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Minerals, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 99 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Allanite is a common accessory mineral in the intermediate dykes intruding the granitoid pluton of Karkonosze (SE Poland) and shows prominent traces of hydrothermal mineral-fluid interaction. The fluids infiltrated the magmatic cores of allanite crystals, forming a worm-shaped interaction zone (upper image). The most significant chemical changes include enrichment in Th, alkalis, Y and HREE, as well as depletion in Ca, Mg and LREE (lower images). One of the main alteration products are REE-fluorocarbonates. The composition of the altered allanite, as well as secondary minerals, points to participation of alkaline, low-temperature, possibly oxidized, F-Cl-bearing fluids. View this paper
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Article
An Improved Evaluation Strategy for Ash Analysis Using Scanning Electron Microscope Automated Mineralogy
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050484 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Sewage slush ashes are materials composed of polyphase particles. Ashes are fine-grained with many amorphous components, and analytical techniques such as X-ray diffractometry cannot recover all the properties. For sewage sludge ash, treatment often focuses on phosphate recovery. Automated mineralogy techniques were applied [...] Read more.
Sewage slush ashes are materials composed of polyphase particles. Ashes are fine-grained with many amorphous components, and analytical techniques such as X-ray diffractometry cannot recover all the properties. For sewage sludge ash, treatment often focuses on phosphate recovery. Automated mineralogy techniques were applied in order to study phosphate associations and their behavior towards chemical processes. This work shows the distribution of phosphate content in sewage sludge ash and identifies the main recovered phosphate phases in acid leaching. Data interpretation was focused on the target material, phosphate. The approach documents spectra labelling with respect to one target component, phosphorus. This is a tool for assessing sewage sludge ashes towards their phosphate recovery potential and highlights issues processing needs to address. Full article
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Article
Modified Alkali Activated Zeolite Foams with Improved Textural and Mechanical Properties
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050483 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
Natural zeolites are crystalline hydrated alkali metal and alkaline earth metal aluminosilicates with unique ion-exchange and sorption properties. The exceptional structure of pores gives natural zeolites several application possibilities, especially for water treatment and construction. For a wider use of natural zeolites, such [...] Read more.
Natural zeolites are crystalline hydrated alkali metal and alkaline earth metal aluminosilicates with unique ion-exchange and sorption properties. The exceptional structure of pores gives natural zeolites several application possibilities, especially for water treatment and construction. For a wider use of natural zeolites, such as catalysis, properties—especially chemical, textural, and mechanical—need to be modified. In this study, the basic natural zeolite foam was synthesized by alkali activation of natural zeolite with an activator (KOH + Na2SiO3) and foamed by hydrogen peroxide solution. Other foams were prepared by a partial replacement of the natural zeolite with CaO, MgO, and metakaolin (MK) and alkali activated and foamed in the same manner as the basic natural zeolite foam. Other properties of the foams were modified by acid leaching. The aim of the study was to compare the basic alkali activated zeolite foam with the CaO, MgO, and MK modified zeolite foams and determine the effect of the CaO, MgO, and MK modification and the subsequent leaching of the alkali activated zeolite foams on the textural, mechanical, and chemical properties. Properties of alkali activated zeolite foams were determined by Hg porosimetry, N2 physisorption, NH3-TPD, XRF, XRD, and strength analyses. From the data, it is apparent that all modified samples have an increase of pore volume in the mesoporous region and the partial replacement by MgO or CaO significantly increased surface area up to 288.2 m2/g while increasing the strength several times. The obtained data showed an improvement in properties and extension of the potential applicability of modified zeolite foams in the chemical industry, especially for catalytic and sorption applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkali Activated Materials: Advances, Innovations, Future Trends)
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Article
Testing of New Collectors for Concentration of Fluorite by Flotation in Pneumatic (Modified Hallimond Tube) and Mechanical Cells
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050482 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
In this study, two new collectors for fluorite flotation DP-OMC-1033 (DP-I) and DP-OMC-1234 (DP-II) were tested and compared with oleic acid (OA), sodium oleate (SO) and potassium oleate (PO). According to fluorite grade and fluorite metallurgical recovery, the effect of each collector was [...] Read more.
In this study, two new collectors for fluorite flotation DP-OMC-1033 (DP-I) and DP-OMC-1234 (DP-II) were tested and compared with oleic acid (OA), sodium oleate (SO) and potassium oleate (PO). According to fluorite grade and fluorite metallurgical recovery, the effect of each collector was determined, both in mechanical and pneumatic cell flotation. The effect of temperature on the collectors from 25 to 55 °C was studied. Flotation tests showed that the best results in terms of fluorite metallurgical recovery were 82.8% and 87.9% for new collectors DP-I and DP-II respectively, for a dosage of 100 g/t and using pneumatic cell. Additionally, in terms of fluorite grade, DP-I showed the best results, achieving 79.7% of CaF2 in roughing step for a dosage of 100 g/t. Fluorite metallurgical recovery and grade in concentrate increased for OA, SO and PO with increasing temperature. However temperature did not have a significant effect on both metallurgy recovery and CaF2 grade using DP-I and DP-II, so the process can be effective at 25 °C reducing operating costs. Full article
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Article
Effects of Composition, Pressure, and Temperature on the Elastic Properties of SiO2–TiO2 Glasses: An Integrated Ultrasonic and Brillouin Study
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050481 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 635
Abstract
We have systematically investigated the elastic properties (ρ, VP, VS, K, μ and σ) of eight SiO2–TiO2 glasses, varying in composition from 1.3 to 14.7 wt% TiO2, as a function [...] Read more.
