Next Issue
Volume 9, November
Previous Issue
Volume 9, September

Metals, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2019) – 111 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Iron undergoes a phase transformation from body-centered cubic structure to the metastable hexagonal close-packed phase under high pressure. However, the interplay of defects in bcc with the transformation process is still unclear. We investigated the role of twins, dislocations, and Cottrell atmospheres in changing the crystalline iron structure during this phase transformation by using Monte Carlo methods and atomistic simulations. Our results show that, under hydrostatic compression, the transformation process is accelerated for crystals containing twin boundaries. The presence of Cottrell atmospheres surrounding an edge dislocation in bcc iron retards the development of the hcp phase. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Fundamental Mechanisms for Irradiation-Hardening and Embrittlement: A Review
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101132 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
It has long been recognized that exposure to irradiation environments could dramatically degrade the mechanical properties of nuclear structural materials, i.e., irradiation-hardening and embrittlement. With the development of numerical simulation capability and advanced experimental equipment, the mysterious veil covering the fundamental mechanisms of [...] Read more.
It has long been recognized that exposure to irradiation environments could dramatically degrade the mechanical properties of nuclear structural materials, i.e., irradiation-hardening and embrittlement. With the development of numerical simulation capability and advanced experimental equipment, the mysterious veil covering the fundamental mechanisms of irradiation-hardening and embrittlement has been gradually unveiled in recent years. This review intends to offer an overview of the fundamental mechanisms in this field at moderate irradiation conditions. After a general introduction of the phenomena of irradiation-hardening and embrittlement, the formation of irradiation-induced defects is discussed, covering the influence of both irradiation conditions and material properties. Then, the dislocation-defect interaction is addressed, which summarizes the interaction process and strength for various defect types and testing conditions. Moreover, the evolution mechanisms of defects and dislocations are focused on, involving the annihilation of irradiation defects, formation of defect-free channels, and generation of microvoids and cracks. Finally, this review closes with the current comprehension of irradiation-hardening and embrittlement, and aims to help design next-generation irradiation-resistant materials. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Heterothermic Kinetic Model of Hydrogen Absorption in Metals with Subsurface Transport
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101131 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 890 | Correction
Abstract
A versatile numerical model for hydrogen absorption into metals was developed. Our model addresses the kinetics of surface adsorption, subsurface transport (which plays an important role for metals with active surfaces), and bulk diffusion processes. This model can allow researchers to perform simulations [...] Read more.
A versatile numerical model for hydrogen absorption into metals was developed. Our model addresses the kinetics of surface adsorption, subsurface transport (which plays an important role for metals with active surfaces), and bulk diffusion processes. This model can allow researchers to perform simulations for various conditions, such as different material species, dimensions, structures, and operating conditions. Furthermore, our calculation scheme reflects the relationship between the temperature changes in metals caused by the heat of adsorption and absorption and the temperature-dependent kinetic parameters for simulation precision purposes. We demonstrated the numerical fitting of the experimental data for various Pd temperatures and sizes, with a single set of kinetic parameters, to determine the unknown kinetic constants. Using the developed model and determined kinetic constants, the transitions of the rate-determining steps on the conditions of metal-hydrogen systems are systematically analyzed. Conventionally, the temperature change of metals during hydrogen adsorption and absorption has not been a favorable phenomenon because it can cause errors when numerically estimating the hydrogen absorption rates. However, by our calculation scheme, the experimental data obtained under temperature changing conditions can be positively used for parameter fitting to efficiently and accurately determine the kinetic constants of the absorption process, even from a small number of experimental runs. In addition, we defined an effectiveness factor as the ratio between the actual absorption rate and the virtually calculated non-bulk-diffusion-controlled rate, to evaluate the quantitative influence of each individual transport process on the overall absorption process. Our model and calculation scheme may be a useful tool for designing high-performance hydrogen storage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals in Hydrogen Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
On the Development Concept for a New 718-Type Superalloy with Improved Temperature Capability
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101130 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 648
Abstract
The superalloy 718 stands out for its excellent manufacturability and strength at ambient temperature. However, its application temperature is limited to about 650 °C due to the instability of the γ’’ precipitates. Here, we provide an in-depth account of an alloy development concept, [...] Read more.
The superalloy 718 stands out for its excellent manufacturability and strength at ambient temperature. However, its application temperature is limited to about 650 °C due to the instability of the γ’’ precipitates. Here, we provide an in-depth account of an alloy development concept, allowing for the design of superalloys with 718-type properties, yet with a significantly improved microstructural stability. The article begins with a detailed discussion on how the microstructural and chemical composition must be altered to achieve this objective. Then, model alloys were used to explore and validate the outlined strategy. Finally, it is shown how these considerations ultimately led to a new 718-type superalloy with far more improved microstructural stability— namely, VDM Alloy 780. The introduction of a large amount of Co as a substitute for Fe (and partially Ni) is the most important element of our alloy development concept in terms of chemical composition. The most important microstructural feature is the introduction of low solvus temperature, high misfit γ´-strengthening, replacing γ´´-hardening. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Aluminum Alloy Sheet-Forming Limit Curve Prediction Based on Original Measured Stress–Strain Data and Its Application in Stretch-Forming Process
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101129 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
A new method, by directly utilizing original measured data (OMD) of the stress–strain relation in the Marciniak–Kuczynski (M–K) model, was proposed to predict the forming limit curve (FLC) of an aluminum alloy sheet. In the groove zone of the M–K model, by establishing [...] Read more.
