define and make visible the term multiracial (e.g., U.S. Census). In the contemporary era when multiple race populations are a growing and institutionally recognized demographic, how do multiracial organizations characterize and seek to combat collective experiences of racial marginalization? Here, we draw on in-depth interviews with officers from diverse multiracial organizations in the U.S. and Canada (N = 19) collected from 2017 through 2018 to examine this question. The findings revealed that multiracial individuals experience distinct forms of exclusion, which we call categorical invisibility, that target individuals who do not “fit” into established monoracial categories, and mixture as pathology, a less common frame but representing more overt forms of bias targeting those of mixed backgrounds. The lived impacts of these experiences prompt the expressed need for “safe” spaces from the psychosocial costs of categorical invisibility. Multiracial organizations, located mostly in the United States with one in Canada, engage in diverse community building and advocacy efforts to address these needs and, thus, represent critical sites of resistance to the trauma of racial (in)visibility. This work amplifies the need to center Critical Multiracial Theory to expose how monoracial paradigms as a central feature of White supremacy continue to shape the lives of multiracial people and expand our knowledge on how multiracial organizations shape the (re)negotiation of racial categories that challenge the racial status quo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
Article
When the Challenges of Widowhood Extend to Childcare: Essential Considerations for Social Work Practice
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050225 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Unless widows recount their painful experiences of caring for their children, their day-to day lived challenges of childcare may be misunderstood if not totally missed by social workers in practice. This article discusses the widow’s painful experiences of caring for their children in [...] Read more.
Unless widows recount their painful experiences of caring for their children, their day-to day lived challenges of childcare may be misunderstood if not totally missed by social workers in practice. This article discusses the widow’s painful experiences of caring for their children in Binga District in Zimbabwe and the critical aspects needed for consideration by social workers in practice. A qualitative research approach using a phenomenological research design was adopted to capture the lived struggles of the widows in caring for their children. Using purposive sampling, twenty-four widows participated in the in-depth interviews, with ten widows participating in individual interviews whilst fourteen widows participated in two separate focus group interviews with seven widows in each group. Data were analysed thematically with predetermined and emerging themes critically discussed and compared with existing literature. The findings showed that due to dwindling resource bases, widows are bound to fail to meet the physiological, psychosocial, economic and educational needs of their children. The article recommends deliberate and systematic social work considerations in efforts to intervene and avert the circumstances of the widows that have a negative impact on childcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
Article
Did Immigrants Perceive More Job Insecurity during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic? Evidence from German Panel Data
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050224 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 974
Abstract
Immigrants have been affected more than native-born ethnic majority populations by the negative economic consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This contribution examines whether they have also experienced higher levels of perceived job insecurity, reflected in a differential increase in financial concerns and the [...] Read more.
Immigrants have been affected more than native-born ethnic majority populations by the negative economic consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This contribution examines whether they have also experienced higher levels of perceived job insecurity, reflected in a differential increase in financial concerns and the fear of job loss during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This empirical study employs the SOEP-CoV survey, which assesses the socio-economic consequences of SARS-CoV-2. It is embedded in the ongoing German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We present OLS models to compare perceptions of job insecurity across groups, capturing the situation before and during the pandemic. The analyses reveal that first-generation immigrants reported more financial worries, and they perceived a higher chance of job loss than second-generation immigrants and the native-born ethnic majority. This difference in economic concerns emerged only in the pandemic. Despite covering a wide range of conditions signaling objective risk of job loss, as well as individuals’ means and resources for dealing with looming job loss, these disparities persisted in the empirical study. Considering group-membership-related feelings of acceptance and inclusion could provide a promising route for future inquiry that may allow the remaining gap in subjective job insecurity to be accounted for. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
Family Type Differences in Children’s Satisfaction with People They Live with and Perceptions about Their (Step)parents’ Parenting Practices
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050223 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Family complexity is increasing in Europe, experienced by a significant proportion of children. More evidence is needed in Europe how children’s family type influences their well-being, especially their family-related subjective well-being, and to what extent parenting practices are playing a role in these [...] Read more.