We have systematically investigated the elastic properties (ρ, VP, VS, K, μ and σ) of eight SiO2–TiO2 glasses, varying in composition from 1.3 to 14.7 wt% TiO2, as a function of pressure up to 0.5 GPa by the pulse superposition (PSP) ultrasonic technique, and two compositions (1.3 and 9.4 wt% TiO2) up to ~5.7 GPa by Brillouin scattering in a diamond anvil cell. The parameters were also measured after annealing to 1020 °C. Composition–elasticity relationships, except for K and σ, are more or less linear; the annealing simply makes the relationships more uniform (less scatter). There is excellent agreement between the ultrasonic and Brillouin measurements at ambient and high pressure. The pressure-induced anomalous elastic behavior (negative dVP/dP and dK/dP) becomes more negative (more compressible) with the increasing TiO2 content. Correspondingly, the acoustic Grüneisen parameters become more negative with increases in the TiO2 content, reaching a minimum near ~8–10 wt% TiO2. The comparison of the low- and high-pressure ultrasonic and Brillouin VP and VS in two glasses (1.3 and 9.4 wt% TiO2) shows excellent agreement, defining the reversible elastic behavior at low pressures and irreversible behavior at higher pressures (≥5.7 GPa) well. This result is consistent with our previous high-pressure Raman study showing an irreversible structural change in a similar pressure range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Physics—In Memory of Orson Anderson)
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Article
Probing the Dehydroxylation of Kaolinite and Halloysite by In Situ High Temperature X-ray Diffraction
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050480 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
Textured kaolinite and halloysite-based materials were shaped by tape casting in order to promote the alignment of clay particles along the tape casting direction and to investigate the structure evolution of these phyllosilicates during the dehydroxylation process. The crystallinity indexes HI and R2 [...] Read more.
Textured kaolinite and halloysite-based materials were shaped by tape casting in order to promote the alignment of clay particles along the tape casting direction and to investigate the structure evolution of these phyllosilicates during the dehydroxylation process. The crystallinity indexes HI and R2 of the starting kaolins (KRG and KCS) were determined and appeared close to values found for the well-ordered reference kaolin KGa-1b. The halloysite clay exhibited trimodal grain size distribution and tended to be less textured than KRG and KCS according to the (002) pole figures performed on green tapes. The constant heating rate derived kinetic parameters matched the expected range. We followed the dehydroxylation of kaolinite and halloysite through in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements at the ESRF synchrotron radiation source on the D2AM beamline. The dehydroxylation of these kaolinite and halloysite occurred between 425 °C and 675 °C for KRG and KCS and from 500 °C to 650 °C for halloysite. In addition, the evolution of the basal distance of kaolinite regarding the heat treatment temperature confirmed that the dehydroxylation process occurred in three steps: delamination, dehydroxylation, and formation of metakaolinite. The calculated coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) along the c axe values were close to 17 × 10−6 °C−1 for kaolinite (KCS and KRG) and 14 × 10−6 °C−1 for halloysite. Full article
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Sustainable Soil Bearing Capacity Improvement Using Natural Limited Life Geotextile Reinforcement—A Review
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050479 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
Geotextiles are commercially made from synthetic fibres and have been used to enhance bearing capacity and to reduce the settlement of weak soil foundations. Several efforts have been made to investigate the possibility of using bio-based geotextiles for addressing environmental issues. This paper [...] Read more.
Geotextiles are commercially made from synthetic fibres and have been used to enhance bearing capacity and to reduce the settlement of weak soil foundations. Several efforts have been made to investigate the possibility of using bio-based geotextiles for addressing environmental issues. This paper attempts to review previous studies on the bearing capacity improvement of soils reinforced with bio-based geotextiles under a vertical static load. The bearing capacity of the unreinforced foundation was used as a reference to illustrate the role of bio-based geotextiles in bearing capacity improvement. The effects of first geotextile depth to footing width ratio (d/B), geotextile spacing to footing width ratio (S/B), geotextile length to footing width ratio (L/B) and the number of reinforcement layers (N) on the bearing capacity were reviewed and presented in this paper. The optimum d/B ratio, which resulted in the maximum ultimate bearing capacity, was found to be in the range of 0.25–0.4. The optimum S/B ratio was in the range of 0.12–0.5. The most suitable L/B ratio, which resulted in better soil performance against vertical pressure, was about 3. Besides, the optimum number of layers providing the maximum bearing capacity was about three This article is useful as a guideline for a practical design and future research on the application of the natural geotextiles to improve the short-term bearing capacity of weak soil foundations in various sustainable geotechnical applications. Full article
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Article
Petrogenesis of the Snezhnoe Ruby Deposit, Central Pamir
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050478 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
The Snezhnoe ruby deposit is located in the Muzkol–Rangkul anticlinorium within the Cimmerian zone of the Central Pamir. On the local scale, the deposit occurs on discrete relict bedding planes of calcitic marbles belonging to the Sarydzhilgin suite. Four ruby-bearing mineral assemblages are [...] Read more.
The Snezhnoe ruby deposit is located in the Muzkol–Rangkul anticlinorium within the Cimmerian zone of the Central Pamir. On the local scale, the deposit occurs on discrete relict bedding planes of calcitic marbles belonging to the Sarydzhilgin suite. Four ruby-bearing mineral assemblages are present within the main parts of the deposit: (1) scapolite + phlogopite + muscovite + margarite; (2) plagioclase + muscovite + margarite; (3) muscovite + phlogopite + margarite; (4) calcite. The ruby + calcite association is the most economically important, whereas the association of plagioclase + scapolite + phlogopite + muscovite is typical for the ruby-free parts of the deposit. Mica group minerals with a distinctive green color due to enhanced Cr and V concentrations are the main prospecting indicators for the ruby mineralization. The oxygen isotopic composition of the rubies is +15.3‰, a common value for crustal metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The ratios of indicative trace elements in the rubies are Ga/Mg < 8.2, Fe/Mg < 51.2, Cr/Ga > 6.9 and Fe/Ti < 31.6. These values are characteristic for metamorphic corundum. The bulk ruby-bearing rocks have an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of ~0.70791 and εNd of ~−9.6, also pointing to the crustal origin of the deposit in agreement with the geological data. Ancient Al-enriched sediments are suggested to be a possible protolith for the ruby-bearing rocks. The temperature of the metamorphic processes was estimated at 760 ± 30 °C using Zr-in-rutile geothermometry. Raman mapping of rutile inclusions trapped within the ruby crystal indicates that the minimum pressure of mineralization was about one kilobar. The age determined by the Rb–Sr thermal ionization mass spectrometry of phlogopite, plagioclase and bulk rock is 23 ± 1.6 Ma, corresponding to the timing of relaxation after peak metamorphism during the Alpine–Himalayan Orogeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Ruby)
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Article
Use of Seawater/Brine and Caliche’s Salts as Clean and Environmentally Friendly Sources of Chloride and Nitrate Ions for Chalcopyrite Concentrate Leaching
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050477 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
A less harmful approach for the environment regarding chalcopyrite concentrate leaching, using seawater/brine and caliche’s salts as a source of chloride and nitrate ions, was investigated. Different variables were evaluated: sulfuric acid concentration, sodium nitrate concentration, chloride concentration, source of water (distilled water, [...] Read more.