A new method, by directly utilizing original measured data (OMD) of the stress–strain relation in the Marciniak–Kuczynski (M–K) model, was proposed to predict the forming limit curve (FLC) of an aluminum alloy sheet. In the groove zone of the M–K model, by establishing the relations of the equivalent strain increment, the ratio of shear stress to the first principle stress and the ratio of the second principle stress to the first principle stress, the iterative formula was established and solved. The equations of theoretical forming limits were derived in detail by using the OMD of the stress–strain relation. The stretching specimens of aluminum alloy 6016-T4 were tested and the true stress–strain curve of the material was obtained. Based on the numerical simulations of punch-stretch tests, the optimized specimens’ shape and test scheme were determined, and the tests for FLC were carried out. The FLC predicted by the proposed method was more consistent with the experimental results of FLC by comparing the theoretical FLCs based on OMD of the stress–strain relation and of that based on traditional power function. In addition, the influences of anisotropic parameter and groove angle on FLCs were analyzed. Finally, the FLC calculated by the proposed method was applied to analyze sheet formability in the stretch-forming process, and the predicted results of FLC were verified by numerical simulations and experiments. The fracture tendency of the formed parts can be visualized in the forming limit diagram (FLD), which has certain guiding significance for fracture judgment in the sheet-forming process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigation on the Precipitates of IN718 Alloy Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101128 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
The microstructure and precipitates of INCONEL 718 alloy (IN718) fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) are investigated. The matrix is comprised of the elongated γ grains along Z direction, tilting a few degrees. The microstructure mainly consists of a cellular–columnar structure with fine [...] Read more.
The microstructure and precipitates of INCONEL 718 alloy (IN718) fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) are investigated. The matrix is comprised of the elongated γ grains along Z direction, tilting a few degrees. The microstructure mainly consists of a cellular–columnar structure with fine first dendrite arm space of 1–1.5 µm originated from the rapid solidification rate locally. The precipitates of the SLMed IN718 are confirmed to be a significant amount of Laves in the form of irregular bulk distribution, small amount of carbonitride and spherical Al2O3 particles in nanoscale. Some of the carbonitrides grow separately and some of the carbonitrides enwrap the Al2O3 fully or partly, forming the shell structure of the Al2O3–carbonitride. The reheating effect from the following layers to the previous layers have not reached the solid-state transformation temperature of the γ′ and γ″. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Deformation Behavior, Microstructural Mechanism, and Process Optimization of PM/Wrought Dual Superalloys for Manufacturing the Dual-Property Turbine Disc
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101127 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
With the rapid development of modern aviation industry, dual-property turbine disc with fine comprehensive performance plays an important role in raising the thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero-engine. For manufacturing dual-property turbine disc, the powder metallurgy superalloy (PM) with excellent creep resistance was chosen [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of modern aviation industry, dual-property turbine disc with fine comprehensive performance plays an important role in raising the thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero-engine. For manufacturing dual-property turbine disc, the powder metallurgy superalloy (PM) with excellent creep resistance was chosen as rim material, and the wrought superalloy with fine equiaxed grains was chosen as bore material. Electron beam welding was carried out on the PM/wrought dual superalloys. Hot compression tests were conducted on the PM/Wrought dual superalloys at temperatures of 1020–1140 °C and strain rates of 0.001–1.0 s−1. Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution have been investigated to study the deformation and recrystallization mechanism during hot deformation process. The results showed that PM/Wrought dual superalloy presents the similar flow behavior to single alloys and flow stress decreases significantly with the increase of deformation temperature or the decrease of strain rate. The apparent activation energy of deformation at the strain of 0.2 was determined as being 780.07 kJ·mol−1. The constitutive equation was constructed for modeling the hot deformation of PM/Wrought dual superalloy. Meanwhile, the processing map approach was further adopted to optimize the manufacturing process for the dual-property turbine disc. Additionally, a new instability criterion was proposed: the “cliff” and “valley” in the power dissipation map are determined as sufficient conditions for flow instability. The optimum processing parameter for manufacturing the PM/Wrought dual-property turbine disc can be obtained to enhance the mechanical properties, based on the analysis of processing map technology and microstructural mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behaviours of Alloys under Thermo-Mechanical Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of 2024 Al Alloy Insert on the Grain Refinement of a 2024 Al Alloy Prepared via Insert Mold Casting
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101126 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 578
Abstract
In this study, an insert mold casting was fabricated by inserting 2024 Al extruded rods into a 2024 Al melt. The molds were kept at a 2024 Al melt for different times. The 2024 Al extruded rods were used to refine the 2024 [...] Read more.