Family complexity is increasing in Europe, experienced by a significant proportion of children. More evidence is needed in Europe how children’s family type influences their well-being, especially their family-related subjective well-being, and to what extent parenting practices are playing a role in these relationships. The aim of the paper is to study perceptions of children who live with two biological parents, with a biological and a stepparent, or with a single parent about the parenting practices of their (step)parents and their satisfaction with the people they live with. The analysis is based on the third wave of the “Children’s Worlds” harmonized dataset of 12-year-old children in Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Romania. The findings reveal a ‘cascade of children’s appraisals’ by the family types—overall, living with two biological parents is the least and in a stepparent family the most complex family environment for children, reflected in their highest and lowest evaluations of parenting practices and family-related subjective well-being, respectively. The analyses showed that simple and complex family type differences in children’s family-related subjective well-being are entirely explained by parenting practices in Norway, Estonia, and Poland, but not or almost not at all in Finland, Hungary, and Romania. To conclude, in a caring, safe, and participation-enhancing family atmosphere, children can be inclusively flexible and adapt to new parent-figures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
Incidence of Human Capital in the Innovative Performance of Service Companies: A Study in Ecuador
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050222 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 739
Abstract
The relationship between human capital and innovative performance in service companies has been studied in countries with fast-growing economies and knowledge-intensive companies, but little evidence exists in other contexts. The research examined the relationship between human capital variables and the innovative performance of [...] Read more.
The relationship between human capital and innovative performance in service companies has been studied in countries with fast-growing economies and knowledge-intensive companies, but little evidence exists in other contexts. The research examined the relationship between human capital variables and the innovative performance of Ecuadorian service companies. The methodology is quantitative. It is a non-experimental, cross-sectional investigation, and data from Ecuador from the national survey of innovation activities 2015 were used. A bivariate probit regression was performed. The results indicate that the variable training in innovation activities is positively related to service innovation, but not to process innovation, because service innovation requires a greater development of skills and abilities than process innovation in these activities. Company workers and the variable workers with higher education are positively related to process innovation, but not to service innovation. The research contributes to the gap in the literature on the relationship between human capital variables and innovative performance and provides empirical evidence of the relationship in developing countries where evidence is scarce. The research has practical implications for managers and administrators of service companies: Increasing training in innovation activities can increase the potential for service innovation and increasing workers with higher education increases the innovative potential in the processes in these companies. The originality of this study is that it presents evidence of this relationship in a developing country that has companies in a different context such as scarcity of qualified human resources, low level of R&D investment, and companies with a medium level of knowledge complexity, since the evidence focuses on companies in developed countries and knowledge-intensive companies. Full article
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Article
Mounting Turbulence in Neoliberal Globalization: Political Economy, Populist Discourse, and Policy in Alberta, Canada
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050221 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
For decades, the world’s dominant ideological and policy framework, neoliberal globalization, increasingly faces important disrupters. Long backers of neoliberalism, conservative movements now face pressing, convergent policy challenges (climate emergency, COVID-19), which they increasingly deny through populism, rather than address through neoliberalism. Populism’s unstable, [...] Read more.
For decades, the world’s dominant ideological and policy framework, neoliberal globalization, increasingly faces important disrupters. Long backers of neoliberalism, conservative movements now face pressing, convergent policy challenges (climate emergency, COVID-19), which they increasingly deny through populism, rather than address through neoliberalism. Populism’s unstable, often localist or xenophobic spatial imaginaries increasingly disrupt the neoliberal globalizing consensus of the 1990s and 2000s, and, thus, continental and international integration. As challenges mount, neoliberal globalization’s chances of re-stabilization diminish. However, chance, strategy, and the collective determination and capacities of its opponents will also be essential to establish something new. This article is an interpretive work, linking these themes to the history and current debates of Alberta, Canada, and its unconventional fossil-fuel exports. Canada’s leading fossil-fuel jurisdiction, Alberta, has stoutly favored free trade, continental integration, federal decentralization, and new export markets. Its United Conservative Party (UCP) government exhibits neo-nationalist or regionalist populism, opening tensions with the continental integration of its fossil fuel industries. Yet its populism targets the industry’s enemies to accelerate industry’s growth. Right-wing populism, marked by unstable spatial imaginaries, marks Alberta’s history. Alberta exemplifies the current destabilization of neoliberal globalization through populism, with implications for fossil-fuel exports. Full article
Article
Peer Effects of the Same and Different Religions on Faithfulness: A Comparison between Indonesia and India
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050220 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 714
Abstract
By employing questionnaire surveys to empirically examine peer effects on religious faithfulness, this study mainly compares Muslims in Indonesia and India as examples. This study uses religious restrictions on foods as the main component of the questionnaire. A total of two variables were [...] Read more.
By employing questionnaire surveys to empirically examine peer effects on religious faithfulness, this study mainly compares Muslims in Indonesia and India as examples. This study uses religious restrictions on foods as the main component of the questionnaire. A total of two variables were selected to examine peer effects: (1) the percentage of respondents’ close friends who follow a different religion and (2) the percentage of people in the respondents’ city who follow the same faith. Ordinary least squares/generalized least squares regression was conducted, and six models were estimated. The results reveal that Indian/Indonesian respondents are more affected by those who follow the same/different religions, respectively, suggesting that relatively smaller groups have larger peer effects on religious faithfulness. Although further investigations are required, these symmetric results may be attributed to the fact that tensions among people from different religions are high/low, and that the percentage of people who follow a different faith in the respondents’ city is high/low in India and Indonesia, respectively. Full article
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Article
Smartphone Moves: How Changes in Embodied Configuration with One’s Smartphone Adjust Conversational Engagement
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050219 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Smartphones are often spontaneously used for personal purposes and during face-to-face gatherings. New terms like “phubbing” and “technoference” describe negative consequences of this behavior, but analysis of the actual everyday social situations where smartphones feature has largely been neglected. This article shows how [...] Read more.