A less harmful approach for the environment regarding chalcopyrite concentrate leaching, using seawater/brine and caliche’s salts as a source of chloride and nitrate ions, was investigated. Different variables were evaluated: sulfuric acid concentration, sodium nitrate concentration, chloride concentration, source of water (distilled water, seawater, and brine), temperature, concentrate sample type, nitrate source (analytical grade and industrial salt), and pre-treatment methods in order to obtain maximum copper extraction. All tests were performed at moderate temperatures (≤45 °C) and atmospheric pressure. The leaching system using distilled water, seawater, and brine base media resulted in copper extraction of 70.9%, 90.6%, and 86.6% respectively. The leaching media, with a concentration of 20 g/L Cl, obtained a maximum Cu extraction of 93.5%. An increase in the concentration of H2SO4 and NaNO3 from 0.5 to 0.7 M, led to an increase in the copper extraction. The use of an industrial salt compared to the analytical salt did not show great variations in the percentage of extraction achieved, which would be a good and cost effective alternative. The increase in temperature from 25 to 45 °C showed a great effect on the copper leaching (of 60% until 90.6%, respectively). The pre-treatment is suggested to increase copper extraction from 60.0% to 71.4%. Full article
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Article
Gold Exploration in Two and Three Dimensions: Improved and Correlative Insights from Microscopy and X-Ray Computed Tomography
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050476 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
In this contribution, we highlight a correlative approach in which three-dimensional structural/positional data are combined with two dimensional chemical and mineralogical data to understand a complex orogenic gold mineralization system; we use the Kirk Range (southern Malawi) as a case study. Three dimensional [...] Read more.
In this contribution, we highlight a correlative approach in which three-dimensional structural/positional data are combined with two dimensional chemical and mineralogical data to understand a complex orogenic gold mineralization system; we use the Kirk Range (southern Malawi) as a case study. Three dimensional structures and semi-quantitative mineral distributions were evaluated using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and this was augmented with textural, mineralogical and chemical imaging using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy as well as fire assay. Our results detail the utility of the correlative approach both for quantifying gold concentrations in core samples (which is often nuggety and may thus be misrepresented by quarter- or half-core assays), and for understanding the spatial distribution of gold and associated structures and microstructures in 3D space. This approach overlays complementary datasets from 2D and 3D analytical protocols, thereby allowing a better and more comprehensive understanding on the distribution and structures controlling gold mineralization. Combining 3D XCT analyses with conventional 2D microscopies derive the full value out of a given exploration drilling program and it provides an excellent tool for understanding gold mineralization. Understanding the spatial distribution of gold and associated structures and microstructures in 3D space holds vast potential for exploration practitioners, especially if the correlative approach can be automated and if the resultant spatially-constrained microstructural information can be fed directly into commercially available geological modelling software. The extra layers of information provided by using correlative 2D and 3D microscopies offer an exciting new tool to enhance and optimize mineral exploration workflows, given that modern exploration efforts are targeting increasingly complex and low-grade ore deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods and Applications for Mineral Exploration, Volume II)
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Article
Application of GETFLOWS Coupled with Chemical Reactions to Arsenic Removal through Ferrihydrite Coprecipitation in an Artificial Wetland of a Japanese Closed Mine
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050475 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
Passive systems that utilize a natural power such as a pond, plant, or microorganisms, is expected to be a cost-effective method for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment. The Ningyo-toge mine, a non-operational uranium mine located in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, generates AMD containing arsenic [...] Read more.
Passive systems that utilize a natural power such as a pond, plant, or microorganisms, is expected to be a cost-effective method for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment. The Ningyo-toge mine, a non-operational uranium mine located in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, generates AMD containing arsenic and iron. To quantitatively study arsenic and iron ion removal in an artificial wetland and pond, chemical reactions were modeled and incorporated into the GETFLOWS (general-purpose terrestrial fluid-flow simulator) software. The chemical reaction models consisted of arsenite and ferrous oxidation equations and arsenic adsorption on ferrihydrite. The X-ray diffraction analysis of sediment samples showed ferrihydrite patterns. These results were consistent with the model for arsenite/ferrous oxidation and arsenic adsorption on ferrihydrite. Geofluid simulation was conducted to simulate mass transfer with the utilized topographic model, inlet flow rate, precipitation, and evaporation. The measured arsenic and iron ions concentrations in solution samples from the wetland and pond, fitted well with the model. This indicated that the main removal mechanism was the oxidation of arsenite/ferrous ions and that arsenic was removed by adsorption rather than dilution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollutants in Acid Mine Drainage)
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Article
Mineralogical Prediction of Flotation Performance for a Sediment-Hosted Copper–Cobalt Sulphide Ore
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050474 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
As part of a study investigating the influence of mineralogical variability in a sediment hosted copper–cobalt deposit in the Democratic Republic of Congo on flotation performance, the flotation of nine sulphide ore samples was investigated through laboratory batch kinetics tests and quantitative mineral [...] Read more.
As part of a study investigating the influence of mineralogical variability in a sediment hosted copper–cobalt deposit in the Democratic Republic of Congo on flotation performance, the flotation of nine sulphide ore samples was investigated through laboratory batch kinetics tests and quantitative mineral analyses. Using a range of ore samples from the same deposit the influence of mineralogy on flotation performance was studied. Characterisation of the samples through QEMSCAN showed that bornite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite and carrollite are the main copper-bearing sulphide minerals while carrollite is the only cobalt-bearing mineral. Mineralogical characteristics were averaged per sample to allow for a quantitative correlation with flotation performance parameters. Equilibrium recoveries, rate constants and final grades of the samples were correlated to the feed mineralogy through Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Target sulphide minerals content and particle size, magnesiochlorite content, carrollite liberation and association of the copper and cobalt minerals with magnesiochlorite and dolomite were used to predict flotation performance. Leave One Out Cross Validation (LOOCV) revealed that the final copper and cobalt grades are predicted with an R2 of 0.80 and 0.93 and Root Mean Square Error of Cross Validation (RMSECV) of 4.41% and 1.34%. The recovery of cobalt and copper with time can be predicted with an R2 of 0.94 for both and an overall test error of 4.70% and 5.14%. Overall, it was shown that quantitative understanding of changes in mineralogy allows for prediction of changes in flotation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Characterization of Mineralogy in the Highland Valley Porphyry Cu District Using Hyperspectral Imaging, and Potential Applications
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050473 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
The Highland Valley Copper (HVC) district in British Columbia, Canada, is host to at least four major porphyry Cu systems: Bethlehem (~209 Ma), and Valley, Lornex, and Highmont (~208 to 207 Ma). High spatial resolution (0.2–1.0 mm/pixel) hyperspectral imagery in the shortwave infrared [...] Read more.
