Special Issue "Heavy Minerals"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sergio Andò

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 4, 20126 Milano, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: heavy-minerals; provenance studies; Raman spectroscopy; single grain analysis; varietal studies; Indus Fan; African sand; silt; dust

Special Issue Information

“Our chance of making correct provenance diagnoses becomes small when geological age blurs our landmarks, and the complexity of natural systems confounds us in a labyrinth of possibilities... Different techniques provide distinct points of view, from which disparate details of the general picture can be revealed. Only by the painstaking careful integration of such diverse complementary pieces of information can we hope to get a glimpse of the entire landscape.” Eduardo Garzanti, 2016. From static to dynamic provenance analysis—Sedimentary petrology upgraded. Sedimentary Geology 336, 3–13.

Dear Colleagues,

The principal aim of this book is to provide a wide range of information and a useful reference for researchers interested to investigate heavy-mineral assemblages in different geological settings and for a variety of purposes. The great methodological developments achieved in recent years for the identification of heavy minerals in a wide grain-size range will be illustrated. All factors that affect heavy-mineral concentration and relative proportions, including hydraulic sorting, mechanical abrasion, chemical weathering and post-depositional dissolution, and all factors able to introduce analytical, environmental or diagenetic bias will be thoroughly dealt with. A proper integration of multiple techniques including bulk-sediment, multi-mineral, and single-mineral methods will be discussed by renowned authors in their invited contributions.

Prof. Dr. Sergio Andò
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • heavy-mineral suites
  • source-to-sink studies
  • petroleum exploration
  • advanced techniques of mineral analysis
  • applications to provenance of silt and dust

Published Papers (3 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-3
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exploratory Analysis of Provenance Data Using R and the Provenance Package
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030193
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
PDF Full-text (744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The provenance of siliclastic sediment may be traced using a wide variety of chemical, mineralogical and isotopic proxies. These define three distinct data types: (1) compositional data such as chemical concentrations; (2) point-counting data such as heavy mineral compositions; and (3) distributional data [...] Read more.
The provenance of siliclastic sediment may be traced using a wide variety of chemical, mineralogical and isotopic proxies. These define three distinct data types: (1) compositional data such as chemical concentrations; (2) point-counting data such as heavy mineral compositions; and (3) distributional data such as zircon U-Pb age spectra. Each of these three data types requires separate statistical treatment. Central to any such treatment is the ability to quantify the ‘dissimilarity’ between two samples. For compositional data, this is best done using a logratio distance. Point-counting data may be compared using the chi-square distance, which deals better with missing components (zero values) than the logratio distance does. Finally, distributional data can be compared using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov and related statistics. For small datasets using a single provenance proxy, data interpretation can sometimes be done by visual inspection of ternary diagrams or age spectra. However, this no longer works for larger and more complex datasets. This paper reviews a number of multivariate ordination techniques to aid the interpretation of such studies. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) is a generally applicable method that displays the salient dissimilarities and differences between multiple samples as a configuration of points in which similar samples plot close together and dissimilar samples plot far apart. For compositional data, classical MDS analysis of logratio data is shown to be equivalent to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The resulting MDS configurations can be augmented with compositional information as biplots. For point-counting data, classical MDS analysis of chi-square distances is shown to be equivalent to Correspondence Analysis (CA). This technique also produces biplots. Thus, MDS provides a common platform to visualise and interpret all types of provenance data. Generalising the method to three-way dissimilarity tables provides an opportunity to combine several datasets together and thereby facilitate the interpretation of ‘Big Data’. This paper presents a set of tutorials using the statistical programming language R. It illustrates the theoretical underpinnings of compositional data analysis, PCA, MDS and other concepts using toy examples, before applying these methods to real datasets with the provenance package. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Minerals)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Sandstones Using Heavy Mineral Provenance Signatures: Examples from the North Sea and Adjacent Areas
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120564
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 24 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (19867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Correlation of hydrocarbon reservoir sandstones is one of the most important economic applications for heavy mineral analysis. In this paper, we review the fundamental principles required for establishing correlation frameworks using heavy mineral data, and illustrate the applications of a wide variety of [...] Read more.
Correlation of hydrocarbon reservoir sandstones is one of the most important economic applications for heavy mineral analysis. In this paper, we review the fundamental principles required for establishing correlation frameworks using heavy mineral data, and illustrate the applications of a wide variety of heavy mineral techniques using a number of case studies from hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Sea and adjacent areas. The examples cover Triassic red-bed successions in the central North Sea and west of Shetland, which have been subdivided and correlated using provenance-sensitive ratio data and mineral morphologies; Middle Jurassic paralic sandstones in the northern North Sea, correlated using garnet geochemistry; Upper Jurassic deep water sandstones in the northern North Sea, discriminated using rutile geochemistry and detrital zircon age data; and the “real-time” application of the technique at well site in Devonian-Carboniferous fluvio-lacustrine sandstones of the Clair Field, west of Shetland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Minerals)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Heavy Minerals for Junior Woodchucks
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030148
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
PDF Full-text (13792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last two centuries, since the dawn of modern geology, heavy minerals have been used to investigate sediment provenance and for many other scientific or practical applications. Not always, however, with the correct approach. Difficulties are diverse, not just technical and related [...] Read more.
In the last two centuries, since the dawn of modern geology, heavy minerals have been used to investigate sediment provenance and for many other scientific or practical applications. Not always, however, with the correct approach. Difficulties are diverse, not just technical and related to the identification of tiny grains, but also procedural and conceptual. Even the definition of “heavy minerals” is elusive, and possibly impossible. Sampling is critical. In many environments (e.g., beaches), both absolute and relative heavy mineral abundances invariably increase or decrease locally to different degrees owing to hydraulic-sorting processes, so that samples close to "neutral composition" are hard to obtain. Several widely shared opinions are misleading. Choosing a narrow size-window for analysis leads to increased bias, not to increased accuracy or precision. Only point-counting provides real volume percentages, whereas grain-counting distorts results in favor of smaller minerals. This paper also briefly reviews the heavy mineral associations typically found in diverse plate-tectonic settings. A mineralogical assemblage, however, only reproduces the mineralogy of source rocks, which does not correlate univocally with the geodynamic setting in which those source rocks were formed and assembled. Moreover, it is affected by environmental bias, and by diagenetic bias on top in the case of ancient sandstones. One fruitful way to extract information on both provenance and sedimentological processes is to look for anomalies in mineralogical–textural relationships (e.g., denser minerals bigger than lower-density minerals; harder minerals better rounded than softer minerals; less durable minerals increasing with stratal age and stratigraphic depth). To minimize mistakes, it is necessary to invariably combine heavy mineral investigations with the petrographic analysis of bulk sand. Analysis of thin sections allows us to see also those source rocks that do not shed significant amounts of heavy minerals, such as limestone or granite, and helps us to assess heavy mineral concentration, the “outer” message carrying the key to decipher the “inner message” contained in the heavy mineral suite. The task becomes thorny indeed when dealing with samples with strong diagenetic overprint, which is, unfortunately, the case of most ancient sandstones. Diagenesis is the Moloch that devours all grains that are not chemically resistant, leaving a meager residue difficult or even impossible to interpret when diagenetic effects accumulate through multiple sedimentary cycles. We have conceived this friendly little handbook to help the student facing these problems, hoping that it may serve the purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Minerals)
Figures

Figure 1

Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top