Smartphones are often spontaneously used for personal purposes and during face-to-face gatherings. New terms like “phubbing” and “technoference” describe negative consequences of this behavior, but analysis of the actual everyday social situations where smartphones feature has largely been neglected. This article shows how simultaneous smartphone and conversational engagements are shaped by participants’ embodied conduct. A naturally occurring three-party conversation in a Finnish café is analyzed in detail to show how changes in embodied user–smartphone configuration impact ongoing conversation. User–smartphone configuration consists of the smartphone’s location, its physical relation to its user’s hands, and its screen direction in relation to the user’s head. User-smartphone configuration can manifest a change in an interactive footing in conversation, function as a turn-holding device, and organize a change in the conversational state. New methods and concepts for studying smartphone use in social situations are introduced. “Smartphone positions” refers to the embodied user–smartphone configurations that are oriented as manifestations of degrees of user–device engagement. “Smartphone moves” are the changes in smartphone positions, and they carry sequential relevance. Increased smartphone engagement is seen as decreased conversational engagement and vice versa. Making interactive resources available for one engagement manifests as an accountable event of disengagement from another. Engagement and disengagement are argued to be a continuum rather than a contrast pair. Full article
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Article
Zombification and Industry 4.0—Directional Financialisation against Doomed Industrial Revolution
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050218 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 726
Abstract
This contribution addresses the puzzle of whether Industry 4.0 is able to autochthonously bring back the real economy (non-financial corporate sector) into the consciousness of the financial sector. It is all the more important since the conventional wisdom over financialisation says that it [...] Read more.
This contribution addresses the puzzle of whether Industry 4.0 is able to autochthonously bring back the real economy (non-financial corporate sector) into the consciousness of the financial sector. It is all the more important since the conventional wisdom over financialisation says that it cannot be reversed without re-establishing the command of the social and collective over the private and individual for the modern era. Our paper argues that a healthy diffusion of Industry 4.0 is doomed unless some directionality is set within the financialisation process. To this end, by building on the relevant lessons of complexity science, it investigates the complex nexus among financialisation, zombification and Industry 4.0 development, an aspect which is not even sporadically examined in the literature. After presenting a short stock take on excessive financialisation, the paper deciphers the main systemic channels of zombification affecting negatively the outlooks of Industry 4.0. Some important policy recommendations are drawn as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Article
A New Military Hierarchy of Needs Model
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050217 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 674
Abstract
The aim of our research was to create an up-to-date model of the hierarchy of needs of regular soldiers serving in the Hungarian Defense Forces. Our starting point was the theory of motivation, which states that people’s actions are motivated by a system [...] Read more.
The aim of our research was to create an up-to-date model of the hierarchy of needs of regular soldiers serving in the Hungarian Defense Forces. Our starting point was the theory of motivation, which states that people’s actions are motivated by a system of needs. As qualitative systematic data analysis offers an opportunity to create a relevant (decisive) theory to answer the main research question, we based our analysis on the grounded theory method. The results showed that the needs identified in our model often resembled those identified in other theories, including military models, although on different levels. The hierarchy of needs pyramid that we constructed contains terms such as resources, power, team spirit, development, quest for challenges, and fulfillment and, by way of general background, appreciation. Our research broadened our knowledge regarding individuals’ motivation to choose a military career. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
Crisis Communication and Resilience: Are Russian and Latvian Speakers in the Same Boat?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050216 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 792
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is testing the ability of the national governments to manage a crisis by covering policy sectors, which are decisive for health, well-being, sustainability of individuals, and society at large. Communication plays a crucial role in situations when society is at [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is testing the ability of the national governments to manage a crisis by covering policy sectors, which are decisive for health, well-being, sustainability of individuals, and society at large. Communication plays a crucial role in situations when society is at risk. Communication is a source of prevention, action, mitigation, and empowerment. Therefore, the ways and means of how national governments and governmental institutions implement adopted strategies, and how they make their actions understandable and reasonable to their societies, become an important element of crisis management at large. Diversification of the modern information environment makes governments’ communication even more complex. The media landscape, especially social media, impact reality’s perception, including crisis and emergencies. As a result, governments are struggling with different forms of messaging and a choice of narratives to be shared with the broader public or societal groups. Considering the existing division in the perception of political realities between Latvian and Russian-speaking communities, Latvia is a case of particular interest for analysis. The article aims to explore how the society has been led through the current crisis communication-wise by the government and what strategies are used for the particular linguistic groups. The article looks at the main factors influencing the perceptions of the Russian-speaking community in Latvia and the main reasons for the existing divergence between perceptions of Latvian and Russian-speaking representatives. The study is based on focus group interviews organized authors. Full article
Article
Youths’ Perceptions and Aspiration towards Participating in the Agricultural Sector: A South African Case Study
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050215 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 995
Abstract
Agriculture is considered as a leading source of employment while ensuring food security to the world and especially rural communities. However, the youth do not appear to be interested in the agricultural sector due to various reasons such as their perceptions and aspirations [...] Read more.
