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Minerals, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 93 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The application of a multi-methodical approach based on IR and Raman spectroscopy, electron [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Kesebolite-(Ce), CeCa2Mn(AsO4)[SiO3]3, a New REE-Bearing Arsenosilicate Mineral from the Kesebol Mine, Åmål, Västra Götaland, Sweden
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040385 - 24 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Kesebolite-(Ce), ideal formula CeCa2Mn(AsO4)[SiO3]3, is a new mineral (IMA No. 2019-097) recovered from mine dumps at the Kesebol Mn-(Fe-Cu) deposit in Västra Götaland, Sweden. It occurs with rhodonite, baryte, quartz, calcite, talc, andradite, rhodochrosite, K-feldspar, [...] Read more.
Kesebolite-(Ce), ideal formula CeCa2Mn(AsO4)[SiO3]3, is a new mineral (IMA No. 2019-097) recovered from mine dumps at the Kesebol Mn-(Fe-Cu) deposit in Västra Götaland, Sweden. It occurs with rhodonite, baryte, quartz, calcite, talc, andradite, rhodochrosite, K-feldspar, hematite, gasparite-(Ce), chernovite-(Y) and ferriakasakaite-(Ce). It forms mostly euhedral crystals, with lengthwise striation. The mineral is dark grayish-brown to brown, translucent, with light brown streak. It is optically biaxial (+), with weak pleochroism, and ncalc = 1.74. H = 5–6 and VHN100 = 825. Fair cleavage is observed on {100}. The calculated density is 3.998(5) g·cm−3. Kesebolite-(Ce) is monoclinic, P21/c, with unit-cell parameters from X-ray single-crystal diffraction data: a = 6.7382(3), b = 13.0368(6), c = 12.0958(6) Å, β = 98.578(2)°, and V = 1050.66(9) Å3, with Z = 4. Strongest Bragg peaks in the X-ray powder pattern are: [I(%), d(Å) (hkl)] 100, 3.114 (20-2); 92, 2.924 (140); 84, 3.138 (041); 72, 2.908 (014); 57, 3.228 (210); 48, 2.856 (042); 48, 3.002 (132). The unique crystal structure was solved and refined to R1 = 4.6%. It consists of 6-periodic single silicate chains along (001); these are interconnected to infinite (010) strings of alternating, corner-sharing MnO6 and AsO4 polyhedra, altogether forming a trellis-like framework parallel to (100). Full article
(This article belongs to the collection New Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Dehydration of δ-AlOOH in Earth’s Deep Lower Mantle
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040384 - 24 Apr 2020
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Abstract
δ-AlOOH has been shown to be stable at the pressure–temperature conditions of the lower mantle. However, its stability remains uncertain at the conditions expected for the lowermost mantle where temperature is expected to rise quickly with increasing depth. Our laser-heated diamond-anvil cell [...] Read more.
δ -AlOOH has been shown to be stable at the pressure–temperature conditions of the lower mantle. However, its stability remains uncertain at the conditions expected for the lowermost mantle where temperature is expected to rise quickly with increasing depth. Our laser-heated diamond-anvil cell experiments show that δ -AlOOH undergoes dehydration at ∼2000 K above 90 GPa. This dehydration temperature is lower than geotherm temperatures expected at the bottom ∼700 km of the mantle and suggests that δ -AlOOH in warm slabs would dehydrate in this region. Our experiments also show that the released H 2 O from dehydration of δ -AlOOH can react with metallic iron, forming iron oxide, iron hydroxide, and possibly iron hydride. Our observations suggest that H 2 O from the dehydration of subducting slabs, if it occurs, could alter the chemical composition of the surrounding mantle and core regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Metasomatic Evolution of Coesite-Bearing Diamondiferous Eclogite from the Udachnaya Kimberlite
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040383 - 24 Apr 2020
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Abstract
A coesite-bearing diamondiferous eclogite from the Udachnaya kimberlite (Daldyn field, Siberian craton) has been studied to trace its complex evolution recorded in rock-forming and minor mineral constituents. The eclogite sample is composed of rock-forming omphacite (60 vol%), garnet (35 vol%) and quartz/coesite (5 [...] Read more.
A coesite-bearing diamondiferous eclogite from the Udachnaya kimberlite (Daldyn field, Siberian craton) has been studied to trace its complex evolution recorded in rock-forming and minor mineral constituents. The eclogite sample is composed of rock-forming omphacite (60 vol%), garnet (35 vol%) and quartz/coesite (5 vol%) and contains intergranular euhedral zoned olivine crystals, up to 200 µm long, coexisting with phlogopite, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene (secondary), K-feldspar, plagioclase, spinel, sodalite and djerfisherite. Garnet grains are zoned, with a relatively homogeneous core and a more magnesian overgrowth rim. The rim zones further differ from the core in having higher Zr/Y (6 times that in the cores), ascribed to interaction with, or precipitation from, a kimberlite-related melt. Judging by pressure-temperature estimates (~1200 °C; 6.2 GPa), the xenolith originated at depths of ~180–200 km at the base of the continental lithosphere. The spatial coexistence of olivine, orthopyroxene and coesite/quartz with K-Na-Cl minerals in the xenolith indicates that eclogite reacted with a deep-seated kimberlite melt. However, Fe-rich olivine, orthopyroxene and low-pressure minerals (sodalite and djerfisherite) likely result from metasomatic reaction at shallower depths during transport of the eclogite by the erupting kimberlite melt. Our results demonstrate that a mixed eclogitic-peridotitic paragenesis, reported previously from inclusions in diamond, can form by interaction of eclogite and a kimberlite-related melt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Sample Shapes and Thickness on Distribution of Temperature inside the Mineral Ilmenite Due to Microwave Heating
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040382 - 23 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The study of interaction between microwave radiation and minerals is gaining increasing interest in the field of minerals and material processing. Further studies are, however, still required to deepen the understanding of such microwave heating mechanisms in order to develop innovative techniques for [...] Read more.
