Special Issue "Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Corby G. Anderson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Kroll Institute for Extractive Metallurgy, Mining Engineering Department & George S. Ansell Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
Interests: extractive metallurgy; mineral processing; waste minimization; recycling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Hao Cui
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Kroll Institute for Extractive Metallurgy, Mining Engineering Department & George S. Ansell Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
Interests: extractive metallurgy; mineral processing; waste minimization and recycling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Please consider submitting some of your excellent work in a Special Issue of Metals devoted to aspects of Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy. This also includes Characterization along with Recycling and Waste Minimization. Possible topics include Mineralogy, Geometallurgy, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Comminution, Classification, Physical Separations, Liquid Solid Separations, Leaching, Solvent Extraction, Ion Exchange, Activated Carbon, Precipitation, Reduction, Process Economics and Process Control. Suggested application areas are in Gold, Silver, PGM’s, Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Nickel, and Titanium. Critical Metals articles on topics such as Lithium, Antimony Tellurium, Gallium, Germanium, Cobalt, Graphite, Indium, and the Rare Earths are also welcomed. Again, both primary and recycled aspects will be considered. Thank you.

Prof. Dr. Corby G. Anderson
Dr. Hao Cui
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Characterization
  • Economics
  • Comminution
  • Classification
  • Separations
  • Recycling
  • Leaching
  • Concentration
  • Precipitation
  • Reduction
  • Waste minimization

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Kinetics of Chalcopyrite Leaching by Hydrogen Peroxide in Sulfuric Acid
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111173 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
In ores, chalcopyrite is usually associated with other sulfide minerals, such as sphalerite, galena, and pyrite, in a dispersed form, with complex mineralogical structures. Concentrates obtained by flotation of such ores are unsuitable for pyrometallurgical processing owing to their poor quality and low [...] Read more.
In ores, chalcopyrite is usually associated with other sulfide minerals, such as sphalerite, galena, and pyrite, in a dispersed form, with complex mineralogical structures. Concentrates obtained by flotation of such ores are unsuitable for pyrometallurgical processing owing to their poor quality and low metal recovery. This paper presents the leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate from the location “Rudnik, Serbia”. The samples from the flotation plant were treated with hydrogen peroxide in sulfuric acid. The influences of temperature, particle size, stirring speed, as well as the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid were followed and discussed. Hence, the main objective was to optimize the relevant conditions and to determine the reaction kinetics. It was remarked that the increase in temperature, hydrogen peroxide content, and sulfuric acid concentration, as well as the decrease in particle size and stirring speed, contribute to the dissolution of chalcopyrite. The dissolution kinetics follow a model controlled by diffusion, and the lixiviant diffusion controls the rate of reaction through the sulfur layer. Finally, the main characterization methods used to corroborate the obtained results were X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as qualitative and quantitative light microscopy of the chalcopyrite concentrate samples and the leach residue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Viscoelasticity of Quartz and Kaolin Slurries in Seawater: Importance of Magnesium Precipitates
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101120 - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
In this study, the viscoelastic properties of quartz and kaolin suspensions in seawater were analysed considering two distinct conditions: pH 8 and 10.7. Creep and oscillatory sweep tests provided the rheological parameters. An Anton Paar MCR 102 rheometer (ANAMIN Group, Santiago, Chile) was [...] Read more.
In this study, the viscoelastic properties of quartz and kaolin suspensions in seawater were analysed considering two distinct conditions: pH 8 and 10.7. Creep and oscillatory sweep tests provided the rheological parameters. An Anton Paar MCR 102 rheometer (ANAMIN Group, Santiago, Chile) was used with a vane-in-cup configuration, and the data were processed with RheoCompassTM Light software (ANAMIN Group, Santiago, Chile). The outcomes were associated with the formation of solid species principally composed of magnesium precipitates. The magnesium in solution reduced in the presence of quartz (68 wt %), from 1380 to 1280 mg/L. Since the difference was not large regarding the solid-free seawater, the disposition of solid complexes at pH 10.7 was expected to be similar. The jump in pH caused both yield stress and viscoelastic moduli to drop, suggesting that the solid precipitates diminished the strength of the particle networks that made up the suspension. For the kaolin slurries (37 wt %), the yield stress raised when the pH increased, but unlike quartz, there was significant adsorption of magnesium cations. In fact, the concentration of magnesium in solution fell from 1380 to 658 mg/L. Dynamic oscillatory assays revealed structural changes in both pulps; in particular, the phase angle was greater at pH 8 than at pH 10.7, which indicates that at more alkaline conditions, the suspension exhibits a more solid-like character. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Mn from Black Copper Using Iron Oxides from Tailings and Fe2+ as Reducing Agents in Acid Medium
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101112 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Exotic type deposits include several species of minerals, such as atacamite, chrysocolla, copper pitch, and copper wad. Among these, copper pitch and copper wad have considerable concentrations of manganese. However, their non-crystalline and amorphous structure makes it challenging to recover the elements of [...] Read more.