The Highland Valley Copper (HVC) district in British Columbia, Canada, is host to at least four major porphyry Cu systems: Bethlehem (~209 Ma), and Valley, Lornex, and Highmont (~208 to 207 Ma). High spatial resolution (0.2–1.0 mm/pixel) hyperspectral imagery in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) were acquired on 755 rock samples and 400 m of continuous drill core. Spectral metrics are used to measure the relative abundance of 12 minerals and an additional metric is derived to estimate white mica grain size. In the Valley and Lornex deposits, coarse-grained white mica is associated with mineralization and is detectable up to 4 km away from the deposits. Kaolinite is present within 2 km of the mineralized centers but does not necessarily occur within strongly mineralized intervals. Prehnite is ubiquitous from 4 to 8 km from the deposits. In the Bethlehem deposit, tourmaline and epidote are associated with mineralization. We propose a spectral alteration score based on these proximal hyperspectral SWIR mineralogical patterns to assist explorers in targeting porphyry Cu systems when using drill core, surface rock samples and potentially remote sensing imagery. In a production environment, this metric could serve to facilitate ore-sorting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
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Article
Coexisting Rubies and Blue Sapphires from Major World Deposits: A Brief Review of Their Mineralogical Properties
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050472 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Gem corundum deposits are typically divided into blue sapphire and ruby deposits. However, this classification often overlooks the fact that the precious stones produced are the same mineral with only an overall slight difference in their trace element profiles. It can take only [...] Read more.
Gem corundum deposits are typically divided into blue sapphire and ruby deposits. However, this classification often overlooks the fact that the precious stones produced are the same mineral with only an overall slight difference in their trace element profiles. It can take only a couple thousand ppm chromium to create the rich, red color expected of a ruby. This contribution deals specifically with economically important gem corundum mining regions that produce both blue sapphires and rubies either in comparable quantities (Mogok, Myanmar, and the basalt-related gem fields on the border between Thailand and Cambodia at Chanthaburi, Thailand, and Pailin, Cambodia) or predominantly blue sapphires with rare rubies (secondary Montana sapphire deposits and Yogo Gulch in Montana as well as the gem fields of Sri Lanka). Comparison of the trace element profiles and inclusions in the blue sapphire/ruby assemblages in these deposits shows that there are both monogenetic and polygenetic assemblages in which the blue sapphires and rubies have the same geological origin (monogenetic) or distinct geological origins (polygenetic). In the monogenetic assemblages, the rubies and blue sapphires have essentially indistinguishable inclusions and trace element chemistry profiles (with the exception of Cr contents). On the other hand, polygenetic assemblages are composed of rubies and blue sapphires with distinct inclusions and trace element chemistry profiles. Notably, in the monogenetic assemblages, chromium seems to vary independently from other trace elements. In these assemblages, Cr can vary by nearly four orders of magnitude with essentially no consistent relationship to other trace elements. The observations described herein are an attempt to address the question of what the geochemical and geological constraints are that turn gem corundum into a spectacular ruby. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Ruby)
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Article
Three-Dimensional Regularized Focusing Migration: A Case Study from the Yucheng Mining Area, Shandong, China
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050471 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
Gravity migration is a fast imaging technique based on the migration concept to obtain subsurface density distribution. For higher resolution of migration imaging results, we propose a 3D regularized focusing migration method that implements migration imaging of an entire gravity survey with a [...] Read more.
Gravity migration is a fast imaging technique based on the migration concept to obtain subsurface density distribution. For higher resolution of migration imaging results, we propose a 3D regularized focusing migration method that implements migration imaging of an entire gravity survey with a focusing stabilizer based on regularization theory. When determining the model parameters, the iterative direction is chosen as the conjugate migration direction, and the step size is selected on the basis of the Wolfe–Powell conditions. The model tests demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the resolution and precision of imaging results, especially for blocky structures. At the same time, the method has high computational efficiency, which allows rapid imaging for large-scale gravity data. It also has high stability in noisy conditions. The developed novel method is applied to interpret gravity data collected from the skarn-type iron deposits in Yucheng, Shandong province. Migration results show that the depth of the buried iron ore in this area is 750–1500 m, which is consistent with the drilling data. We also provide recommendations for further mineral exploration in the survey area. This method can be used to complete rapid global imaging of large mining areas and it provides important technical support for exploration of deep, concealed deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geophysics for Mineral Exploration)
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Article
Greenockite Whiskers from the Bytom Burned Coal Dump, Upper Silesia, Poland
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050470 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Orange greenockite (CdS) aggregates were found in a small fumarole at a burned coal dump near Bytom, Upper Silesia, Poland and were studied using a variety of techniques in order to determine their chemistry, morphology, and most importantly, the mechanism of crystal growth. [...] Read more.