The study of interaction between microwave radiation and minerals is gaining increasing interest in the field of minerals and material processing. Further studies are, however, still required to deepen the understanding of such microwave heating mechanisms in order to develop innovative techniques for mineral treatment using microwave heating. In this paper, effects of sample shapes and thickness on the distribution of temperature inside the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) due to microwave heating were numerically studied using the finite element (FE) method. The analysis was carried out in such a way that the flux of microwave energy was converted into an equivalent amount of heat generation in the mineral through the Poynting theorem of conservation of energy for the electromagnetic field. In this study, as a first attempt, the cylinder and slab of ilmenite were modeled to be irradiated from top and bottom surfaces with the variation of cylinder and slab thicknesses. Temperature-dependent material properties of ilmenite were taken into account in the FE simulation. Corresponding boundary conditions were then applied accordingly to the cylinder and slab of ilmenite with comparable characteristic length. Numerical results showed that, in terms of temperature differences between locations having maximum and minimum temperatures, slab geometries tended to produce higher values in comparison to those of cylinder geometries with the thickness variation, while the profiles of temperature inside the ilmenite samples were similar for both geometries. For the same duration of microwave heating, the slab geometry, hence, induced greater non-uniformity of temperature inside the ilmenite. It was also observed that, for the ilmenite samples with thickness value greater than 1.5 cm, the hotspot locations were not in the center of the sample, but on the surface of sample. Moreover, from several thickness values considered in this study, the ilmenite sample with thickness value of 3 cm gave a good trade-off between the maximum temperature value attained and temperature differences inside the sample, for both geometries. Thus, the shape and thickness of ilmenite samples affect the effectiveness of microwave heating of ilmenite, in terms of maximum temperature attained, temperature differences, and uniformity of temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Processing of Alternative and Urban Ores)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Database of the Quantitative Cathodoluminescence of the Main Quarry Marbles Used in Antiquity
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040381 - 23 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Quantitative cathodoluminescence (CL) has rarely been applied for the archaeometric studies concerning marble provenance, despite its potential. This paper develops the method and provides a new database of the parameters obtained from the main marble quarries used in antiquity. With a total number [...] Read more.
Quantitative cathodoluminescence (CL) has rarely been applied for the archaeometric studies concerning marble provenance, despite its potential. This paper develops the method and provides a new database of the parameters obtained from the main marble quarries used in antiquity. With a total number of 473 marble samples from ten districts of the central and eastern Mediterranean, it is the first database on quantitative CL, with the additional advantage of being the same samples that have already characterized by other conventional techniques and that are available in the literature. Focused on the measurements of the intensity peaks at the UV and visible spectra, registered by a spectrometer coupled to a scanning electron microscope (CL-SEM), the representative values are plotted on different useful diagrams to be applied in the identification of marble provenance studies, as a complementary tool of other analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy in Archaeometry and Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Agglomeration-Flotation of Finely Ground Chalcopyrite and Quartz: Effects of Agitation Strength during Agglomeration Using Emulsified Oil on Chalcopyrite
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040380 - 23 Apr 2020
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Abstract
In flotation, the size of mineral particles is one of the most important parameters: when the size becomes fine, collision efficiency of the particles and air bubbles becomes low, causing low flotation recovery. To improve the collision efficiency and flotation kinetics, agglomeration using [...] Read more.
In flotation, the size of mineral particles is one of the most important parameters: when the size becomes fine, collision efficiency of the particles and air bubbles becomes low, causing low flotation recovery. To improve the collision efficiency and flotation kinetics, agglomeration using the emulsified oil of finely ground chalcopyrite (D50 = 3.5 μm) was carried out before flotation. In this study, the effects of agitation strength during agglomeration, kerosene dosage and potassium amyl xanthate (KAX) dosage on the flotation were investigated. Agglomeration using emulsified oil improved Cu recovery because the median diameter of agglomerate increased. With increasing agitation strength, KAX and kerosene dosages, Cu recovery was further increased. Agglomeration-flotation of a mixture containing chalcopyrite and quartz with 1:1 ratio (w/w, weight by weight) showed that Si recovery in froth was low and did not change with varying conditions (agitation strength, KAX and kerosene dosages); however, Cu recovery was significantly improved with increasing agitation strength, KAX and kerosene dosages, and thus the separation efficiency was improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Changes from Endogranitic Magmatic to Magmatic-Hydrothermal Mineralization: The Zaaiplaats Tin Granites, Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040379 - 23 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The stanniferous granites of the Zaaiplaats Tin Field are part of the A-Type Lebowa Granite Suite, within the greater Bushveld Igneous Complex of northeast South Africa. The tin field comprises three granites: (1) the Nebo, a leucocratic, equigranular biotite granite; (2) The brick-red [...] Read more.