In this study, an insert mold casting was fabricated by inserting 2024 Al extruded rods into a 2024 Al melt. The molds were kept at a 2024 Al melt for different times. The 2024 Al extruded rods were used to refine the 2024 Al alloy grains because the advantage of this method is that it is contamination free compared with other grain refiners. Moreover, we investigated the macro and microstructure of the ingots. Further, we analyzed the refinement mechanism of the 2024 Al rod on the 2024 Al alloy. Our result showed that when the immersion time of the 2024 Al insert was 0 s, a metallurgical bonding was partly formed between the 2024 Al insert and the 2024 Al alloy mold cast. When the immersion time of the 2024 Al insert increased to 5 s, the 2024 solid insert was dissolved in the liquid; the coarse dendritic grains were replaced by fine equiaxed grains. The refinement mechanism for the insertion of a 2024 Al rod on the 2024 Al alloy was to melt the 2024 Al insert and have it decrease the degree of the liquid superheat, which thus increased the cooling rate and provided a large number of small particles that acted as the nucleus of heterogeneous nucleation. However, these particles were melted gradually in the high-temperature liquid after an increase of immersion time. Thus, the refinement effect of 2024 Al insert on the solidified structure was weakened. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hot Deformation Process Analysis and Modelling of X153CrMoV12 Steel
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101125 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
Analysis of the high temperature plastic behavior of high-strength steel X153CrMoV12 was developed in the temperature range of 800–1200 °C and the deformation rate in the range of 0.001–10 s−1 to the maximum value of the true strain 0.9%. Microstructural changes were [...] Read more.
Analysis of the high temperature plastic behavior of high-strength steel X153CrMoV12 was developed in the temperature range of 800–1200 °C and the deformation rate in the range of 0.001–10 s−1 to the maximum value of the true strain 0.9%. Microstructural changes were observed using light optical microscopy (LOM) as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of hot deformation temperature on true stress, peak stress and true strain was evaluated from the respective flow curves. Based on these results, steel transformation was discussed from the dynamic recovery and recrystallization point of view. Furthermore, a present model, taking into account the Zener–Hollomon parameter, was developed to predict the true stress and strain over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. Using constitutive equations, material parameters and activation energy were derived, which can be subsequently applied to other models related to hot deformation behavior of selected tool steels. The experimental data were compassed to the ones obtained by the predictive model with the correlation coefficient R = 0.98267. These results demonstrate an appropriate applicability of the model for experimental materials in hot deformation applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Selective Chlorination and Carbothermic Reduction of High-Iron Manganese Ore for the Recovery of Manganese Chloride and Metallic Iron
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101124 - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Metallurgical processing of low-grade manganese ore with high iron content is gaining increasing attention due to the gradual depletion of high-grade Mn ores, amid the difficulties in its efficient extraction for both Mn and Fe values in an environmentally-friendly manner. Attempting to tackle [...] Read more.
Metallurgical processing of low-grade manganese ore with high iron content is gaining increasing attention due to the gradual depletion of high-grade Mn ores, amid the difficulties in its efficient extraction for both Mn and Fe values in an environmentally-friendly manner. Attempting to tackle the difficulties, this paper describes an innovative process for selectively chlorinating and reducing the high-Fe manganese ore in a simultaneous manner, aiming to produce water-soluble MnCl2 and metallic Fe. After pre-mixing with carbonaceous reductant, CaCl2 and MgCl2 as the chlorinating agent, the Mn ore was heated at 1000 °C. As much as 89.4% Mn can be chlorinated in its water-soluble form, with dissolution of only 3.0% Fe. The presence of CaCl2 during carbothermic reduction resulted in significant promotion in both the Fe reduction rate and formation of large metallic Fe particles due to the segregation effect, facilitating subsequent separation. Selective Mn chlorination by MgCl2 took place with or without the involvement of SiO2, forming MgSiO4 or MgO, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Environmentally Friendly and Controllable Pyrolysis Method to Synthesize Ni-Modified Graphene Nanosheets as Reinforcement of Lead-Free Solder
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101123 - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 659
Abstract
A tactic for the synthesis of Ni-modified graphene nanosheets (Ni-GNSs) as a high-performance reinforcement of a lead-free solder is proposed and achieved via an environmentally friendly and controllable pyrolysis method. The segmented pyrolysis processes of an Ni(CH3COO)2∙4H2[email protected] [...] Read more.
A tactic for the synthesis of Ni-modified graphene nanosheets (Ni-GNSs) as a high-performance reinforcement of a lead-free solder is proposed and achieved via an environmentally friendly and controllable pyrolysis method. The segmented pyrolysis processes of an Ni(CH3COO)2∙4H2[email protected] hybrid are discussed. The morphology, microstructure, phase transition, and adsorption strength of nanoparticles on the surface of GNSs with various theoretical Ni loadings are characterized. The adsorption mechanism of a single Ni atom on the surface of perfect graphene and defective graphene was studied based on density functional theory. The corresponding underlying formation mechanisms of Ni-GNSs are analyzed. The results show that the grain size, distribution and phase composition of the nanoparticles on GNSs could be controlled by changing the theoretical Ni loading level. The morphology and dispersity of Ni nanoparticles on GNSs did not significantly change after long-time or high-power ultrasonic treatment, suggesting that the adsorption strength between Ni nanoparticles and GNSs was relatively large and belonged to chemical adsorption based on first-principle calculation. Ni atoms tend to adsorb in the center of the carbon six-membered ring. The obtained Ni-GNSs nanohybrid exhibited a small size, fewer defects, and higher crystallinity and adsorption strength when the theoretical Ni loading was 17 mol %. The results have potential applications in the design of the reinforced phase of composites. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Manganese on the Structure-Properties Relationship of Cold Rolled AHSS Treated by a Quenching and Partitioning Process
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101122 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
The present work focuses on the investigation of both microstructure and resulting mechanical properties of different lean medium Mn Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steels with 0.2 wt.% C, 1.5 wt.% Si, and 3–4 wt.% Mn. By means of dilatometry, a significant influence of [...] Read more.