Orange greenockite (CdS) aggregates were found in a small fumarole at a burned coal dump near Bytom, Upper Silesia, Poland and were studied using a variety of techniques in order to determine their chemistry, morphology, and most importantly, the mechanism of crystal growth. Greenockite rods, wires, and whiskers with bismuth drops on crystal tops are predominant in these aggregates. Greenockite rods oriented sub-perpendicular to the substrate surface. The rod thickness reaches 5–6 μm and about 10 μm in length. The catalyst bismuth drop has a diameter comparable to the rod thickness. Fiber forms (wires and whiskers) are sub-parallel to the substrate surface. The thickness of these forms is usually less than 2 μm, and the length can be close to 1 mm. The bismuth drop diameter can show a large excess over the fiber thickness. Catalyst drops on the tops of whiskers began to change their form dynamically and exploded, spraying bismuth under the electron beam effect. Rods grow along the [01–10] direction, and whiskers and wires (axial forms) along the [0001] direction. Greenockite rod crystals, carrying on top a relatively homogenous bismuth catalyst drop, were formed on the heated substrate according to the VLS (vapor–liquid–solid) mechanism at temperatures not lower than 270 °C. Greenockite whiskers and wires grew just above of the substrate surface according to the VQS (vapor–quasiliquid–solid) mechanism at temperatures lower than 200 °C. These mechanisms of growth have very rarely been recorded to occur in nature and even less so in burning coal dumps. The cooperative growth effects of the fiber greenockite crystals were also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Minerals in Coal and Coal Combustion Products)
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Article
Textural Identification of Polycrystalline Magmatic, Tectonically-Deformed, and Shock-Related Zircon Aggregates
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050469 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Zircon with polycrystalline or polygranular appearance is either produced in the magmatic environment through crystallization, or due to deformation in metamorphic settings (including regional metamorphism and ductile shear zones), or as a result of shock-induced recrystallization. All three types can be easily confused [...] Read more.
Zircon with polycrystalline or polygranular appearance is either produced in the magmatic environment through crystallization, or due to deformation in metamorphic settings (including regional metamorphism and ductile shear zones), or as a result of shock-induced recrystallization. All three types can be easily confused and potentially lead to incorrect interpretations, especially if the crystallographic orientation analyses of zircon are not conducted. It is particularly important to establish the difference between tectonically-deformed polygranular zircon and shock-induced polygranular zircon because the latter serves as an indicator of shock event and is often used for dating asteroid impacts. In this paper, a series of polycrystalline zircon grains from ductile shear zones and metamorphic rocks are analyzed using a combination of techniques (BSE, CL, orientation contrast, EBSD, and microprobe mapping), and their properties are compared to reported polycrystalline zircons from magmatic and impact settings. This work shows how appearance, crystallographic orientation, and CL signature of “granules” differ between the different types of deformed zircon. Full article
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Article
Use of Temperature Controlled Stage Confocal Raman Microscopy to Study Phase Transition of Lead Dioxide (Plattnerite)
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050468 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
The present work concerns the study of the phase transition of plattnerite [β-PbO2 lead (IV) oxide]-based samples when they are analysed by Raman spectroscopy. The laser-induced degradation process was carried out either on historical painting samples, where plattnerite was present as a [...] Read more.
The present work concerns the study of the phase transition of plattnerite [β-PbO2 lead (IV) oxide]-based samples when they are analysed by Raman spectroscopy. The laser-induced degradation process was carried out either on historical painting samples, where plattnerite was present as a degradation product of lead-based pigments, or commercial plattnerite samples as powder and pellets. The Raman spectra of plattnerite taken at low excitation power, to avoid phase transformations, are reported up to low wavenumbers, and they were characterized by the features at 159, 380, 515 and 653 cm−1 and a shoulder at 540 cm−1. The degradation of plattnerite was induced by increasing the laser power on the sample, and the formation of its secondary products red lead (Pb3O4), litharge (α-PbO) and massicot (β-PbO), when varying the laser power, is discussed. The analyses were performed in a controlled condition by coupling the Raman spectrometer to a temperature-controlled stage (Linkam THMS600- Renishaw), which allows for varying the sample temperature (from room temperature up to 600 °C) and keeping it constant inside the stage during the analysis. In this way, commercial plattnerite samples were heated by increasing the cell temperature to verify the temperature range at which the phase transitions of lead dioxide occur. In addition, thanks to the construction of temperature ramps, all the degradation pathways were shown, and other lead compounds were identified, generated by the laser power contribution. A different behaviour was found between pigments from historical painting samples and commercial samples under the effect of the laser. This information could be useful in order to recognize their nature when they are found in cultural heritage materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historical Mineral Pigments)
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Article
Richardsite, Zn2CuGaS4, A New Gallium-Essential Member of the Stannite Group from the Gem Mines near Merelani, Tanzania
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050467 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
The new mineral richardsite occurs as overgrowths of small (50–400 μm) dark gray, disphenoidal crystals with no evident twinning, but epitaxically oriented on wurtzite–sphalerite crystals from the gem mines near Merelani, Lelatema Mountains, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania. Associated minerals also include graphite, [...] Read more.
The new mineral richardsite occurs as overgrowths of small (50–400 μm) dark gray, disphenoidal crystals with no evident twinning, but epitaxically oriented on wurtzite–sphalerite crystals from the gem mines near Merelani, Lelatema Mountains, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania. Associated minerals also include graphite, diopside, and Ge,Ga-rich wurtzite. It is brittle, dark gray in color, and has a metallic luster. It appears dark bluish gray in reflected plane-polarized light, and is moderately bireflectant. It is distinctly anisotropic with violet to light-blue rotation tints with crossed polarizers. Reflectance percentages for Rmin and Rmax in air at the respective wavelengths are 23.5, 25.0 (471.1 nm); 27.4, 28.9 (548.3 nm); 28.1, 29.4 (586.6 nm); 27.7, 28.9 (652.3 nm). Richardsite does not show pleochroism, internal reflections, or optical indications of growth zonation. Electron microprobe analyses determine an empirical formula, based on 8 apfu, as (Zn1.975Cu0.995Ga0.995Fe0.025Mn0.010Ge0.005Sn0.005)Σ4.010S3.990, while its simplified formula is (Zn,Cu)2(Cu,Fe,Mn)(Ga,Ge,Sn)S4, and the ideal formula is Zn2CuGaS4. The crystal structure of richardsite was investigated using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. It is tetragonal, with a = 5.3626(2) Å, c = 10.5873(5) Å, V = 304.46(2) Å3, Z = 2, and a calculated density of 4.278 g·cm−3. The four most intense X-ray powder diffraction lines [d in Å (I/I0)] are 3.084 (100); 1.882 (40); 1.989 (20); 1.614 (20). The refined crystal structure (R1 = 0.0284 for 655 reflections) and obtained chemical formula indicate that richardsite is a new member of the stannite group with space group I 4 ¯ 2 m . Its structure consists of a ccp array of sulfur atoms tetrahedrally bonded with metal atoms occupying one-half of the ccp tetrahedral voids. The ordering of the metal atoms leads to a sphalerite(sph)-derivative tetragonal unit-cell, with aasph and c ≈ 2asph. The packing of S atoms slightly deviates from the ideal, mainly due to the presence of Ga. Using 632.8-nm wavelength laser excitation, the most intense Raman response is a narrow peak at 309 cm−1, with other relatively strong bands at 276, 350, and 366 cm−1, and broader and weaker bands at 172, 676, and 722 cm−1. Richardsite is named in honor of Dr. R. Peter Richards in recognition of his extensive research and writing on topics related to understanding the genesis of the morphology of minerals. Its status as a new mineral and its name have been approved by the Commission of New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (No. 2019-136). Full article
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Article
Adsorption and Separation of Crystal Violet, Cerium(III) and Lead(II) by Means of a Multi-Step Strategy Based on K10-Montmorillonite
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050466 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
A multi-step procedure, based on the employment of K10-Montmorillonite, is proposed for the selective removal of metal ions and dyes from a multicomponent solution. The objective is twofold: decontaminate the effluents and separate and recover the valuable byproducts present in wastewaters. Three common [...] Read more.