The stanniferous granites of the Zaaiplaats Tin Field are part of the A-Type Lebowa Granite Suite, within the greater Bushveld Igneous Complex of northeast South Africa. The tin field comprises three granites: (1) the Nebo, a leucocratic, equigranular biotite granite; (2) The brick-red hypidiomorphic Bobbejaankop granite, which is extensively microclinized with chloritized biotite and characteristic synneusis-textured quartz; and (3) The variably altered roof facies of the Bobbejaankop granite known as the Lease microgranite. The Bobbejaankop and Lease granites were both extensively mined for cassiterite until 1989. The cassiterite is hosted in disseminations, miarolitic cavities, and within large hydrothermal, tourmalinized, and greisenized pipes and lenticular ore-bodies. An extensive petrological and whole-rock XRF and ICP-MS geochemical study, has provided new insight into the magmatic and magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization processes in these granites. Trace elements and Rayleigh Fractionation modelling suggest the sequential fractionation of the Nebo granite magma to be the origin of the Bobbejaankop granite. Incompatible elemental ratios, such as Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, record the influence of internally derived, F-rich, hydrothermal fluid accumulation within the roof of the Bobbejaankop granite. Thus, the Lease granite resulted from alteration of the partially crystallized Bobbejaankop granite, subsequent to fluid saturation, and the accumulation of a magmatic-hydrothermal, volatile-rich fluid in the granite cupola. The ratio of Nb/Ta, proved effective in distinguishing the magmatic and magmatic-hydrothermal transition within the Bobbejaankop granite. Elemental ratios reveal the differences between pre- and post-fluid saturation in the mineralizing regimes within the same pluton. Thus highlighting the effect that the location and degree of hydrothermal alteration have had on the distribution of endogranitic tin mineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granite-Related Mineralization Systems )
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Characterization of the Structure and Gel Property of Organo-Montmorillonite: Effect of Layer Charge Density of Montmorillonite and Carbon Chain Length of Alkyl Ammonium
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040378 - 22 Apr 2020
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Abstract
In this work, the effect of layer charge density of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MT) and carbon chain length of alkyl ammonium on the structure and gel property of organo-montmorillonite (organo-MT) was studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, contact [...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of layer charge density of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MT) and carbon chain length of alkyl ammonium on the structure and gel property of organo-montmorillonite (organo-MT) was studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, contact angle test, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and gel apparent viscosity determination experiment. The results of XRD show that Na-MT with lower layer charge density is easier to swell after intercalation of alkyl ammonium, and the basal spacing of organo-MT increases with the increase of carbon chain length. The results of FTIR show that the absorption bands at 2924 cm−1 and 2853 cm−1 shift towards low frequency region with the increase of carbon chain length, and the absorption bands at 515 cm−1 and 463 cm−1 move towards high frequency region when the layer charge density increases. The mass loss of organo-MT evidently increases with the increase of layer charge density of Na-MT or carbon chain length of alkyl ammonium. The contact angle test results are well in line with the TG data and reveal that alkyl ammonium with longer carbon chain can significantly improve the hydrophobicity of organo-MT. MD simulation indicates that, when the layer charge density is low, the distribution of alkyl ammonium gradually changes from parallel double layers to partially inclined distribution with the increase of carbon chain length, but when the layer charge density is high, the distribution of alkyl ammonium gradually changes from three layers into four layers. The test results of the apparent viscosity of the gel formed by organo-MT in xylene show that the apparent viscosity of organo-MT gel is negatively correlated with the layer charge density of Na-MT and positively correlated with the carbon chain length of alkyl ammonium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Nano-Scale Pore Structure and Its Multi-Fractal Characteristics of Tight Sandstone by N2 Adsorption/Desorption Analyses: A Case Study of Shihezi Formation from the Sulige Gas Filed, Ordos Basin, China
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040377 - 22 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Fractal dimension is a critical parameter to evaluate the heterogeneity of complex pore structure in tight sandstone gas and other low permeability reservoirs. To quantify the fractal dimension of tight sandstone at various pore size classes and evaluate their implications on mineral composition [...] Read more.
Fractal dimension is a critical parameter to evaluate the heterogeneity of complex pore structure in tight sandstone gas and other low permeability reservoirs. To quantify the fractal dimension of tight sandstone at various pore size classes and evaluate their implications on mineral composition and nano pore structure parameters, we conducted an integrated approach of N2 adsorption/desorption experiment (N2-GA), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) on Sulige tight sandstone reservoirs. By comparing the nine types of fractal dimensions calculated from N2 adsorption data, we put forward the concept of “concentrated” fractal dimensions and “scattered” fractal dimensions (DN2, DN3, DN5, DN7 and DN8) for the first time according to its concentration extent of distribute in different samples. Result shows that mineral composition has a significant influence of a different level on specific surface area (SSA), pore volume (PV), and fractal dimensions (DN), respectively, where the “scattered” fractal dimension is more sensitive to certain specific property of the reservoir, including mineral content and the specific surface area contribution rate (Sr) of type II mesopores (Mesopore-II: 10~50nm). In addition, three type of hysteresis loops were distinguished corresponding to different pore shape combination of N2-GA isotherm curve, which reveals that pore structure heterogeneity is mainly controlled by inkbottle-shaped pores and the volume contribution rate (Vr) of mesopores in this study area. These findings could contribute to a better understanding of the controlling effect of pore heterogeneity on natural gas storage and adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Shale Gas and Other Low Permeability Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Weathering of Tuffs: Compositional and Microstructural Changes in the Building Stones of the Medieval Castles of Hungary
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040376 - 21 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Volcanic tuffs have a historical tradition of usage in Northern Hungary as dimension stones for monumental construction, Ottoman architecture, common dwellings, etc., admirable at its best in the medieval castles of Eger and Sirok. This research explores tuff deterioration in the castle walls, [...] Read more.
Volcanic tuffs have a historical tradition of usage in Northern Hungary as dimension stones for monumental construction, Ottoman architecture, common dwellings, etc., admirable at its best in the medieval castles of Eger and Sirok. This research explores tuff deterioration in the castle walls, dealing with the mineralogical composition, microstructure, trace-element geochemistry, and microporosity of the surface weathering products and the near-surface stone substrate. The classic microscopic and mineralogical techniques–optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and XRD–were supported by ICP-MS and nitrogen adsorption analyses. The textures and mineral assemblages of the tuffs are partly diverse, and so are the weathering characteristics, although including common features such as secondary crystallization of gypsum, swelling clay minerals, and iron oxides-hydroxides; deposition of airborne pollutants, i.e., carbon particles and heavy metals; formation of crusts and patinas; decreased surface microporosity. Nonetheless, the entity of deterioration varies, in relation to air pollution–involving changing emissions from road and rail transport–and the specific tuff texture, porosity, and durability–affecting pollutant absorption. The studied stone monuments offer the possibility to examine materials with analogue composition and petrogenesis but utilized in different environmental contexts, which allow pointing out the environmental and lithological constraints and cause-effect relationships related to surface weathering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals and Other Phases in Constructional Geomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Pore Connectivity and Dewatering Mechanism of Tailings Bed in Raking Deep-Cone Thickener Process
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040375 - 21 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Paste and thickened tailings (PTT) technology can improve the utilization and management of tailings from processing plants. The pore size distribution (PSD) and microstructure evolution affected by the rake shear in thickening tailings beds are essential to produce a high-density tailings underflow. Continuous [...] Read more.