Agriculture is considered as a leading source of employment while ensuring food security to the world and especially rural communities. However, the youth do not appear to be interested in the agricultural sector due to various reasons such as their perceptions and aspirations towards the sector. This research intends to explore whether perceptions, aspirations and access to resources affect youth participation in agriculture and related economic activities, under rain-fed production in two regions of the Free State province of South Africa. Principal component analysis was used to determine perception dimensions, while a probit model was used to investigate the effect of capital (human, social, physical, financial and natural), the perception dimensions and the respondents’ agricultural aspirations on agricultural participation. The results showed that the aspirations of youth do not affect their decision to participate in the agricultural sector. However, exposure to agriculture and support systems can increase youth participation in the industry. Results also show that grants, which are an easy source of income, and the uneducated and comfort perception dimension hinders youth participation in agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
Characterisation of Contemporary Slavery through the Analysis of Accommodation Conditions
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050214 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Slave labour or work in conditions analogous to slavery continues on all continents and sometimes tends to be mistaken for “simple” violations of labour laws. Therefore, this work aims to identify parameters that allow distinguishing between situations of non-compliance with labour legislation and [...] Read more.
Slave labour or work in conditions analogous to slavery continues on all continents and sometimes tends to be mistaken for “simple” violations of labour laws. Therefore, this work aims to identify parameters that allow distinguishing between situations of non-compliance with labour legislation and modern rural slavery in Brazil through the analysis of accommodation conditions. To achieve this objective, a bibliographic research was developed in six databases on sanitary, accommodation and clothing issues of enslaved workers in the 19th century in Brazil. The resulting data were compared with data from a sample of 392 proven cases of neoslavery detected between 2007 and 2017 in Brazil. The analysis focused on the general conditions of the physical structures necessary to protect workers against bad weather, animal attacks, violence, sanitary conditions to support physiological and asepsis needs, as well as the clothing provided and used. Similarities were found in the accommodation conditions between enslaved and neoenslaved workers in Brazil between the 19th and 21st centuries. The availability of sanitary conditions (toilets), rest (bedrooms/dormitories), and the general housing structure are very similar. Future research may point towards identifying other parameters and developing a tool to help authorities unequivocally identify neoslavery situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
Brothers in Arms? How Neoliberalism Connects North and South Higher Education: Finland and Portugal in Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050213 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 769
Abstract
This paper puts in perspective the reforms of the Portuguese and Finnish higher education (HE) sectors in the light of the role intergovernmental organisations have—especially the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)—in influencing neoliberal public policies in these countries. On the year [...] Read more.
This paper puts in perspective the reforms of the Portuguese and Finnish higher education (HE) sectors in the light of the role intergovernmental organisations have—especially the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)—in influencing neoliberal public policies in these countries. On the year that the OECD celebrates its 62nd anniversary, (the OECD was founded with this name on 14 December 1960 by 20 countries, following the establishment of the former European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) in April 1948) and by comparing two different countries, this article analyses the extent to which the OECD has been and is an “imperial agent” in Portuguese and Finnish HE policies. By cross-comparing the OECD reports of both HE systems, the empirical data shows how the OECD proposes neoliberal reforms based on three main components of neoliberalism: market, management and performativity in different countries. Taking these proposals into account, Portugal and Finland undertook similar HE legislative reforms despite their geographical, historical, cultural and economic differences. The data reveal a convergence in HE policies in these countries, anticipating the reinforcement of neoliberal policies at the national level. Full article
Article
Building China’s Eldercare Market: The Imperatives of Capital Accumulation and Social Stability
by
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050212 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 2250
Abstract
The paper investigates China’s effort to create an eldercare market to shed light on how China’s economic reform entailed the creation of new institutions (e.g., eldercare market including eldercare labour market) and the reconfiguration of existing institutions (e.g., governance and regulation, the family, [...] Read more.