A multi-step procedure, based on the employment of K10-Montmorillonite, is proposed for the selective removal of metal ions and dyes from a multicomponent solution. The objective is twofold: decontaminate the effluents and separate and recover the valuable byproducts present in wastewaters. Three common contaminants, i.e., crystal violet dye (CV), Ce(III) and Pb(II) were chosen as “model” pollutants. The main factors affecting the pollutants’ sorption were investigated. The experimental data were correlated with adsorption isotherms and kinetic models to obtain a deeper insight into the adsorption processes. The affinity of the clay toward the pollutants is favored by an increasing pH and follows the order CV > Pb(II) > Ce(III). Whereas Ce(III) metal ions do not adsorb onto clay under strongly acidic conditions, both Pb(II) and CV can adsorb under all the investigated pH conditions. The analysis of isotherms and kinetic profiles revealed that CV adsorbs onto clay through a mechanism consisting of two parallel processes, namely cation exchange on the external mineral surface and in the interlayer and surface complexation at the edge sites, while metal ion uptake is due solely to cation exchange processes involving mineral surfaces. The time required for the complete removal of pollutants follows the order CV > Ce(III) >> Pb(II). The possibility to modulate the adsorption features by changing experimental conditions was successfully employed to propose the best strategy for the progressive removal of different components from aqueous solutions. Full article
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Article
Lithogeochemistry of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts near the Fossil Ridge of the Southwest Sub-Basin, South China Sea
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050465 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) in the South China Sea (SCS) record deep crust-mantle processes during seafloor spreading. We conducted a petrological and geochemical study on the MORBs obtained from the southwest sub-basin of the SCS at site U1433 and U1434 of the International [...] Read more.
Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) in the South China Sea (SCS) record deep crust-mantle processes during seafloor spreading. We conducted a petrological and geochemical study on the MORBs obtained from the southwest sub-basin of the SCS at site U1433 and U1434 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349. Results show that MORBs at IODP site U1433 and U1434 are unaffected by seawater alteration, and all U1433 and the bulk of U1434 rocks belong to the sub-alkaline low-potassium tholeiitic basalt series. Samples collected from site U1433 and U1434 are enriched mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORBs), and the U1434 basalts are more enriched in incompatible elements than the U1433 samples. The SCS MORBs have mainly undergone the fractional crystallization of olivine, accompanied by the relatively weak fractional crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxene during magma evolution. The magma of both sites might be mainly produced by the high-degree partial melting of spinel peridotite at low pressures. The degree of partial melting at site U1434 was lower than at U1433, ascribed to the relatively lower spreading rate. The magmatic source of the southwest sub-basin basalts may be contaminated by lower continental crust and contributed by recycled oceanic crust component during the opening of the SCS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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Article
Covalent Protein Immobilization onto Muscovite Mica Surface with a Photocrosslinker
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050464 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 819
Abstract
Muscovite mica with an amino silane-modified surface is commonly used as a substrate in atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of biological macromolecules. Herein, the efficiency of two different protein immobilization strategies employing either (N-hydroxysuccinimide ester)-based crosslinker (DSP) or benzophenone-based photoactivatable crosslinker (SuccBB) has [...] Read more.
Muscovite mica with an amino silane-modified surface is commonly used as a substrate in atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of biological macromolecules. Herein, the efficiency of two different protein immobilization strategies employing either (N-hydroxysuccinimide ester)-based crosslinker (DSP) or benzophenone-based photoactivatable crosslinker (SuccBB) has been compared using AFM and mass spectrometry analysis. Two proteins with different physicochemical properties—human serum albumin (HSA) and horseradish peroxidase enzyme protein (HRP)—have been used as model objects in the study. In the case of HRP, both crosslinkers exhibited high immobilization efficiency—as opposed to the case with HSA, when sufficient capturing efficiency has only been observed with SuccBB photocrosslinker. The results obtained herein can find their application in commonly employed bioanalytical systems and in the development of novel highly sensitive chip-based diagnostic platforms employing immobilized proteins. The obtained data can also be of interest for other research areas in medicine and biotechnology employing immobilized biomolecules. Full article
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Article
An X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) Study on the Oxidation State of Chromophores in Natural Kunzite Samples from Nuristan, Afghanistan
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050463 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Kunzite, the pink variety of spodumene is famous and desirable among gemstone lovers. Due to its tenebrescent properties, kunzite always remains a hot research candidate among physicists and mineralogists. The present work is continuing the effort towards value addition to kunzite by enhancing [...] Read more.
Kunzite, the pink variety of spodumene is famous and desirable among gemstone lovers. Due to its tenebrescent properties, kunzite always remains a hot research candidate among physicists and mineralogists. The present work is continuing the effort towards value addition to kunzite by enhancing its color using different treatments. Before color enhancement, it is essential to identify the chromophores and their oxidation states. In this paper, the authors investigated the main impurities in natural kunzite from the Nuristan area in Afghanistan and their valence states. Some impurities in the LiAlSi2O6 spodumene structure were identified and quantified by using sensitive techniques, including Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), UV−VIS and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). LA-ICP-MS indicated many trace elements as impurities in kunzite, among which Fe and Mn are the main elements responsible for coloration. The oxidation states of these two transition elements were determined by the XANES technique. The study reveals that Mn is present in both Mn2+ and Mn3+ oxidation states, while Fe is present only in Fe3+ oxidation state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Synthetic and Natural Minerals)
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Article
Layered Double Hydroxides with Intercalated Permanganate and Peroxydisulphate Anions for Oxidative Removal of Chlorinated Organic Solvents Contaminated Water
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050462 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
The contamination by chlorinated organic solvents is a worldwide problem as they can deeply penetrate aquifers, accumulating in the sub-surface as lenses of highly hazardous pollutants. In recent years, so called in situ oxidation processes have been developed to remediate chlorinated organic solvents [...] Read more.