Paste and thickened tailings (PTT) technology can improve the utilization and management of tailings from processing plants. The pore size distribution (PSD) and microstructure evolution affected by the rake shear in thickening tailings beds are essential to produce a high-density tailings underflow. Continuous thickening and computed tomography (CT) scanning tests were conducted to study the PSD with and without shear. The pore morphology was studied to reveal the shearing-dewatering performance of the tailings bed. The results show that at a flocculant solution concentration of 0.01 wt % and a feed slurry concentration of 10 wt%, the underflow concentration with and without shear can reach 58.5 wt %and 55.8 wt %, respectively. The CT image reconstruction models demonstrated that the porosity of the sheared tailings bed increased with the bed height. When the bed height increased from 2.5 to 10 cm, the porosity increased from 35.1% to 41.9%, the pore fractal dimension increased from the range 1.8–1.95 to the range 2.1–2.15, and the pore quantity decreased by 21.39%. The average pore volume increased with increasing height by 13.93%, 16.57% and 12.07%. The pore structure became more complex with the bed height, and the connectivity between pores increased to form water-flow channels, which were beneficial to the drainage of sealed water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Re-Os Geochronology, Whole-Rock and Radiogenic Isotope Geochemistry of the Wulandele Porphyry Molybdenum Deposit in Inner Mongolia, China, and Their Geological Significance
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040374 - 21 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The Wulandele molybdenum deposit is a porphyry-type Mo deposit in the Dalaimiao area of northern Inner Mongolia, China. Molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a model age of 134.8 ± 1.9 Ma, with the fine-grained monzogranite most closely related to the mineralization. The lithogeochemical data [...] Read more.
The Wulandele molybdenum deposit is a porphyry-type Mo deposit in the Dalaimiao area of northern Inner Mongolia, China. Molybdenite Re-Os dating yields a model age of 134.8 ± 1.9 Ma, with the fine-grained monzogranite most closely related to the mineralization. The lithogeochemical data show that the monzogranite is weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline series, with reduced to slightly oxidized, highly fractionated I-type granite characteristics. The relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr (range from 0.705347 to 0.705771), weakly negative εNd(t) (range from −2.0 to −1.3), and crust-mantle mixing of Pb isotopes suggest that the monzogranite originated from the partial melting of mafic juvenile lower continental crust derived from the depleted mantle, with a minor component of ancient continental crust. Combined with the regional tectonic evolution, we argue that the partial melting, then injection, of the monzogranite melt was probably triggered by collapse or delamination of the thickened lithosphere, which was mainly in response to the post-orogenic extensional setting of the Mongol–Okhotsk belt; this is possibly coupled with a back-arc extension related to Paleo-Pacific plate subduction. The extensively fractional crystallization of the monzogranite melt is the crucial enrichment process, resulting in magmatic hydrothermal Mo mineralization in the Wulandele deposit, and the Cretaceous granitoids are generally favorable to form Mo mineralization in the Dalaimiao area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic–Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralizing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Zoned Laurite from the Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: “Hydrothermal” in Origin?
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040373 - 21 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Laurite, ideally (Ru,Os)S2, is a common accessory mineral in podiform and stratiform chromitites and, to a lesser extent, it also occurs in placer deposits and is associated with Ni-Cu magmatic sulfides. In this paper, we report on the occurrence of zoned [...] Read more.
Laurite, ideally (Ru,Os)S2, is a common accessory mineral in podiform and stratiform chromitites and, to a lesser extent, it also occurs in placer deposits and is associated with Ni-Cu magmatic sulfides. In this paper, we report on the occurrence of zoned laurite found in the Merensky Reef of the Bushveld layered intrusion, South Africa. The zoned laurite forms relatively large crystals of up to more than 100 µm, and occurs in contact between serpentine and sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and pentlandite, that contain small phases containing Pb and Cl. Some zoned crystals of laurite show a slight enrichment in Os in the rim, as typical of laurite that crystallized at magmatic stage, under decreasing temperature and increasing sulfur fugacity, in a thermal range of about 1300–1000 °C. However, most of the laurite from the Merensky Reef are characterized by an unusual zoning that involves local enrichment of As, Pt, Ir, and Fe. Comparison in terms of Ru-Os-Ir of the Merensky Reef zoned laurite with those found in the layered chromitites of the Bushveld and podiform chromitites reveals that they are enriched in Ir. The Merensky Reef zoned laurite also contain high amount of As (up to 9.72 wt%), Pt (up to 9.72 wt%) and Fe (up to 14.19 wt%). On the basis of its textural position, composition, and zoning, we can suggest that the zoned laurite of the Merensky Reef is “hydrothermal” in origin, having crystallized in the presence of a Cl- and As-rich hydrous solution, at temperatures much lower than those typical of the precipitation of magmatic laurite. Although, it remains to be seen whether the “hydrothermal” laurite precipitated directly from the hydrothermal fluid, or it represents the alteration product of a pre-existing laurite reacting with the hydrothermal solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genesis of Early–Middle Jurassic Intrusive Rocks in the Erguna Block (NE China) in Response to the Late-Stage Southward Subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk Oceanic Plate: Constraints from Geochemistry and Zircon U–Pb Geochronology and Lu–Hf Isotopes
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040372 - 20 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The subduction processes and geodynamic scenarios of the late-stage southward subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk oceanic slab since the Early Jurassic are subjects of great debate. This contribution presents new U–Pb zircon dating, trace element geochemistry, Ti-in zircon geothermometry, and Lu–Hf isotopes of zircon, [...] Read more.