The present work focuses on the investigation of both microstructure and resulting mechanical properties of different lean medium Mn Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steels with 0.2 wt.% C, 1.5 wt.% Si, and 3–4 wt.% Mn. By means of dilatometry, a significant influence of the Mn-content on their transformation behavior was observed. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy (LOM, SEM) was used to characterize the microstructure consisting of tempered martensite (α’’), retained austenite (RA), partially bainitic ferrite (αB), and final martensite (α’final) formed during final cooling to room temperature (RT). Using the saturation magnetization measurements (SMM), a beneficial impact of the increasing Mn-content on the volume fraction of RA could be found. This remarkably determined the mechanical properties of the investigated steels, since the larger amount of RA with its lower chemical stabilization against the strain-induced martensite transformation (SIMT) highly influenced their overall stress-strain behavior. With increasing Mn-content the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) rose without considerable deterioration in total elongation (TE), leading to an enhanced combination of strength and ductility with UTS × TE exceeding 22,500 MPa%. However, for the steel grades containing an elevated Mn-content, a narrower process window was observed due to the tendency to form α’final. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties of In-Situ Synthesis of Ti-Ti3Al Metal Composite Prepared by Selective Laser Melting
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101121 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Titanium composite strengthened by Ti3Al precipitations is considered to be one of the excellent materials that is widely used in engineering. In this work, we prepared a kind of Ti-Ti3Al metallic composite by in-situ synthesis technology during the SLM [...] Read more.
Titanium composite strengthened by Ti3Al precipitations is considered to be one of the excellent materials that is widely used in engineering. In this work, we prepared a kind of Ti-Ti3Al metallic composite by in-situ synthesis technology during the SLM (selective laser melting) process, and analyzed its microstructure, wear resistance, microhardness, and compression properties. The results showed that the Ti-Ti3Al composite, prepared by in-situ synthesis technology based on SLM, had more homogeneous Ti3Al-enhanced phase dispersion strengthening structure. The grain size of the workpiece was about 1 μm, and that of the Ti3Al particle was about 200 nm. Granular Ti3Al was precipitated after the aluminum-containing workpiece formed, with a relatively uniform distribution. Regarding the mechanical properties, the hardness (539 HV) and the wear resistance were significantly improved when compared with the Cp-Ti workpiece. The compressive strength of the workpiece increased from 886.32 MPa to 1568 MPa, and the tensile strength of the workpiece increased from 531 MPa to 567 MPa after adding aluminum. In the future, the combination of in-situ synthesis technology and SLM technology can be used to flexibly adjust the properties of Ti-based materials. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Viscoelasticity of Quartz and Kaolin Slurries in Seawater: Importance of Magnesium Precipitates
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101120 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
In this study, the viscoelastic properties of quartz and kaolin suspensions in seawater were analysed considering two distinct conditions: pH 8 and 10.7. Creep and oscillatory sweep tests provided the rheological parameters. An Anton Paar MCR 102 rheometer (ANAMIN Group, Santiago, Chile) was [...] Read more.
In this study, the viscoelastic properties of quartz and kaolin suspensions in seawater were analysed considering two distinct conditions: pH 8 and 10.7. Creep and oscillatory sweep tests provided the rheological parameters. An Anton Paar MCR 102 rheometer (ANAMIN Group, Santiago, Chile) was used with a vane-in-cup configuration, and the data were processed with RheoCompassTM Light software (ANAMIN Group, Santiago, Chile). The outcomes were associated with the formation of solid species principally composed of magnesium precipitates. The magnesium in solution reduced in the presence of quartz (68 wt %), from 1380 to 1280 mg/L. Since the difference was not large regarding the solid-free seawater, the disposition of solid complexes at pH 10.7 was expected to be similar. The jump in pH caused both yield stress and viscoelastic moduli to drop, suggesting that the solid precipitates diminished the strength of the particle networks that made up the suspension. For the kaolin slurries (37 wt %), the yield stress raised when the pH increased, but unlike quartz, there was significant adsorption of magnesium cations. In fact, the concentration of magnesium in solution fell from 1380 to 658 mg/L. Dynamic oscillatory assays revealed structural changes in both pulps; in particular, the phase angle was greater at pH 8 than at pH 10.7, which indicates that at more alkaline conditions, the suspension exhibits a more solid-like character. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study on Phase Transformation in Hot Stamping Process of USIBOR® 1500 High-Strength Steel
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101119 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
Based on the Kirkaldy-Venugopalan model, a theoretical model for the phase transformation of USIBOR® 1500 high strength steel was established, and a graph of the phase transformation kinetics of ferrite, pearlite, and bainite were plotted using the software MATLAB. Meanwhile, with the [...] Read more.