The paper investigates China’s effort to create an eldercare market to shed light on how China’s economic reform entailed the creation of new institutions (e.g., eldercare market including eldercare labour market) and the reconfiguration of existing institutions (e.g., governance and regulation, the family, and the community). All this was needed for the market to flourish while maintaining and strengthening the regime. An urban eldercare market, including an eldercare labour market, was created by local governments (i.e., municipalities, districts, counties, and towns) with central government policy directives, in order to address China’s demographic aging and care crisis. However, once enough demand and supply were created, local governments turned to New Public Management (NPM) to operate publicly funded eldercare institutions. The paper argues that NPM has different rationalities in China than in liberal democracies; in China, they strengthen the Party and contribute to the durability of the authoritarian rule, rather than “shrink the state”. However, in China as in the West, bureaucratic logic hampers the implementation of NPM and the governance of the eldercare sector. The implication of bureaucratic logic driving the regulation of the eldercare sector is that care is not at the centre of eldercare. The paper also argues that the commodification and privatization of eldercare, in line with the global trend, was a deliberate government policy aimed at creating a positive condition for the market economy to flourish, but at the expense of social reproduction/care. Unlike many Western transitions to market provision, this one entailed the decline in the extended family as the main eldercare institution of the immediate past. However, the commodification and privatization of social reproduction have been incomplete and met with resistance, prompting the state to invest more in the sector to maintain social stability. Data for this paper derive from personal interviews with key informants and eldercare workers, official document analysis, and secondary literature analysis from Chinese scholars in mainland China. Full article
Article
Who Are the People at Socio-Economic Risk? Socio-Demographical Analysis of the Czech People in Specific Economical Situations Recognized in Value-Based Risk Prediction Model
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050211 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 863
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the dependence of personal economic situation on gender, age, education, occupational status, field of work or study, family situation, and number of children in the family. The research was designed as cross-sectional ex post facto. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the dependence of personal economic situation on gender, age, education, occupational status, field of work or study, family situation, and number of children in the family. The research was designed as cross-sectional ex post facto. The survey examined data collected through a structured questionnaire completed and returned by a total of 5175 respondents aged 15+ selected from the general population of the Czech Republic. The statistical significance of hypotheses was tested using χ2 statistics, and the adjusted residuals z in each cell were calculated. The impacts of socio-demographic factors on specific economic situation were recognized and statistically confirmed. Compared to women, men show higher financial knowledge, which benefits them significantly. Economic situation worsens with increasing age. As education increases, the level of vulnerability decreases, and the individual’s economic situation improves. Protective factors include cohabitation with a partner and having a complete family. People without children are in the best financial situation. The situation gradually worsens with the number of children, and families with five or more children are typically in a negative economic situation with a high level of vulnerability. The specific contribution of our research lies in the inclusion of potential financial risks in the identification of people at risk. We recognized a high-risk group of people—women in a positive economic situation with a high level of risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
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Article
Muted Voices: The Underrepresentation of Women in COVID-19 News in Portugal
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050210 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 777
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Portuguese media seemed to contribute to the symbolic annihilation of women. In spite of the fact that women play leading political roles as the Minister of Health and the Directorate-General of Health, women were almost mute in the [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Portuguese media seemed to contribute to the symbolic annihilation of women. In spite of the fact that women play leading political roles as the Minister of Health and the Directorate-General of Health, women were almost mute in the COVID-19 news that was published in the Portuguese daily national press. In a sample of more than 6000 news sources, women account for less than 20% of them. Their lack of visibility in the news deepens the existing asymmetries of gender and amplifies the glass ceiling. The aim of this study was to analyze the media coverage of COVID-19 through a content analysis of the news that was published in two Portuguese daily newspapers with different editorial lines. Our period of analysis corresponds to the emergency-state periods (18 March to 2 May 2020; 9 November to 23 December 2020; 15 January to 28 February 2021). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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Article
Minding Mental Health: Clinicians’ Engagement with Youth Suicide Prevention
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050209 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 3773
Abstract
Suicidal ideation and deaths among children and adolescents have seen an unprecedented rise over the last ten years, recently further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores mental health professionals’ approaches to delivering suicide prevention treatment services. Using insights from Giddens’ structuration [...] Read more.
Suicidal ideation and deaths among children and adolescents have seen an unprecedented rise over the last ten years, recently further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores mental health professionals’ approaches to delivering suicide prevention treatment services. Using insights from Giddens’ structuration theory, the study examines licensed mental health professionals’ (1) reflections on suicide prevention trainings for those in their profession, (2) appraisals of available treatment options, and (3) assessments of postvention services provided to professionals who encounter a client suicide. Additional attention was given to the structural impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on intervention services. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with youth mental health clinicians in the state of Texas. Results underscore the interplay between structural influences and practitioner innovations in the delivery of these essential services to a vulnerable population. This study underscores the agency of mental health professionals in navigating the demands of a difficult profession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
Patterning of Sexual Violence against Women across US Cities and Counties
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050208 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 963
Abstract
Sexual violence against women is a global public health concern; yet, determining its patterning is still largely understudied. An excess of males has emerged as a central concern given that men are the primary perpetrators of violent behavior, particularly against women. However, it [...] Read more.