The subduction processes and geodynamic scenarios of the late-stage southward subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk oceanic slab since the Early Jurassic are subjects of great debate. This contribution presents new U–Pb zircon dating, trace element geochemistry, Ti-in zircon geothermometry, and Lu–Hf isotopes of zircon, as well as bulk-rock geochemical data for Early–Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks in the Erguna Block, NE China. Approximately 181–198 Ma monzogranites and ca. 162–174 Ma quartz monzonites were identified in the block. The Early Jurassic monzogranites are high-K calc-alkaline I-type granites, which display moderately concave-upward rare earth element (REE) patterns with slightly negative Eu anomalies, and low zircon crystallization temperatures. The Middle Jurassic quartz monzonites have low Yb and Y concentrations, high Sr/Y ratios, and strong high field strength elements (HFSEs) depletions, that are in excellent agreement with adakitic rocks. They exhibit right-sloping REE patterns with negligible Eu anomalies, and a wide range of zircon crystallization temperatures. The intrusions yield εHf(t) values between −4.1 to +4.8 and juvenile two-stage model (TDM2) ages varying from 918–1488 Ma. The geochemical and isotopic signatures suggest that the monzogranites were likely derived by the partial melting of K-rich meta-basalts within the lower part of a juvenile crust that had medium-thickness (≤40 km), with the involvement of minor mantle materials. Whereas, the quartz monzonites were possibly produced by partial melting of a thickened continental lower crust (≥50 km). The Mongol–Okhotsk tectonic regime played a dominant role in accounting for their formation. An Andean-type continental arc setting was developed during the Early–Middle Jurassic, with gradual thickening of the continental crust. The significant crustal thickening may reach its ultimate stage at ca. 162–174 Ma, which marks the tectonic transition from compression to extension. The southward subduction beneath the Erguna Block was continuous and stable during the Early Jurassic. Rollback of the subducted slab occurred at ca. 174–177 Ma, followed by moderate magmatic activities represented by adakitic rocks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mineralogical and Chemical Characteristics of Slags from the Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Zinc and Lead
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040371 - 20 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The slags derived from the fire refining of lead bullion, differ distinctly in the mineral composition, which results from the fact that these slags are end products of a series of chemical reactions (of both reduction and oxidation). The most common phases included [...] Read more.
The slags derived from the fire refining of lead bullion, differ distinctly in the mineral composition, which results from the fact that these slags are end products of a series of chemical reactions (of both reduction and oxidation). The most common phases included in the refining slags are sulphates and hydrated sulphates (anglesite, gypsum, ktenasite and namuvite), oxides and hydroxides (wustite and goethite), nitrates (gerhardtite) and silicates (kirschsteinite and willemite). The other phases are sulphides and hydrated sulphides (sphalerite and tochilinite), metals (metallic Pb) and glass. Among the mineral components of these slags can be distinguished—primary mineral constituents, phase constituents formed in the ISP process and lead refining, secondary mineral constituents, formed in the landfill. The slags contain, in chemical terms, mainly FeO, CuO and SO3, PbO, in smaller contents SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO, TiO2, MnO, MgO, K2O, P2O5. The mineralogical and chemical composition indicate that slags may be a potential source of metals recovery and pyrometallurgical processing of these wastes seems to be highly rational. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Understanding of the Sulfidization Mechanism in Amine Flotation of Smithsonite: An XPS, AFM and UV–Vis DRS Study
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040370 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Sulfidization is required in the amine flotation of smithsonite; however, the sulfidization mechanism of smithsonite is still not fully understood. In this work, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) were used to characterize sulfidized [...] Read more.
Sulfidization is required in the amine flotation of smithsonite; however, the sulfidization mechanism of smithsonite is still not fully understood. In this work, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) were used to characterize sulfidized and unsulfidized smithsonite. The XPS and UV–vis DRS analyses showed that smithsonite sulfidization is a transformation of ZnCO3 to ZnS on the smithsonite surfaces. However, this transformation is localized, resulting in the coexistence of ZnCO3 and ZnS or in the formation of ZnS island structures on the sulfidized smithsonite surfaces. AFM height imaging showed that sulfidization can substantially change the surface morphology of smithsonite; in addition, AFM phase imaging demonstrated that sulfidization occurs locally on the smithsonite surfaces. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that smithsonite sulfidization is clearly a heterogeneous solid–liquid reaction in which the solid product attaches at the surfaces of unreacted smithsonite. Smithsonite sulfidization involves heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnS nuclei. Moreover, the ZnS might nucleate and grow preferentially in the regions with high reactivity, which might account for the formation of ZnS island structures. In addition, sphalerite-structured ZnS is more likely to be the sulfidization product of smithsonite under flotation-relevantconditions, as also demonstrated by the results of our UV–vis DRS analyses. The results of this study can provide deeper insights into the sulfidization mechanism of smithsonite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Water Quality and Soil Salinity in the Agricultural Coastal Plain (Ravenna, North Italy)
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040369 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 309
Abstract
To improve knowledge on salt leaching suitability on different soils, in Arenosols and Cambisols croplands in the coastal area of Ravenna (Italy), soil samples were collected in the non-irrigation winter period and irrigation summer period. Concurrently, waters of the canal network were also [...] Read more.
To improve knowledge on salt leaching suitability on different soils, in Arenosols and Cambisols croplands in the coastal area of Ravenna (Italy), soil samples were collected in the non-irrigation winter period and irrigation summer period. Concurrently, waters of the canal network were also investigated. Soil samples were analyzed for pH, carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), particle size distribution, electrical conductivity (EC), bulk density (BD) and water content at field capacity (FC). Water samples were investigated for pH, EC, biological and chemical oxygen demand, sodium adsorption ratio, phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfates and chlorides. All soils had low TOC concentrations and Arenosols showed the lowest clay content, BD and FC. Soils had similar EC values in winter, but in summer the lowest ones were observed in Arenosols, suggesting that irrigation mitigated salinization in Arenosols, while the high clay content, BD and FC prevented or limited the salt leaching in Cambisols. In summer, the increase of total nitrogen and biological oxygen demand, especially in drainage channels, might suggest the leaching of soluble nutrients and organic matter from soils due to the high irrigation water volumes. Finally, our findings stress the need to consider soil type and properties to contrast soil salinization without negative effects on soil C leaching caused by salt leaching practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elemental and Isotope Geochemistry of the Earth’s Critical Zone)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Mg(II) and Na(I) Doping on the Electronic Structure and Mechanical Properties of Kaolinite
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040368 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Because kaolinite has multiple defects, it is very important to study the effect of different doped cations on the electronic structure and mechanical properties of kaolinite (Al4Si4O18H8) from the microscopic point of view with the [...] Read more.