The contamination by chlorinated organic solvents is a worldwide problem as they can deeply penetrate aquifers, accumulating in the sub-surface as lenses of highly hazardous pollutants. In recent years, so called in situ oxidation processes have been developed to remediate chlorinated organic solvents from groundwater and soil by injecting solutions of oxidising agents such as permanganate or peroxydisulphate. We here present modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with intercalated oxidising agents that might serve as new reactants for these remediation strategies. LDHs might serve as support and stabiliser materials for selected oxidising agents during injection, as the uncontrolled reaction and consumption might be inhibited, and guarantee that the selected oxidants persist in the subsurface after injection. In this study, LDHs with hydrotalcite- and hydrocalumite-like structures intercalated with permanganate and peroxydisulphate anions were synthesised and their efficiency was tested in batch experiments using trichloroethene or 1,1,2-trichloroethane as the target contaminants. All samples were characterised using powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis coupled with mass spectrometry to directly analyse evolving gases, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, particle size distribution measurements were carried out on the synthesised materials. Results of the batch experiments confirmed the hypothesis that oxidising agents keep their properties after intercalation. Permanganate intercalated LDHs proved to be most efficient at degrading trichloroethene while peroxydisulphate intercalated Ca,Al-LDHs were the most promising studied reactants degrading 1,1,2-trichloroethane. The detection of dichloroethene as well as the transformation of the studied reactants into new LDH phases confirmed the successful degradation of the target contaminant by oxidation processes generated from the intercalated oxidising agent. Full article
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Article
Successful Ecological Regeneration of Opencast Coal Mine Spoils through Forestation: From Cradle to Grove
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050461 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The reclamation of surface (opencast) coal mines is not always successful; there remains a legacy of degraded land that burdens local communities. This article evaluates a community-oriented, low-cost means of geoecological regeneration, the “Cradle for Nature” strategy, which uses mosaic tree planting to [...] Read more.
The reclamation of surface (opencast) coal mines is not always successful; there remains a legacy of degraded land that burdens local communities. This article evaluates a community-oriented, low-cost means of geoecological regeneration, the “Cradle for Nature” strategy, which uses mosaic tree planting to foster positive natural ecological processes. Results show that, while the autocompaction of minestones quickly raises soil densities to levels hostile to plant growth, forestation helps moderate soil densities. Weathering concentrates metals in minestones, but 14 years of forestation reduced the loadings of five metals by 35–52%. Twenty years of forestation doubled soil organic carbon to >7%; increased bacilli from 7% to 46%; actinomycetes from 10% to 26%; and soil microbe counts 12–15 times, especially in tree plantings treated with fertiliser. Soils under trees also supported a significantly greater earthworm biomass than under grass but, while open-canopy plantings had increased ground flora biodiversity, closed-canopy plantings had lower diversity and biomass. Following closure to grazing, ground biomass increased sevenfold. Young trees act as bird perches and significantly increase seed fall. Small mammal biomass and biodiversity increases after tree planting and higher predators appear. Varteg’s constructed forest provides an effective “cradle” for an emergent geoecological system and its habitat mosaic maximises biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Abandoned Mines)
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Article
Cleaner Production of Chromium Oxide from Low Fe(II)-Chromite
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050460 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Sulfuric acid-based leaching is a promising cleaner method to produce chromium salts, but its feasibility for treating low Fe(II)-chromite still remains to be proven. A Box–Behnken design (BBD)-based set of experiments for sulfuric acid leaching of low Fe(II)-chromite was utilized in this work [...] Read more.
Sulfuric acid-based leaching is a promising cleaner method to produce chromium salts, but its feasibility for treating low Fe(II)-chromite still remains to be proven. A Box–Behnken design (BBD)-based set of experiments for sulfuric acid leaching of low Fe(II)-chromite was utilized in this work for generating an experimental dataset for revealing the functional relationships between the processing parameters and the extraction yields of Cr and Fe. The dependent variables were found to exhibit strong intercorrelations and the models developed on the basis of statistical criteria showed excellent prediction accuracy. The optimum process conditions of leaching treatment were found to be a temperature of 176 °C, a dichromic acid/chromite mass ratio of 0.12, and a sulfuric acid concentration of 81%. Furthermore, the dissolution behavior of chromite in the leaching process and the effect of dichromic acid were experimentally investigated. It was found that the decomposition efficiency was highly dependent on the Fe(II) content of chromite, and that the dichromic acid acted both as an oxidant and a catalyst in the leaching process. On the basis of the results of this study, a novel process for treating low-Fe(II) chromite was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Production in Mineral Processing)
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Article
A Morphological and Size-Based Study of the Changes of Iron Sulfides in the Caples and Torlesse Terranes (Otago Schist, New Zealand) during Prograde Metamorphic Evolution
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050459 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 697
Abstract
It is widely accepted that metamorphism induces a remobilization of iron sulfides, sweeping away original ones while creating new ones. This paper analyzes size distributions of iron sulfides in several samples from the Caples and Torlesse terranes from the Otago Schist (New Zealand) [...] Read more.
It is widely accepted that metamorphism induces a remobilization of iron sulfides, sweeping away original ones while creating new ones. This paper analyzes size distributions of iron sulfides in several samples from the Caples and Torlesse terranes from the Otago Schist (New Zealand) using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, which allows all iron sulfides larger than the resolution at which X-ray scans were performed to be characterized. Framboids and clusters of framboids are common in unmetamorphosed samples, but disappear in greenschist/amphibolite facies samples, where iron sulfides have anhedral habits. By contrast, the size and standard deviation of the new iron sulfides both remain within the same range. The results illuminate the evolution of iron sulfides throughout metamorphism, proposing boundaries for the metamorphic processes based on the shape of these iron sulfides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
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Article
Model Test and Numerical Study on Surrounding Rock Deformation and Overburden Strata Movement Law of Gob-Side Entry Retaining via Roof Cutting
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050458 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 701
Abstract
The effects of roof cutting techniques on the movement law of the overlying strata and deformation features of the surrounding rock in gob-side entry retaining mines were studied using 200 working faces of the Dianping coal mine in Shanxi Province. Using a mechanical [...] Read more.