Based on the Kirkaldy-Venugopalan model, a theoretical model for the phase transformation of USIBOR® 1500 high strength steel was established, and a graph of the phase transformation kinetics of ferrite, pearlite, and bainite were plotted using the software MATLAB. Meanwhile, with the use of the software DYNAFORM, the thermal stamping process of an automobile collision avoidance beam was simulated. The phase transformation law of USIBOR® 1500 high-strength steel during hot stamping was studied through a simulation of the phase transformation during the pressure holding quenching process. In combination with the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve, the cooling rate of quenching must be greater than 27 °C/s to ensure maximum martensite content in the final parts, and the final martensite content increases as the initial temperature of the sheet rises. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multiple Influences of Molybdenum on the Precipitation Process in a Martensitic PH Stainless Steel
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101118 - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Molybdenum has been found to influence the complex precipitation process in a martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel during aging at 475 °C in several different ways. Three steels with different Mo content (0, 1.2 and 2.3 at.%) were investigated. Studies of the microstructure [...] Read more.
Molybdenum has been found to influence the complex precipitation process in a martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel during aging at 475 °C in several different ways. Three steels with different Mo content (0, 1.2 and 2.3 at.%) were investigated. Studies of the microstructure were performed with atom probe tomography and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that, at the initial stage of aging, a faster nucleation of Cu-rich clusters takes place with increasing Mo content. The Cu-clusters act as precipitation sites for other solute elements and promote the nucleation of Ni-rich phases. During further aging, a higher Mo content in the material instead slows down the growth and coarsening of the Ni-rich phases, because Mo segregates to the interface between precipitate and matrix. Additionally, Mo promotes decomposition of the matrix into α and α′ regions. After longer aging times (>40 h) quasicrystalline Mo-rich R′ phase forms (to a greater extent in the material having the highest Mo content). The observations serve to understand the hardness evolution during aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Atom Probe Tomography in Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigation on the Strain Distribution in Tube High-Pressure Shearing
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101117 - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 662
Abstract
The Finite-element method (FEM) and experiments were used to investigate the geometric factors and material parameter on the strain distribution during tube high-pressure shearing (t-HPS). The results show that t-HPS could be realized successfully either by pressurizing on both ends [...] Read more.
The Finite-element method (FEM) and experiments were used to investigate the geometric factors and material parameter on the strain distribution during tube high-pressure shearing (t-HPS). The results show that t-HPS could be realized successfully either by pressurizing on both ends of the tube, or by pressurizing using the wedge effect; and in both cases, the “dead metal zone” could be found at both ends of the tube. The grain size distribution from the experiment confirmed this strain distribution feature. In the case of t-HPS pressurized using the wedge effect, the half cone angle has little effect on the strain distribution. Decreasing the strain-hardening exponent leads to increased deformation inhomogeneity in both the ideal t-HPS described by theoretical equations and the close to practical t-HPS described by FEM. This feature of t-HPS stands out from other SPD processes like HPT, and makes practical t-HPS behavior more predictable using the analytical formation than any other SPD processes, and places it an advantageous position in understanding the basics of deformation physics through the coupling between practical experiments and theoretical approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ultrafine-Grained Metals Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Uniform Eddy Current Probe with a Double-Excitation Coil for Flaw Detection on Aluminium Plates
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101116 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
In this present study, a new uniform eddy current (UEC) probe with a double-excitation coil and pancake orientation is proposed. It is confirmed that the probe generates a strong magnetic field induction that increases the intensity of uniform eddy currents; moreover, it is [...] Read more.
In this present study, a new uniform eddy current (UEC) probe with a double-excitation coil and pancake orientation is proposed. It is confirmed that the probe generates a strong magnetic field induction that increases the intensity of uniform eddy currents; moreover, it is found to be more efficient in power consumption for excitation using a finite element simulation. Experiments are performed to detect different flaw lengths and depths on an aluminium plate. The flaw signal detected by the probe indicates a high signal-to-noise ratio and increases as a function of flaw depth. The quantitative evaluation of flaws with the proposed UEC probe is achieved based on experimental results. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Improvement of the Fatigue Life of Bearings by Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification Technology
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101114 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
In this study, the effects of ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technology on the fatigue life of needle roller bearings were investigated. The fatigue life of the untreated and UNSM-treated needle roller bearings was evaluated using a roller fatigue tester at various contact [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technology on the fatigue life of needle roller bearings were investigated. The fatigue life of the untreated and UNSM-treated needle roller bearings was evaluated using a roller fatigue tester at various contact stress levels, under oil lubrication conditions. It was found that the fatigue life of the UNSM-treated needle roller bearing was extended by approximately 34.3% in comparison with the untreated one. The results of the surface roughness and surface hardness of the needle roller bearings before and after UNSM technology were compared and discussed in order to understand the role of UNSM technology in improving fatigue life. It was found that the application of UNSM technology to the needle roller bearings can improve their fatigue life by reducing the friction coefficient and increasing the wear resistance, which may be attributed to the reduction in surface roughness from 0.50 µm to 0.15 µm and also the increase in surface hardness from 58 HRC to 62 HRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Modification Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Bending and Torsion Fatigue-Testing Machine Developed for Multiaxial Non-Proportional Loading
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101115 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
A new fatigue-testing machine was developed to perform high-cycle multiaxial fatigue tests at 50 Hz, in order to reduce testing time. The developed machine can combine bending and torsion loading and perform fatigue tests at a high frequency, under proportional and non-proportional loading [...] Read more.