Because kaolinite has multiple defects, it is very important to study the effect of different doped cations on the electronic structure and mechanical properties of kaolinite (Al4Si4O18H8) from the microscopic point of view with the first-principle calculation method. The results exhibited that the doping of Mg(II) and Na(I) makes the ion bond and layer spacing of kaolinite crystal change, and the bond length of the chemical bond between the doped and O atom is positively related to the atomic radius of the doped cations. Compared with undoped kaolinite crystal, the band gap width of the Mg-doped and Na-doped kaolinite crystal was larger, but the typical insulator characteristics were still maintained. Compared with undoped kaolinite crystal, Mg-doped and Na-doped kaolinite crystal had more electron transfer to O, while the Mg–O bond and Na–O bond had more ionic bond properties and less covalent bond composition than the Al–O bond. Finally, the elastic properties of undoped, Mg-doped, and Na-doped kaolinite crystal were further analyzed by calculating the elastic constant matrix. The influence of doping Mg(II) and Na(I) on C11 and C22 was greater than that on C33, indicating that doping had a greater influence on the stiffness in the direction of the parallel crystal plane. The doping of Mg(II) and Na(I) weakened the rigidity of kaolinite crystal materials and improved the plasticity and ductility of the materials. The atom-scale information provided a basis for explaining the mechanical behavior of kaolinite and is expected to provide guidance for solving the deformation problems in soft rock roadways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Bubble Surface Properties on Bubble–Particle Collision Efficiency in Froth Flotation
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040367 - 19 Apr 2020
Viewed by 363
Abstract
In research on the particle–bubble collision process, due to the adsorption of surfactants and impurities (such as mineral particles, slime, etc.), most studies consider the bubble surface environment to be immobile. However, in the real situation of froth flotation, the nature of the [...] Read more.
In research on the particle–bubble collision process, due to the adsorption of surfactants and impurities (such as mineral particles, slime, etc.), most studies consider the bubble surface environment to be immobile. However, in the real situation of froth flotation, the nature of the bubble surface (degree of slip) is unknown. Mobile surface bubbles increase the critical thickness of the hydration film rupture between particles and bubbles, and enhance the collision between particles and bubbles. Sam (1996) showed that when the diameter of the bubble is large enough, a part of the surface of the bubble can be transformed into a mobile state. When the bubble rises in a surfactant solution, the surface pollutants are swept to the end of the bubble, so when the bubble reaches terminal velocity, the upper surface of the bubble is changed into a mobile surface. This paper analyzes the collision efficiency and fluid flow pattern of bubbles with mobile and immobile surfaces, and expounds the influence of surface properties on collision efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bubble Attachment and Mineral Flotation)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Improvements during Mineral Processing Using Material Fingerprints Derived from Machine Learning—A Conceptual Framework
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040366 - 18 Apr 2020
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Material attributes (e.g., chemical composition, mineralogy, texture) are identified as the causative source of variations in the behaviour of mineral processing. That makes them suitable to act as key characteristics to characterise and classify material. Therefore, vast quantities of collected data describing material [...] Read more.
Material attributes (e.g., chemical composition, mineralogy, texture) are identified as the causative source of variations in the behaviour of mineral processing. That makes them suitable to act as key characteristics to characterise and classify material. Therefore, vast quantities of collected data describing material attributes could help to forecast the behaviour of mineral processing. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that creates a data-driven link between ore and the processing behaviour through the creation of material “fingerprints”. A fingerprint is a machine learning-based classification of measured material attributes compared to the range of attributes found within the mine’s mineral reserves. The outcome of the classification acts as a label for a machine learning model and contains relevant information, which may identify the root cause of measured differences in processing behaviour. Therefore, this class label can forecast the associated behaviour of mineral processing. Furthermore, insight is given into the confidence of available data originating from different analytical techniques. Taken together, this enhances the understanding of how differences in geology impact metallurgical plant performance. Targeted measurements at low-confidence unit processes and for specific attributes would upgrade the confidence in fingerprints and capabilities to predict plant performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Advanced Machine Learning Methods in Mineral Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in Bedrock and Till, Applied in the Context of Mineral Potential in Sweden
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040365 - 18 Apr 2020
Viewed by 733
Abstract
The Rare Earth Element (REE) mineralizations are not so “rare” in Sweden. They normally occur associated and hosted within granitic crystalline bedrock, and in mineral deposits together with other base and trace metals. Major REE-bearing mineral deposit types are the apatite-iron oxide mineralizations [...] Read more.
The Rare Earth Element (REE) mineralizations are not so “rare” in Sweden. They normally occur associated and hosted within granitic crystalline bedrock, and in mineral deposits together with other base and trace metals. Major REE-bearing mineral deposit types are the apatite-iron oxide mineralizations in Norrbotten (e.g., Kiruna) and Bergslagen (e.g., Grängesberg) ore regions, the various skarn deposits in Bergslagen (e.g., Riddarhyttan-Norberg belt), hydrothermal deposits (e.g., Olserum, Bastnäs) and alkaline-carbonatite intrusions such as the Norra Kärr complex and Alnö. In this study, analytical data of samples collected from REE mineralizations during the EURARE project are compared with bedrock and till REE geochemistry, both sourced from databases available at the Geological Survey of Sweden. The positive correlation between REE composition in the three geochemical data groups allows better understanding of REE distribution in Sweden, their regional discrimination, and genetic classification. Data provides complementary information about correlation of LREE and HREE in till with REE content in bedrock and mineralization. Application of principal component analysis enables classification of REE mineralizations in relation to their host. These results are useful in the assessment of REE mineral potential in areas where REE mineralizations are poorly explored or even undiscovered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mineral Formation under the Influence of Mine Waters (The Kizel Coal Basin, Russia)
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040364 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 311
Abstract
The development of coal deposits is accompanied by negative environmental changes. In the territory of the Kizel coal basin (Perm Region, Russia), the problem of contamination of water sources by acid mine waters and runoff from rock dumps is particularly acute. Mine waters [...] Read more.