Sexual violence against women is a global public health concern; yet, determining its patterning is still largely understudied. An excess of males has emerged as a central concern given that men are the primary perpetrators of violent behavior, particularly against women. However, it is increasingly unclear as to whether an excess or, rather, a shortage of men drives purported negative social outcomes. To address these conflicting expectations, we target data from the U.S. Census and the National Incident-Based Reporting System to explore the patterning of sexual violence against women across cities and counties in the United States. Through the use of generalized linear mixed models, we assess the role of adult sex ratio imbalance, along with measures of gender inequality, on sexual violence. Our results indicate mixed support for competing predictions. Violence does not simply increase by way of male surplus or shortage, but instead with increasing skew in the sex ratio. That is, balanced sex ratios exhibit the lowest rates of violence. However, rates of sexual violence against women increase more quickly with increasing male scarcity and are lowest at low levels of male excess (51%). Thus, our findings are particularly challenging to interpret from a ‘more males = more violence’ framework because violence increases more quickly with female excess and is rarest with a slight male bias in the population. We argue that these results highlight a need to target the specific types of violent behaviors expected to be motivated by partner availability, rather than overly simplistic predictions of male surfeit or deficit leading to an excess of violence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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Review
Mapping the Cyber Interpersonal Violence among Young Populations: A Scoping Review
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050207 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 874
Abstract
The increase in digital practices and networking has introduced important changes to social interactions. The extensive use of technology among young people has allowed for cyber communication, which has numerous benefits but can also trigger violence in relationships. Interpersonal violence affecting young people [...] Read more.
The increase in digital practices and networking has introduced important changes to social interactions. The extensive use of technology among young people has allowed for cyber communication, which has numerous benefits but can also trigger violence in relationships. Interpersonal violence affecting young people is becoming more widely recognized as a public health issue. The aim of this scoping review is to map and systematize the published academic literature on Cyber Interpersonal Violence (CIV) amongst young people, following the methodological approach proposed by Arksey and O’Malley. Five databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Science Direct and Social Sciences Citation Index. Eighteen studies in English, Portuguese, Spanish and French, published from 2004 onwards, were included. Three main areas arose in the CIV: cyber dating abuse, cyberbullying and cyber-harassment. Investing in prevention is the key to preventing cyber violence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence, Victimization and Prevention)
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Article
Relationship of Work-Related Stress and Offline Social Leisure on Political Participation of Voters in the United States
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050206 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
In the United States (US), citizens’ political participation is 15%. Contemporary psychological models explaining political participation are based on education and socioeconomic status, which are unable to explain the overall low political participation figures. The study suggests a holistic approach, with two societal [...] Read more.
In the United States (US), citizens’ political participation is 15%. Contemporary psychological models explaining political participation are based on education and socioeconomic status, which are unable to explain the overall low political participation figures. The study suggests a holistic approach, with two societal tendencies: increasing work-related stress and diminishing offline social leisure, together with a mediating effect of participatory efficacy to assess associations with the political participation of US voters. The quantitative correlational study uses structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis on the General Social Survey representative sample of US voters (N = 295, Mage = 44.49, SD = 13.43), controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Work-related stress was not significantly associated with political participation (β = 0.08, p = 0.09). Offline social leisure was positively associated with political participation (β = 0.28, p < 0.001). The mediating effect of participatory efficacy on the relationship between offline social leisure and political participation was positive and significant (β = 0.05, p < 0.001). Additional analyses, regression and SEM on the European Social Survey sample (N = 27,604) boosted internal and external validity. Results indicate that offline social leisure is more predictive than education and socioeconomic status, showing that examining societal trends leads to a better understanding of political participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elections and Political Campaigns in Times of Uncertainty)
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Article
Dominant Narratives of Whiteness in Identity Construction of Mixed-Race Young Adults in Post-Apartheid South Africa
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050205 - 08 May 2022
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Despite the relative freedoms gained after the transition to democracy in 1994 in South Africa, dominant narratives of Whiteness stemming from settler-colonial and apartheid legacies of White supremacy remain pervasive within all structures of post-apartheid society, including the identity construction and racialisation of [...] Read more.