Exotic type deposits include several species of minerals, such as atacamite, chrysocolla, copper pitch, and copper wad. Among these, copper pitch and copper wad have considerable concentrations of manganese. However, their non-crystalline and amorphous structure makes it challenging to recover the elements of interest (like Cu or Mn) by conventional hydrometallurgical methods. For this reason, black copper ores are generally not incorporated into the extraction circuits or left unprocessed, whether in stock, leach pads, or waste. Therefore, to dilute MnO2, the use of reducing agents is essential. In the present research, agitated leaching was performed to dissolve Mn of black copper in an acidic medium, comparing the use of ferrous ions and tailings as reducing agents. Two samples of black copper were studied, of high and low grade of Mn, respectively, the latter with a high content of clays. The effect on the reducing agent/black copper ratio and the concentration of sulfuric acid in the system were evaluated. Better results in removing Mn were achieved using the highest-grade black copper sample when working with ferrous ions at a ratio of Fe2+/black copper of 2/1 and 1 mol/L of sulfuric acid. Besides, the low-grade sample induced a significant consumption of H2SO4 due to the high presence of gangue and clays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Leaching of Zinc and Alkalis from Iron Blast Furnace Sludge
Metals 2019, 9(9), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9091015 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
The sludge from a wet-off gas cleaning system of the iron blast furnace (BF) contains significant amounts of iron; however, they cannot be recycled due to their high content of zinc and alkalis. These compounds are detrimental to the optimal performance of iron [...] Read more.
The sludge from a wet-off gas cleaning system of the iron blast furnace (BF) contains significant amounts of iron; however, they cannot be recycled due to their high content of zinc and alkalis. These compounds are detrimental to the optimal performance of iron and steelmaking furnaces. In this work, a comparative laboratory study to reduce zinc and alkali contained in the blast furnace sludge (BFS) is presented. The effect of leaching parameters such as oxidant (i.e., ferric ion, oxygen or ozone), aqueous solution media (i.e., 0.2 M NH4Cl, 0.2 M HCl and 0.1 M H2SO4) and temperature (i.e., 27 and 80 °C) on Zn and alkalis (Na2O and K2O) removal were studied by applying an experimental design. The results obtained show that Zn and K2O removal of 85% and 75% were achieved under the following conditions: Ozone as an oxidant agent and 0.1 M H2SO4 as an aqueous medium, temperature had no significant effect. The results are supported by thermodynamic diagrams and the possible chemical reactions are mentioned. Although the results also indicate that leaching under the above conditions dissolves up to 9% of iron, this loss is much less than leaching without the oxidizing conditions generated by the ozone. The BFS obtained from this treatment could be recirculated to the iron or steelmaking processes to recover iron values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of the Swebrec Function to Model Particle Size Distribution in an Industrial-Scale Ni-Co Ore Grinding Circuit
Metals 2019, 9(8), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080882 - 10 Aug 2019
Abstract
Mathematical models of particle size distribution (PSD) are necessary in the modelling and simulation of comminution circuits. In order to evaluate the application of the Swebrec PSD model (SWEF) in the grinding circuit at the Punta Gorda Ni-Co plant, a sampling campaign was [...] Read more.
Mathematical models of particle size distribution (PSD) are necessary in the modelling and simulation of comminution circuits. In order to evaluate the application of the Swebrec PSD model (SWEF) in the grinding circuit at the Punta Gorda Ni-Co plant, a sampling campaign was carried out with variations in the operating parameters. Subsequently, the fitting of the data to the Gates-Gaudin-Schumann (GGS), Rosin-Rammler (RRS) and SWEF PSD functions was evaluated under statistical criteria. The fitting of the evaluated distribution models showed that these functions are characterized as being sufficiently accurate, as the estimation error does not exceed 3.0% in any of the cases. In the particular case of the Swebrec function, reproducibility for all the products is high. Furthermore, its estimation error does not exceed 2.7% in any of the cases, with a correlation coefficient of the ratio between experimental and simulated data greater than 0.99. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Copper Dissolution from Black Copper Ore under Oxidizing and Reducing Conditions
Metals 2019, 9(7), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070799 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Black copper oxides are amorphous materials of copper-bearing phases of manganese. They are complex mineral compounds with difficult to recognize mineralogy and have slow dissolution kinetics in conventional hydrometallurgical processes. This study evaluates the effects of various leaching media on copper dissolution from [...] Read more.