The development of coal deposits is accompanied by negative environmental changes. In the territory of the Kizel coal basin (Perm Region, Russia), the problem of contamination of water sources by acid mine waters and runoff from rock dumps is particularly acute. Mine waters are acidic (pH 2–3), with high mineralization (up to 25 g/L) and significant content of sulfate ions, iron, aluminum, manganese, toxic trace elements (As, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn). They are formed as a result of the interaction of underground waters from flooded mines of the Kizel basin with coal and rocks of dumps with high sulfur content (15%). Uncontrolled inflow of mine water into rivers (about 22 million m3 annually) leads to significant amounts of iron and aluminum hydroxide precipitation. These precipitations are in active interaction with river water, polluting the rivers tens of kilometers downstream and are entering the Kama reservoir. Studies of alluvial precipitation can be considered as a method of control and predictors of technogenic water pollution. The mineral composition of river sediments was studied with the application of different methods, including studies of sand-gravel and silty-clayey sediments. The sandy-gravel grains in the bottom load are mainly composed by natural minerals and are represented by a significant number of particles of coal dumps, slags and magnetic spherules. The silty-clayey material, mixed with natural minerals, contains a significant number of amorphous phases with a predominance of iron-rich substances, which may actively concentrate toxic elements. The presence of jarosite, goethite, basaluminite, lepidorocite and copiapite in silty-clayey sediments are indicators of the influence of mine waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollutants in Acid Mine Drainage)
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Open AccessArticle
Extra-Framework Content in Sodalite-Group Minerals: Complexity and New Aspects of Its Study Using Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040363 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Nine samples of carbonate-free sodalite-group minerals, including those with abnormally high contents of polysulfide groups, fluoride anion and carbon dioxide molecules as well as synthetic fluoraluminate sodalite-type compound Na8(Si7Al5O24)(AlF6)3–·5H2O, [...] Read more.
Nine samples of carbonate-free sodalite-group minerals, including those with abnormally high contents of polysulfide groups, fluoride anion and carbon dioxide molecules as well as synthetic fluoraluminate sodalite-type compound Na8(Si7Al5O24)(AlF6)3–·5H2O, have been studied by means of electron microprobe analyses, infrared and Raman spectroscopy; the CO2 content was determined using the selective sorption of gaseous ignition products. This article describes a semi-quantitative method for estimating the content of carbon dioxide molecules in these minerals, based on IR spectroscopy data. The data obtained demonstrate the existence of a sulfide sodalite-group mineral with the idealized formula Na7(Si6Al6O24)(S3)·H2O, which differs significantly from the formula Na6Ca2(Si6Al6O24)S2–2 accepted for lazurite. According to single-crystal X-ray structural analysis, in the F-rich sodalite-group mineral from the Eifel paleovolcanic region, Germany with the idealized formula Na7(Si6Al6O24)F·nH2O fluorine occurs as an isolated F anion, unlike synthetic F-rich sodalite-type compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibrational (Infrared and Raman) Spectroscopy of Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructural and Geochronological Analyses of Mesozoic Ductile Shear Zones in the Western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea: Implications for an Orogenic Cycle in the East Asian Continental Margin
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040362 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
In response to orogenic cycles, the ductile shear zone records a complex crustal deformation history. In this study, we conducted a microstructural analysis of two NW–SE trending ductile shear zones (Deokjeok Shear Zone (DSZ) and Soya Shear Zone (SSZ)) in the Late Triassic [...] Read more.
In response to orogenic cycles, the ductile shear zone records a complex crustal deformation history. In this study, we conducted a microstructural analysis of two NW–SE trending ductile shear zones (Deokjeok Shear Zone (DSZ) and Soya Shear Zone (SSZ)) in the Late Triassic post-collisional granites along the western Gyeonggi Massif in the Korean Peninsula. The DSZ, overlain by the Late Triassic to the Early Jurassic post-collisional basin fill (Deokjeok Formation), has asymmetric microstructures indicative of a top-down-to-the-northeast shear. Depending on the structural position, the SSZ, which structurally overlies the Deokjeok Formation, exhibits two contrasting styles of deformation. The lower portion of the SSZ preserves evidence of top-up-to-the-southwest shearing after top-down-to-the-northeast shearing; on the other hand, the upper portion only indicates a top-up movement. Given the primary deformation mechanisms of both quartz and feldspar, the deformation temperatures of DSZ and SSZ were estimated at ~300–350 °C and ~350–400 °C, respectively, indicative of the mid-crustal condition. New zircon U-Pb isotopic ages from mylonitic granite in the SSZ and volcanic rocks in the Deokjeok Formation, combined with previously published geochronological data, indicate that the post-collisional granites and volcano-sedimentary sequence were nearly contemporaneous (ca. 223–217 Ma) and juxtaposed because of the Late Triassic orogenic collapse and subsequent new orogenic event. In this study, we highlight the role of the extensional DSZ as a detachment propagated into the middle crust during the Late Triassic orogenic collapse. Our results report a deformational response to a transition from the collisional Songrim Orogeny to the subduction-related Daebo Orogeny in the western Gyeonggi Massif. This, in turn, provides essential insight into cyclic mountain building/collapse in the East Asian continental margin during the Mesozoic time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microtexture Characterization of Rocks and Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Native Seedling Colonization on Stockpiled Mine Soils Is Constrained by Site Conditions and Competition with Exotic Species
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040361 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Sites disturbed through mining practices can be challenging to restore with native vegetation, as the path of ecological succession is often unknown and hard to predict. We conducted an establishment study that explored restoration strategies to increase native vegetation on a newly formed [...] Read more.