The effects of roof cutting techniques on the movement law of the overlying strata and deformation features of the surrounding rock in gob-side entry retaining mines were studied using 200 working faces of the Dianping coal mine in Shanxi Province. Using a mechanical analysis, a cantilever beam model formed by roof cutting was used to derive a deformation equation. The physical model test based on the field prototype revealed an asymmetrically distributed displacement curve and reduced collapse displacement when the rock stratum was far from the cutting seam. Outside of the roof cutting height, the collapse of the overlying strata gradually reached a symmetric distribution with increasing height. The deformation of the retained roadway was mainly concentrated on the roof, and the maximum deformation was 14 mm near the roof cutting side. A numerical simulation of the original size of the model test proved that the laws of strata movement and surrounding rock deformation were consistent with the physical test results. Finally, field measurements were performed, which verified the rationality of this study. Full article
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Article
Exploration of Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits with Fixed-Offset Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic Method: Numerical Simulations and the Effects of Electrical Anisotropy
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050457 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
Seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits have attracted growing interest and become the focus of current seafloor mineral exploration. One key challenge is to delineate potential SMS accumulations and estimate their quantity and quality for prospective resource mining. Recently, geophysical electromagnetic methods which are [...] Read more.
Seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits have attracted growing interest and become the focus of current seafloor mineral exploration. One key challenge is to delineate potential SMS accumulations and estimate their quantity and quality for prospective resource mining. Recently, geophysical electromagnetic methods which are routinely used for land-based mineral exploration are being adapted to detect and assess SMS occurrences by imaging their conductivity distributions. However, the rough seafloor topography and electrical anisotropy of the seafloor formations encountered in practical surveys pose challenges for reliable data interpretation, and recent studies have revealed that the rough bathymetry could cause measurable distortions. Here, we consider a fixed-offset marine controlled-source electromagnetic method (CSEM) for SMS exploration, and investigate the effects of electrical anisotropy of sedimentary formations through numerical simulations for marine CSEM surveys aiming at conductive targets in the shallow regions of the seafloor. Numerical results demonstrate that the presence of electrical anisotropy could impose significant influence on fixed-offset marine CSEM data and suggest that the distortions should be sufficiently accounted for reliable data interpretation, thus lending confidence to subsequent quantification of available SMS minerals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Geology and Minerals)
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Article
Composition of Garnet from the Xianghualing Skarn Sn Deposit, South China: Its Petrogenetic Significance and Exploration Potential
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050456 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
The Xianghualing skarn Sn deposit in the southwestern part of the southern Hunan Metallogenic Belt is a large Sn deposit in the Nanling area. In this paper, the garnet has been analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the concentrations [...] Read more.
The Xianghualing skarn Sn deposit in the southwestern part of the southern Hunan Metallogenic Belt is a large Sn deposit in the Nanling area. In this paper, the garnet has been analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the concentrations of the major and trace elements. The results reveal that the garnets from the Xianghualing deposit mainly belong to andradite-grossular (grandite) solid solution and are typically richer in Al than in Fe. They show enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and notably lower light rare earth elements (LREEs), and commonly negative Eu anomalies, indicative of a relatively reduced formation environment. The garnets have high Sn concentrations between 2313 ppm and 5766 ppm. It is also evident that there is a positive correlation between Sn and Fe, suggesting that Sn4+ substitutes into the garnets through substituting for Fe3+ in the octahedral position. Combined with previous studies, it can be recognized that the Sn concentrations of garnet in skarn Sn deposits are generally high, whereas the W concentrations are relatively low. This is just the opposite in garnets from skarn W deposits that typically have high W, but low Sn concentrations. In polymetallic skarn deposits with both economic Sn and W, the concentrations of both metals in garnets are relatively high, although varying greatly. Therefore, the Sn and W concentrations in garnets can be used to evaluate a skarn deposit’s potential to produce Sn and (or) W mineralization, which is helpful in exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic–Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralizing Processes)
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Article
The Isotopic (δ18O, δ 2H, δ13C, δ15N, δ34S, 87Sr/86Sr, δ11B) Composition of Adige River Water Records Natural and Anthropogenic Processes
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050455 - 18 May 2020
Viewed by 898
Abstract
The water composition of the river Adige displays a Ca–HCO3 hydrochemical facies, mainly due to rock weathering. Nitrate is the only component that has increased in relation to growing anthropogenic inputs. The aim of this paper was to identify the origin of [...] Read more.
The water composition of the river Adige displays a Ca–HCO3 hydrochemical facies, mainly due to rock weathering. Nitrate is the only component that has increased in relation to growing anthropogenic inputs. The aim of this paper was to identify the origin of the dissolved components in this river and to establish the relationship between these components and critical zone processes within an evolving framework where climatic and human impacts are influencing the riverine system. In particular, emphasis is given to a wide spectrum of isotope data (δ18O, δ2H, δ13C, δ15N, δ34S, 87Sr/86Sr, δ11B), which is considered useful for determining water origin as well as natural and anthropogenic impacts on riverine geochemistry. Together with oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, which are strictly related to the climatic conditions (precipitation, temperature, humidity), the carbon, sulphur, strontium and boron signatures can describe the magnitude of rock weathering, which is in turn linked to the climatic parameters. δ13CDIC varies regularly along the riverine profile between −4.5‰ and −9.5‰, and δ34SSO4 varies regularly between +4.4‰ and +11.4‰. On the other hand, δ15NNO3 shows a more scattered distribution between +3.9‰ and +10.5‰, with sharp variations along the riverine profile. 87Sr/86Sr varies between 0.72797 in the upper part of the catchment and 0.71068 in the lower part. δ11B also shows a rough trend, with values approaching 7.6‰ in the upper part and 8.5‰ in the lower part. In our view, the comparatively low δ34S, δ11B, and high 87Sr/86Sr values, could be a proxy for increasing silicate weathering, which is a process that is sensitive to increases in temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elemental and Isotope Geochemistry of the Earth’s Critical Zone)
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