Despite the relative freedoms gained after the transition to democracy in 1994 in South Africa, dominant narratives of Whiteness stemming from settler-colonial and apartheid legacies of White supremacy remain pervasive within all structures of post-apartheid society, including the identity construction and racialisation of first-generation mixed-race people. This research explored how dominant narratives of Whiteness influence the construction of identity among mixed-race youth in post-apartheid South Africa. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 participants who have one White parent and one parent of colour and were considered ‘born frees’, as they were born during or after the transition to democracy. Guided by critical race theory, through thematic analysis, three main themes emerged: defying Rainbowism, rejecting Whiteness, and policing identity. Ultimately, this research critically investigates how mixed-race people have constructed their identities while navigating pervasive power structures of White supremacy that continue to shape the rigid racial categorisations in post-apartheid South Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
Article
Multiracial Identities in the United States: Towards the Brazilian or South African Paths?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050204 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Multiracial identities in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States all formed within White supremacist, White racist, and anti-Black social orders. Brazil and South Africa historically acknowledged multiracials in ternary racial orders with a structurally intermediate status somewhat higher than that of other [...] Read more.
Multiracial identities in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States all formed within White supremacist, White racist, and anti-Black social orders. Brazil and South Africa historically acknowledged multiracials in ternary racial orders with a structurally intermediate status somewhat higher than that of other nonWhites, particularly Blacks, but significantly lower than that of Whites. In contrast, in the United States, multiracial identities have historically been prohibited due to hypodescent and the monoracial imperative, which categorize multiracials according to their most subaltern racial background and necessitate single-racial identification. In the 1980s and 1990s, a U.S. multiracial movement challenged these norms. This article compares the multiracial phenomenon in the United States with historical formations in Brazil and South Africa using data from published literature, censuses, written correspondence with activists, and observations of public behavior in the United States. The objective is to theorize whether and to what extent U.S. multiracial identities function in ways similar to the historical formations of Brazil and South Africa, particularly with regards to questions of collective identity, anti-Blackness, and White adjacency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
Article
Unmarried Adolescents’ Experiences of Using Reproductive and Maternal Health Services in Nigeria and Uganda: A Qualitative Study
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050203 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Adolescents’ access and use of reproductive and maternal health (RMH) services is a critical part of the global strategy for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, previous studies have shown that a complex range of factors, including restrictive policies and punitive laws, [...] Read more.
Adolescents’ access and use of reproductive and maternal health (RMH) services is a critical part of the global strategy for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, previous studies have shown that a complex range of factors, including restrictive policies and punitive laws, limit adolescents from accessing a full range of RMH services in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Our study explores the experiences of unmarried adolescents’ access and use of RMH services in Nigeria and Uganda to understand the extent to which the diverse policy environment in both countries enables or hinders adolescents’ access to and use of RMH services. Our qualitative research design involved eight focus group discussions (FGDs) in Nigeria and in Uganda, 14 in-depth interviews, and eight FGDs among adolescents. The data were analysed thematically and organised according to the WHO’s five broad dimensions for assessing youth-friendly health services. Our findings show that RMH services were inequitably delivered in both countries. Adolescents were restricted from accessing services based on age and marital status. Being unmarried and having no partner, especially in Uganda, was a cause for discrimination during antenatal appointments. We also observed that the expectations of adolescents were not adequately met. Service providers tended to be impolite, judgemental, and unwilling to provide services, especially contraceptives, to younger and unmarried adolescents. Our findings suggest that the existence of a youth-friendly health policy does not translate into effective youth-friendly service provision. This underscores the need for further studies to understand the complexities surrounding this by using a realist evaluation method to examine how adolescent and youth-friendly health services can be designed to improve uptake of reproductive and maternal health services among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Global Perspectives)
Editorial
Introduction to Special Issue on “Divorce and the Life Course”
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050202 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 833
Abstract
With the severe upswing in divorce experienced by developed nations in the last fifty years, social scientists in many disciplines are intensifying their focus on marital dissolution and its implications for society, families, and individuals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Divorce and Life Course)
Article
“God Helped Us”: Resilience, Religion and Experiences of Gender-Based Violence and Trafficking among African Forced Migrant Women
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050201 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
In this article, I explore how faith and religion shaped the resilience of forced migrant women subjected to intersecting gender-based violence (GBV) and trafficking. Adopting a social constructivist perspective, I draw upon interviews with 11 Christian and 4 Muslim displaced survivors of 10 [...] Read more.