Black copper oxides are amorphous materials of copper-bearing phases of manganese. They are complex mineral compounds with difficult to recognize mineralogy and have slow dissolution kinetics in conventional hydrometallurgical processes. This study evaluates the effects of various leaching media on copper dissolution from black copper minerals. Leach of a pure black copper sample from Lomas Bayas Mine and another from a regional mine were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Qemscan and mechanically prepared for acid leaching under standard, oxidizing and reducing conditions through the addition of oxygen, iron sulfate or sulfur dioxide, respectively. Standard and high potential leaching (770 mV (SHE)) results in a copper dissolution rate of 70% and manganese dissolution rate of 2%. The addition of potential reducing agents (FeSO4 or SO2) decreases the redox potential to 696 and 431 mV, respectively, and favors the dissolution of manganese, thus increasing the overall copper extraction rate. The addition of SO2 results in the lowest redox potential and the highest copper extraction rates of 86.2% and 75.5% for the Lomas Bayas and regional samples, respectively, which represent an increase of 15% over the copper extract rates under standard and oxidizing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Leaching of Pure Chalcocite in a Chloride Media Using Sea Water and Waste Water
Metals 2019, 9(7), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070780 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chalcocite is the most important and abundant secondary copper ore in the world with a rapid dissolution of copper in an acid-chloride environment. In this investigation, the methodology of surface optimization will be applied to evaluate the effect of three independent variables (time, [...] Read more.
Chalcocite is the most important and abundant secondary copper ore in the world with a rapid dissolution of copper in an acid-chloride environment. In this investigation, the methodology of surface optimization will be applied to evaluate the effect of three independent variables (time, concentration of sulfuric acid and chloride concentration) in the leaching of pure chalcocite to extract the copper with the objective of obtaining a quadratic model that allows us to predict the extraction of copper. The kinetics of copper dissolution in regard to the function of temperature is also analyzed. An ANOVA indicates that the linear variables with the greatest influence are time and the chloride concentration. Also, the concentration of chloride-time exerts a significant synergic effect in the quadratic model. The ANOVA indicates that the quadratic model is representative and the R2 value of 0.92 is valid. The highest copper extraction (67.75%) was obtained at 48 h leaching under conditions of 2 mol/L H2SO4 and 100 g/L chloride. The XRD analysis shows the formation of a stable and non-polluting residue; such as elemental sulfur (S0). This residue was obtained in a leaching time of 4 h at room temperature under conditions of 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 and 50 g/L Cl. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Butyric Acid Leaching Behaviors of Zinc from Three Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Filter Cakes
Metals 2019, 9(4), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040417 - 07 Apr 2019
Abstract
The selective leaching of zinc from three different basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) filter cakes by butyric acid was investigated to compare the leaching behaviors of zinc and further to establish the correlation of the zinc leaching performances and the chemical compositions. The effects [...] Read more.
The selective leaching of zinc from three different basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) filter cakes by butyric acid was investigated to compare the leaching behaviors of zinc and further to establish the correlation of the zinc leaching performances and the chemical compositions. The effects of acid concentration and the acid to solid (L/S) stoichiometric ratio were studied, with different optimal leaching conditions obtained. BOS-1 showed the lowest leachability with only less than 10% of zinc removed by 0.5 M acid concentration and 90% of the L/S stoichiometric ratio in 10 h. The best zinc selectivity was achieved with BOS-2 at 51.2% of zinc leaching efficiency, with only 0.47% of iron loss under optimal conditions of 1.5 M acid concentration and a 70% stoichiometric ratio. BOS-3 showed the highest leaching of zinc but the optimal conditions depend on the priority consideration. Using 1.0 M acid and 90% stoichiometric ratio for 10 h, the leaching efficiency of zinc was 84.6% with 20% iron loss. The filter cakes and the leaching residues were characterized. The results indicate different zinc and iron leaching behaviors, which were probably related to the storage conditions, zinc containing phases and the leaching parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
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