Sites disturbed through mining practices can be challenging to restore with native vegetation, as the path of ecological succession is often unknown and hard to predict. We conducted an establishment study that explored restoration strategies to increase native vegetation on a newly formed stockpile of soil at New Gold’s New Afton Mine in British Columbia, Canada. Establishment of native species in semi-arid grasslands is often constrained by seed and seedling microsite limitations, so treatments were imposed to assist in reducing these limitations. We established a fully factorial design with a native seed treatment (seeded and unseeded) and four soil preparations: raking, hydroseed slurry, a combination of raking and hydroseed slurry, and no preparation. Raking assisted in increasing total seedling establishment, regardless of whether the site was seeded or not. Raking and seeding increased the number of native seedlings and resulted in the greatest species richness, suggesting that native seedling establishment is primarily seed-limited, but that microclimate is also important for the establishment of some native seeds. We found that exotic species were able to capitalize on the disturbance and outcompeted the native species, but reducing seed-limitations by sowing more native seeds and increasing available microclimates by raking or tilling may increase native species’ success at the establishment phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Abandoned Mines)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic and Experimental Study on Efficient Extraction of Valuable Metals from Polymetallic Nodules
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040360 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Polymetallic nodules are promising resources for the extraction of valuable metals such as copper, nickel, and cobalt, as well as manganese alloys. To achieve efficient extraction of useful metals from the emerging resource, high-temperature carbothermic reduction of nodules was investigated by optimizing the [...] Read more.
Polymetallic nodules are promising resources for the extraction of valuable metals such as copper, nickel, and cobalt, as well as manganese alloys. To achieve efficient extraction of useful metals from the emerging resource, high-temperature carbothermic reduction of nodules was investigated by optimizing the reductant addition, slag and alloy systems. Thermochemical software FactSage was used to predict the liquidus temperature of the slag system, which is not sensitive to FeO, CaO and Al2O3, but decreases significantly with decreasing MnO/SiO2 mass ratio. The experiments were designed to reduce the oxides of Cu, Co and Ni completely, and reduce FeOx partially depending on the amount of graphite addition while leaving the residual slag for further processing into ferromanganese and/or silicomanganese alloys. Co, Cu and Ni concentrations in the alloy decreased with increasing graphite addition. The optimal reduction condition was reached by adding 4 wt% graphite at the MnO/SiO2 mass ratio of 1.6 in slag. The most effective metal-slag separation was achieved at 1350 °C, which enables the smelting reduction to be carried out in various furnaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Processing of Alternative and Urban Ores)
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Open AccessArticle
Direct Acid Leaching of Sphalerite: An Approach Comparative and Kinetics Analysis
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040359 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
The present work reports the direct leaching of zinc from a sphalerite concentrate in acid media. Lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments were conducted in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure reactors, respectively. Leaching of zinc and precipitation of iron was achieved in the same stage using different [...] Read more.
The present work reports the direct leaching of zinc from a sphalerite concentrate in acid media. Lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments were conducted in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure reactors, respectively. Leaching of zinc and precipitation of iron was achieved in the same stage using different reagents like Fe3+, O2, O3, and Fe2+ (which is continuously oxidized in the leaching solution by H2O2 and O2). The highest percentage of zinc extraction (96%) was obtained in pilot-scale experiments using H2SO4, Fe2+, and O2. Experimental results were compared with those of other researchers to provide a better understanding of the factors influencing the dissolution of zinc. In the first instance, it was determined from analysis of variance that leaching time and the use of an oxidant agent (O2 or O3) were the most influential factors during the direct leaching of zinc from the sphalerite concentrate. Kinetic models were also evaluated to determine the rate-limiting step of the sphalerite leaching; it was concluded that the type of the sulfur layer formed in the residue (porous or non-porous) depends on the type of the oxidant used in the leaching media, which determines the dissolution kinetics of zinc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrometallurgical Processing of Base Metal Sulphides)
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Open AccessArticle
Recovery of Germanium from Sulphate Solutions Containing Indium and Tin Using Cementation with Zinc Powder
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040358 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Cementation of germanium from sulphate solution obtained after the leaching of GeIn dross using zinc dust was investigated. The composition of the examined solution was 5.15 Ge, 1.52 In, and 5.81 g/dm3 Zn. In order to resemble the solution before detinning, Sn [...] Read more.
Cementation of germanium from sulphate solution obtained after the leaching of GeIn dross using zinc dust was investigated. The composition of the examined solution was 5.15 Ge, 1.52 In, and 5.81 g/dm3 Zn. In order to resemble the solution before detinning, Sn concentration between 2–10 g/dm3 was also investigated. It was found that >99% of germanium may be precipitated from the solution. In order to achieve high selectivity, a detinned solution should be used because the precipitation yields of germanium and tin from the solution containing Sn were similar. For cementation with Zn powder at 75 °C for 2 h with a final pH of 2.0, over 99% of the germanium was removed from the solution, while the indium precipitation yield was 12%. The obtained cementate contained 50% Ge, mainly in elementary form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare Metals Extraction and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Fe-Al Phosphate Microcrystals in Pedogenic Goethite Pisoliths
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040357 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 356
Abstract
In sedimentary rocks, Fe-Al phosphate minerals occur in different rocks and depositional environments. Herein, we present microcrystals of wavellite, crandallite, and cacoxenite from pedogenic goethite pisoliths and nodules. Pisoliths and nodules are generally dominated by Fe oxides and oxihydroxides. Frequently, pisoliths and nodules [...] Read more.
In sedimentary rocks, Fe-Al phosphate minerals occur in different rocks and depositional environments. Herein, we present microcrystals of wavellite, crandallite, and cacoxenite from pedogenic goethite pisoliths and nodules. Pisoliths and nodules are generally dominated by Fe oxides and oxihydroxides. Frequently, pisoliths and nodules demonstrate high phosphatization and a substantial contribution of allogenic detritus. The aim of our study is to present these remarkable crystals found in goethites. We describe the geochemistry and mineralogy of the pisoliths and try to interpret the possible paragenesis of the minerals. Loose ferruginous pisoliths and nodules are separated from the red paleosol and analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) coupled with the energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) methods. The studied paleosols are weathered in a subtropical climate and the newly formed precipitation products, such as crandallite, wavellite, cacoxenite, and goethite, accumulate during the weathering of apatite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallography and Mineralogy of Phosphates)
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Heavy Minerals”
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040356 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 339
Abstract
This special volume, published 13 years after the monumental volume “Heavy Minerals in Use” edited by Maria Mange and David Wright, demonstrates that the use of heavy minerals as provenance tracers is alive and in full health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Minerals: Methods & Case Histories)
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