A new fatigue-testing machine was developed to perform high-cycle multiaxial fatigue tests at 50 Hz, in order to reduce testing time. The developed machine can combine bending and torsion loading and perform fatigue tests at a high frequency, under proportional and non-proportional loading conditions, where the principal stress direction changes during a cycle. The proportional loading is cyclic bending loading, and the non-proportional loading is cyclic, combining bending and reversed torsion loading. In this study, the effectiveness of the testing machine was verified by conducting tests under these loading conditions, using specimens of type 490A hot-rolled steel and type 304 stainless steel. The fatigue life linked to bending loading obtained using the new testing machine was slightly extended compared with that obtained using the conventional fatigue-testing machine. The fatigue life derived as a result of a combination of bending and torsion was comparable to that obtained using the conventional fatigue-testing machine, although a fatigue limit reduction of 100 MPa was observed compared to the former study. The feasibility of tests using the developed multiaxial fatigue-testing machine was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiaxial Fatigue: Testing and Modelling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Varestraint Testing of Selective Laser Additive Manufactured Alloy 718—Influence of Grain Orientation
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101113 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
The effect of grain orientation on hot cracking susceptibility of selective laser additive manufactured Alloy 718 was investigated by Varestraint testing. Electron backscattered diffraction showed that cracks in heat affected zone (HAZ) of the welded samples occurred in high angle grain boundaries. The [...] Read more.
The effect of grain orientation on hot cracking susceptibility of selective laser additive manufactured Alloy 718 was investigated by Varestraint testing. Electron backscattered diffraction showed that cracks in heat affected zone (HAZ) of the welded samples occurred in high angle grain boundaries. The extent of HAZ cracking was smaller in samples tested parallel to the elongated grain orientation and larger in samples transverse to the elongated grain orientation. However, for solidification cracking in the weld metal, no significant difference with respect to grain orientation in the base metal was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Superalloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Mn from Black Copper Using Iron Oxides from Tailings and Fe2+ as Reducing Agents in Acid Medium
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101112 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 626
Abstract
Exotic type deposits include several species of minerals, such as atacamite, chrysocolla, copper pitch, and copper wad. Among these, copper pitch and copper wad have considerable concentrations of manganese. However, their non-crystalline and amorphous structure makes it challenging to recover the elements of [...] Read more.
Exotic type deposits include several species of minerals, such as atacamite, chrysocolla, copper pitch, and copper wad. Among these, copper pitch and copper wad have considerable concentrations of manganese. However, their non-crystalline and amorphous structure makes it challenging to recover the elements of interest (like Cu or Mn) by conventional hydrometallurgical methods. For this reason, black copper ores are generally not incorporated into the extraction circuits or left unprocessed, whether in stock, leach pads, or waste. Therefore, to dilute MnO2, the use of reducing agents is essential. In the present research, agitated leaching was performed to dissolve Mn of black copper in an acidic medium, comparing the use of ferrous ions and tailings as reducing agents. Two samples of black copper were studied, of high and low grade of Mn, respectively, the latter with a high content of clays. The effect on the reducing agent/black copper ratio and the concentration of sulfuric acid in the system were evaluated. Better results in removing Mn were achieved using the highest-grade black copper sample when working with ferrous ions at a ratio of Fe2+/black copper of 2/1 and 1 mol/L of sulfuric acid. Besides, the low-grade sample induced a significant consumption of H2SO4 due to the high presence of gangue and clays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic-Assisted Laser Metal Deposition of the Al 4047Alloy
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101111 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
Ultrasonic-assisted laser metal deposition (UALMD) technology was used to fabricate Al 4047 parts. The effect of the powder feeding laser power, remelting laser power and ultrasonic power on the relative density of the parts was investigated. The relative density, microstructure and mechanical properties [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic-assisted laser metal deposition (UALMD) technology was used to fabricate Al 4047 parts. The effect of the powder feeding laser power, remelting laser power and ultrasonic power on the relative density of the parts was investigated. The relative density, microstructure and mechanical properties of the specimens obtained by the optimized process parameters were compared with the corresponding properties of the cast alloys. The results showed that dense alloys with a maximum density of 99.1% were prepared using ultrasonic vibration and by remelting the previously deposited layer with the optimized processing parameters, and its density was almost equivalent to that of the cast parts. The microstructure of the samples using optimal laser parameters presented columnar Al dendrites and equiaxed Si particles at the boundary of each deposited layer, while the supersaturated Al solid solution was transformed into equiaxed crystal surrounded by fine fibrous Si phases at the center of the layer. Moreover, the size of the primary Al and the Si particles in the samples produced by UALMD was remarkably refined compared to that of the primary Al and Si particles in the cast structure, resulting in grain refining strengthening. The observed variation in the microstructure had an obvious impact on the tensile properties. The mechanical behavior of the deposit obtained by UALMD revealed superior tensile strength, yield strength and tensile ductility values of 227 ± 3 MPa, 107 ± 4 MPa and 12.2 ± 1.4%, which were approximately 51%, 38% and 56% higher than those of the cast materials, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Behaviour and Crack Initiation in CoCrFeNiMn High-Entropy Alloy Processed by Powder Metallurgy
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101110 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Single-phase equiatomic five-element high entropy alloy CoCrFeMnNi was prepared by powder metallurgy. Two materials with ultra-fine-grained microstructure were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of ball-milled powder at two sintering times (5 and 10 min), assigned as HEA 5 and HEA 10, respectively. [...] Read more.