In this article, I explore how faith and religion shaped the resilience of forced migrant women subjected to intersecting gender-based violence (GBV) and trafficking. Adopting a social constructivist perspective, I draw upon interviews with 11 Christian and 4 Muslim displaced survivors of 10 African nationalities temporarily residing in Tunisia. I first outline the experiences of intersecting violence to understand what displaced survivors were resilient to, and then describe faith pathways to resilience, sometimes with spiritual struggles and unmet religious needs. I delineate ways in which personal prayers and cooperating with God enabled all but one survivor to cope with exploitation and perilous journeys toward imagined refuge. I offer insights for practitioners working with forced migrants on the move and highlight the importance of spiritual support for displaced survivors who are religious. I discuss the findings and offer implications for future research and practice. Full article
Article
Method for Detecting Far-Right Extremist Communities on Social Media
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050200 - 02 May 2022
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Far-right extremist communities actively promote their ideological preferences on social media. This provides researchers with opportunities to study these communities online. However, to explore these opportunities one requires a way to identify the far-right extremists’ communities in an automated way. Having analyzed the [...] Read more.
Far-right extremist communities actively promote their ideological preferences on social media. This provides researchers with opportunities to study these communities online. However, to explore these opportunities one requires a way to identify the far-right extremists’ communities in an automated way. Having analyzed the subject area of far-right extremist communities, we identified three groups of factors that influence the effectiveness of the research work. These are a group of theoretical, methodological, and instrumental factors. We developed and implemented a unique algorithm of calendar-correlation analysis (CCA) to search for specific online communities. We based CCA on a hybrid calendar correlation approach identifying potential far-right communities by characteristic changes in group activity around key dates of events that are historically crucial to those communities. The developed software module includes several functions designed to automatically search, process, and analyze social media data. In the current paper we present a process diagram showing CCA’s mechanism of operation and its relationship to elements of automated search software. Furthermore, we outline the limiting factors of the developed algorithm. The algorithm was tested on data from the Russian social network VKontakte. Two experimental data sets were formed: 259 far-right communities and the 49 most popular (not far-right) communities. In both cases, we calculated the type II error for two mutually exclusive hypotheses—far-right affiliation and no affiliation. Accordingly, for the first sample, β = 0.81. For the second sample, β = 0.02. The presented CCA algorithm was more effective at identifying far-right communities belonging to the alt-right and Nazi ideologies compared to the neo-pagan or manosphere communities. We expect that the CCA algorithm can be effectively used to identify other movements within far-right extremist communities when an appropriate foundation of expert knowledge is provided to the algorithm. Full article
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Article
Prostitution and Deservingness in Times of Pandemic: State (Non) Protection of Sex Workers in Spain
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050199 - 01 May 2022
Viewed by 935
Abstract
During the COVID-19 health crisis, the Spanish Government launched a series of urgent measures to protect the population from its economic effects. At first, it seemed that sex workers would have access to this protection, given that, technically, their access to the star [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 health crisis, the Spanish Government launched a series of urgent measures to protect the population from its economic effects. At first, it seemed that sex workers would have access to this protection, given that, technically, their access to the star measure, the IMV (anagram in Spanish for Ingreso Mínimo Vital) (minimum living income), was explicitly expressed. However, in the end, this group was excluded as the final text specified that only those deemed to be victims of gender violence, sexual exploitation, or trafficking could access said measure. We propose to study the usefulness of the concept of deservingness of social benefits to explain this lack of protection in a framework that takes into account political power contexts, the empirical observations of sex workers on their level of access to the IMV, and an exploration of its association with the theoretical construct of deservingness. Through a revision of secondary sources, interviews with key informants, and applying discourse analysis, we found these connections and the evident exclusion of sex workers from the social benefit. Likewise, we found that social stigma and moral and ideological judgments are behind this undeservingness and confirm a process of “NGOization” of care for this group that implies the depoliticization and professionalization of civil society entities such as NGOs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Face of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Social Policy)
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Article
Relationships of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Times of Pandemic: An Inclusive Study
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050198 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 901
Abstract
(1) Background: Since 2012, our Inclusive Research Team has developed several studies on various topics that interest the co-researchers with intellectual disabilities. In 2021, throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the co-researchers decided to investigate the impact of the pandemic on the relationships of people [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Since 2012, our Inclusive Research Team has developed several studies on various topics that interest the co-researchers with intellectual disabilities. In 2021, throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the co-researchers decided to investigate the impact of the pandemic on the relationships of people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this article is to disseminate how this inclusive study was developed and to explain its results; (2) Methods: Co-researchers and academic researchers met six times to make different decisions: decide on the research topic; discuss the topic; prepare an interview script for people with intellectual disabilities; analyse the data obtained; and decide how to disseminate the results of the research. The co-researchers interviewed 10 people with intellectual disabilities and participated as facilitators in 3 focus groups; (3) Results: During the pandemic, digital devices have enabled people with intellectual disabilities to maintain their social relationships. However, the lack of access or support in using them, as well as the restrictions imposed on people with intellectual disabilities living in institutions, have presented significant barriers to maintaining their social relationships; (4) Conclusions: This article shows the difficulties people with intellectual disabilities face in maintaining successful social relationships in times of pandemic, and how we undertook research in an inclusive, virtual manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?)
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