Single-phase equiatomic five-element high entropy alloy CoCrFeMnNi was prepared by powder metallurgy. Two materials with ultra-fine-grained microstructure were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of ball-milled powder at two sintering times (5 and 10 min), assigned as HEA 5 and HEA 10, respectively. Basic microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated. The median grain size of the microstructures was determined to be 0.4 and 0.6 μm for HEA 5 and HEA 10, respectively. The differences in the microstructure led to a significant change in strength and deformation characteristics evaluated at room temperature. The effect of cyclic loading was monitored by three-point bending fatigue test. The results show that even relatively small change in the microstructure causes a significant effect on fatigue life. The fatigue endurance limit was measured to be 1100 MPa and 1000 MPa for HEA 5 and HEA 10, respectively. The detailed fractographic analysis revealed that abnormally large grains, localised in the microstructure on the tensile loaded surface, were a typical fatigue initiation site. The formation of (nano) twins together with dislocation slips caused the crack nucleation because of the cyclic loading. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Damage Evolution Due to Extremely Low-Cycle Fatigue for Inconel 718 Alloy
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101109 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
This paper evaluates the damage evolution process under extremely low-cycle fatigue (ELCF). The study explores the damage behavior under different stress states. The influence of the multiaxial state of stress on the metal’s life is determined. Two different stress states were examined: (a) [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the damage evolution process under extremely low-cycle fatigue (ELCF). The study explores the damage behavior under different stress states. The influence of the multiaxial state of stress on the metal’s life is determined. Two different stress states were examined: (a) axisymmetric and (b) plane-strain. The study is based on the modified Mohr–Coulomb (MMC) ductile fracture criterion that was extended to cover the ELCF regime in a previous research study. Four distinctive geometries are designed to study the effect of different stress states on ELCF life and damage evolution. The damage model is calibrated for life prediction to agree with the ELCF experimental results. The investigation of the damage evolution behavior is dependent on equivalent plastic strain, stress triaxiality, Lode angle, and cyclic loading effect. The damage evolution is extracted from Abaqus finite element simulations and plotted versus the equivalent plastic strain. The damage accumulation shows nonlinear evolution behavior under cyclic loading conditions. SEM images were taken to further study the microscopic failure mechanisms of ELCF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue Design and Defects in Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
High Temperature Mechanical Properties and Wear Performance of B4C/Al7075 Metal Matrix Composites
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101108 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
In this study, high volume fraction B4C reinforced Al matrix composites were fabricated with a liquid pressing process. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscopy shows a uniform distribution of the B4C reinforcement in the [...] Read more.
In this study, high volume fraction B4C reinforced Al matrix composites were fabricated with a liquid pressing process. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscopy shows a uniform distribution of the B4C reinforcement in the matrix, without any defects such as pore and unwanted reaction products. The compressive strength and wear properties of the Al7075 matrix and the composite were compared at room temperature, 100, 200, and 300 °C, respectively. The B4C reinforced composite showed a very high ultimate compression strength (UCS) over 1.4 GPa at room temperature. The UCS gradually decreased as the temperature was increased, and the UCS of the composite at 300 °C was about one third of the UCS of the composite at room temperature. The fractography of the compressive test specimen revealed that the fracture mechanism of the composites was the brittle fracture mode at room temperature during the compression test. However, at the elevated temperature, AMCs had a mixed mode of a brittle and ductile fracture mechanism under the compressive load. The composite produced by a liquid pressing process also showed superior wear resistance compared with the Al matrix. The result of the wear test indicates that the wear loss of the Al matrix at 300 °C was two times higher than that of the AMCs, which is attributed to the formation of a mechanically mixed layer (MML) in the composites at the high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clad Metals: Fabrication, Properties and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Formation of Diffusion Layer on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy during Longtime Friction with Al
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101107 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Elements’ diffusion between Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Al in the process of sliding was investigated from 400 °C to 600 °C. The results showed that the atoms were diffused at the Ti-6Al-4V/Al interface. When sliding at 400 °C and 500 °C, no intermetallic compound [...] Read more.
Elements’ diffusion between Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Al in the process of sliding was investigated from 400 °C to 600 °C. The results showed that the atoms were diffused at the Ti-6Al-4V/Al interface. When sliding at 400 °C and 500 °C, no intermetallic compound was detected on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. When sliding at 600 °C, intermetallic TiAl3 was formed and grew on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The diffusion thickness of Al atoms on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased with increasing time and temperature. The diffusion kinetic equation of Al atoms on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was successfully established. The diffusion activation energy of Al atoms in the sliding process was calculated to be 28.22 kJ·mol−1 and the dynamic index n was 0.5. The diffusion growth of Al atoms was controlled by normal parabolic law with time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Study of Metals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
External Connection versus Internal Connection in Dental Implantology. A Mechanical in vitro Study
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101106 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 761
Abstract
(1) Background: In today's dentistry, implantology has become a therapeutic resource of choice in certain clinical situations. The design of implants has evolved in several aspects since their inception. Dental implants were initially designed with an external hex connection, although due to force [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In today's dentistry, implantology has become a therapeutic resource of choice in certain clinical situations. The design of implants has evolved in several aspects since their inception. Dental implants were initially designed with an external hex connection, although due to force transmission and security in the adjustment of the prosthesis, later implants featured an internal hex connection. This study aims to analyse the mechanical properties of two types of implants (an internal connection and an external connection) from the same manufacturer and their different prosthetic components (union screw between implant and prosthetic abutment, and the abutment itself) when subjected to different types of load. (2) Materials and methods: Intraosseous dental implants of similar shape, design and size, although different in type of connection (external vs. internal), were studied. The specifications of the UNI EN ISO 14801 test standard were used, with all determinations being carried out three times. Finally, the dimensional characterisation of the samples analysed after the dynamic load study was carried out, and the values of both study groups were compared by means of the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test to find statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). (3) Results: For the static characterisation test, we found between 610.9 N and 986.1 N for the external connection and between 1263.6 N and 1324 N for the internal connection (p = 0.011). All of the dynamic load tests were positive and there was no failure in any of the components studied. (4) Conclusions: After the analysis of the samples studied in vitro, satisfactory results were obtained, demonstrating that both connections can support considerable mechanical loads according to international standards (UNI EN ISO 14801). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Shortcomings of International Standard ISO 9223 for the Classification, Determination, and Estimation of Atmosphere Corrosivities in Subtropical Archipelagic Conditions—The Case of the Canary Islands (Spain)
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101105 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
The classification, assessment, and estimation of the atmospheric corrosivity are fixed by the ISO 9223 standard. Its recent second edition introduced a new corrosivity category for extreme environments CX, and defined mathematical models that contain dose–response functions for normative corrosivity estimations. It is [...] Read more.
The classification, assessment, and estimation of the atmospheric corrosivity are fixed by the ISO 9223 standard. Its recent second edition introduced a new corrosivity category for extreme environments CX, and defined mathematical models that contain dose–response functions for normative corrosivity estimations. It is shown here that application of the ISO 9223 standard to archipelagic subtropical areas exhibits major shortcomings. Firstly, the corrosion rates of zinc and copper exceed the range employed to define the CX category. Secondly, normative corrosivity estimation would require the mathematical models to be redefined introducing the time of wetness and a new set of operation constants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Protection of Metals) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Determination of Directional Residual Stresses by the Contour Method
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101104 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
This study evaluated residual stresses in heat-treated specimens made of 316L stainless steel using FE analysis and compared them with stresses determined by the contour method. Contour method is usually used just for evaluation of residual stresses that are normal to the cut [...] Read more.
This study evaluated residual stresses in heat-treated specimens made of 316L stainless steel using FE analysis and compared them with stresses determined by the contour method. Contour method is usually used just for evaluation of residual stresses that are normal to the cut plan. In the current study this approach is extended and both normal and tangential stresses are determined. The specimens were cut using wire electrical discharge machine and the contours of the cut were measured using a coordinate measuring machine. The prior treatment of the specimens was simulated using the finite-element method. An appropriate boundary condition and temperature-dependent material model were employed. The finite-element model was validated against neutron-diffraction measurement data. The results showed a good agreement in normal and tangential directions of stress. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Electric Pulse Current Rapid Aging Treatment on Microstructure and Properties of Al-7Si-0.55Mg Alloy
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101103 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 537
Abstract
A rapid aging treatment method of Al-7Si-0.55Mg alloy using electric pulse, namely electric pulse aging treatment, is explored in this study. The effect of electric pulse assisted aging on microstructure and properties of Al-7Si-0.55Mg alloy are investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), [...] Read more.
A rapid aging treatment method of Al-7Si-0.55Mg alloy using electric pulse, namely electric pulse aging treatment, is explored in this study. The effect of electric pulse assisted aging on microstructure and properties of Al-7Si-0.55Mg alloy are investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile tests and hardness tests. The results show that the microstructure of the Al-7Si-0.55Mg alloy is effectively refined, and the morphology of eutectic Si changes from long and thin strip to a spherical shape or short rod. The elongation of the Al-7Si-0.55Mg alloy is significantly improved after electric pulse assisted aging, albeit it did slightly compromise the tensile strength. It is important to reduce the aging time by 3 h, saving energy. According to classical nucleation theory, the formula of the phase nucleation rate promoted by an electric pulse was determined. The application of an electric pulse can accelerate the nucleation of phase transformation by decreasing the thermodynamic energy barrier, which increases the nucleation rate and significantly improves the properties of the alloy. It provides an experimental and theoretical basis for the Al-7Si-0.55Mg alloy to obtain good mechanical properties and industrial applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop