Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Land, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) To achieve the SDGs related to food, health, water, and climate and avoid further land degradation [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-50
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview Public Green Infrastructure Contributes to City Livability: A Systematic Quantitative Review
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610 | PDF Full-text (2555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Consistent with the Land Urbanism and Green Infrastructure theme of this special issue of Land, the primary goal of this review is to provide a plain language overview of recent literature that reports on the psychological, physiological, general well-being, and wider societal benefits [...] Read more.
Consistent with the Land Urbanism and Green Infrastructure theme of this special issue of Land, the primary goal of this review is to provide a plain language overview of recent literature that reports on the psychological, physiological, general well-being, and wider societal benefits that humans receive as a result of experiencing public green infrastructure (PGI) and nature in urbanized landscapes. This enhanced well-being and the wider societal benefits that accrue to urban dwellers as a result of interacting with quality PGI contributes to the concept known as city or urban livability. The quantitative analysis and theoretical synthesis reported in this review can inform decision makers, stakeholders, and other PGI and urban nature (UN) researchers of the benefits that urban populations receive from experiencing quality PGI spaces and UN and the contribution those spaces make to the livability of urban areas. With diminishing opportunities for the acquisition of new public open space to increase PGI and re-establish UN near urban centers, the efficient management and continuous improvement of existing PGI and UN is essential to promote and foster opportunities for human-to-nature contact and the known benefits therein derived. In addition to identifying an increased research interest and publication of articles that report on the contribution of PGI spaces to urban livability over the past decade, the review identifies and reports on the seven focus areas of PGI-livability research and the six attributes of PGI spaces that the current literatures report as contributing to the livability of urbanized landscapes. After providing a quantitative analysis for the reporting of those research areas and PGI attributes and summarizing key findings reported in the literature regarding the contribution that PGI spaces make to urban livability, this review also identifies knowledge gaps in the published literature and puts forward recommendations for further research in this rapidly expanding multidisciplinary field of research and policy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial Landscapes in the Eastern Mediterranean between the Future and the Past
Received: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
Viewed by 393 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landscapes have long been viewed as complex, synthetic entities reflecting the human imprint upon the land. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Visitor Satisfaction with a Public Green Infrastructure and Urban Nature Space in Perth, Western Australia
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 469 | PDF Full-text (1740 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The widely applied Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) provides relatively simple and straightforward techniques to assess how well the attributes of a good or service perform in meeting the expectations of consumers, clients, users, and visitors. Surprisingly, IPA has rarely been applied to inform the [...] Read more.
The widely applied Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) provides relatively simple and straightforward techniques to assess how well the attributes of a good or service perform in meeting the expectations of consumers, clients, users, and visitors. Surprisingly, IPA has rarely been applied to inform the management of urban public green infrastructure (PGI) or urban nature (UN) spaces. This case study explores the visitor satisfaction levels of people using a PGI space that incorporates UN, close to the central business district of Perth, Western Australia. With diminishing opportunities to acquire new PGI spaces within ever more densely populated urban centers, understanding, efficiently managing, and continuously improving existing spaces is crucial to accessing the benefits and services that PGI and UN provide for humankind. An intercept survey conducted within the Lake Claremont PGI space utilized a self-report questionnaire to gather qualitative and quantitative data (n = 393). This case study demonstrates how the IPA tool can assist urban planners and land managers to collect information about the attributes of quality PGI and UN spaces to monitor levels of service, to increase overall efficiency of site management, to inform future management decisions, and to optimize the allocation of scarce resources. The satisfaction of PGI users was analyzed using the IPA tool to determine where performance and/or resourcing of PGI attributes were not congruent with the expectations of PGI users (generally in the form of over-servicing or under-servicing). The IPA demonstrated that a majority of PGI users perceived the study site to be high performing and were satisfied with many of the assessed attributes. The survey identified the potential for some improvement of the amenity and/or infrastructure installations at the site, as well as directing attention towards a more effective utilization of scarce resources. Optimizing the management of PGI spaces will enhance opportunities for individuals to obtain the physiological, psychological, and emotional benefits that arise from experiencing quality urban PGI spaces. This case study promotes the important contribution that high-quality PGI spaces, which include remnant and restored UN spaces, make to the development of resilient and sustainable urban centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Linking Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: A Review with Evidence from the Land-Use Sectors
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
Viewed by 406 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There is extensive scientific evidence that both adaptation and mitigation are essential to address the problem of climate change. However, there is still limited knowledge about the possibilities for exploiting the interrelationships between these measures in the design and implementation of climate change [...] Read more.
There is extensive scientific evidence that both adaptation and mitigation are essential to address the problem of climate change. However, there is still limited knowledge about the possibilities for exploiting the interrelationships between these measures in the design and implementation of climate change activities. In this paper, first the adaptation–mitigation dichotomy and definitions of adaptation and mitigation are discussed. This is followed by a comprehensive scrutiny of the perceptual overlaps and distinctions between adaptation and mitigation, which include a meta-analysis of synergies and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation in the agriculture and forestry sectors. The analysis shows that activities greatly depend on their context, design and implementation, so actions have to be tailored to the specific conditions, as few, if any, outcomes are universal. The analysis also indicates that the forestry sector delivers more synergies and has more trade-offs when compared to agriculture, which could be because of the fact that forest areas contain significantly more carbon, but at the same time they also compete with alternative land-uses. The article closes by going through a list of research gaps related to the linking of adaptation and mitigation and by providing implications for climate change policy. Full article
Open AccessArticle The River as an Economic Asset: Settlement and Society in the Xeros Valley in Cyprus
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 691 | PDF Full-text (39110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Settled and Sacred Landscapes of Cyprus (SeSaLaC) is a systematic archaeological survey project of the University of Cyprus in the Xeros River valley in the Larnaka district in Cyprus. This article aims to present a first synthesis of the diachronic settlement pattern in [...] Read more.
Settled and Sacred Landscapes of Cyprus (SeSaLaC) is a systematic archaeological survey project of the University of Cyprus in the Xeros River valley in the Larnaka district in Cyprus. This article aims to present a first synthesis of the diachronic settlement pattern in the region. After a short introduction on the area and the SeSaLaC project, we attempt to identify and interpret settlement evolution and landscape changes in the region, from early prehistory to Late Antiquity. The contextualisation and evaluation of settlement changes in the Xeros River valley are carried out within a multi-layered framework along the main strands of approach presented in this Land special issue. The presentation and analysis that follows below is a work in progress. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Beef Cattle Production Systems in South Pantanal: Considerations on Territories and Integration Scales
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
Viewed by 460 | PDF Full-text (7951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world. In its southern portion, it hosts significant beef cattle ranching, having a herd of 4,832,200 head of cattle in 2016 (IBGE, 2018). Yet it presents intra-regional differences and complementarities. This article discusses such [...] Read more.
Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world. In its southern portion, it hosts significant beef cattle ranching, having a herd of 4,832,200 head of cattle in 2016 (IBGE, 2018). Yet it presents intra-regional differences and complementarities. This article discusses such current territory definition, focusing on cattle ranching in Pantanal, considering its forms of occupation, agents, and its intra-regional flow of cattle. This recognition is essential for the identification of the arrangements developed in the territory, its temporal dynamics and spatial strategies, assuming different forms of interaction with the environment. In order to identify multiple livestock territories and their logics of action, data grouped into four dimensions were considered: (i) agents, (ii) product, (iii) space used, and (iv) flows and circulation, approached in different scales (farms, municipal and units of landscape floodplain/plateau). The analyzes show different forms of domination and territorial appropriation, continuous and discontinuous, permanent and temporary. Mapping of cattle territories in the South Pantanal identified a scenario of multiterritoriality. While maintaining its “nursery” profile, it presents more intensive arrangements with the rearing and fattening phases. New territorialities represented by external agents and the fragmentation of old properties has genereted a new mapping of the “used spaces” for cattle breeding and posed new challenges for the maintenance of the traditional cattle production systems in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Food Systems Interactions in South America)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Transforming Culture on an Insula Portunalis: Port Cities as Central Places in Early Roman Cyprus
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577 | PDF Full-text (6248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the Early Roman period in the Mediterranean (ca. 30 BC–330 AD), the key central places that distinguished socio-political landscapes were towns. These urban centers functioned as economic and administrative focal points that were controlled by local elites who oversaw wealth redistribution and [...] Read more.
During the Early Roman period in the Mediterranean (ca. 30 BC–330 AD), the key central places that distinguished socio-political landscapes were towns. These urban centers functioned as economic and administrative focal points that were controlled by local elites who oversaw wealth redistribution and maintained a dialectical relationship with Rome that mutually benefitted both parties. Yet, beyond providing such rudimentary observations, central place theory has recently been revised to examine how local factors, such as a place’s long-term geography and history, intersect with globalizing ones to transform settlement hierarchies as well as economic, political, and cultural landscapes. This article’s goal is to explore such intersections through a study of how port towns functioned as central places that connected globalized imperial networks to localized provincial ones within island contexts. It examines a range of material culture including, ceramics, architecture, prestige goods, and coinage from ports in Early Roman Cyprus in order to investigate how the island’s integration into Roman networks created central places that altered existing settlement types, hierarchies, and thus, local identities. Overall, this study shows how the reanalysis of central places within their unique geohistorical contexts can shed new light on both regional and state-level processes of cultural change. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Use of Sentinel-2 and LUCAS Database for the Inventory of Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry in Wallonia, Belgium
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
Viewed by 448 | PDF Full-text (7102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to its cost-effectiveness and repeatability of observations, high resolution optical satellite remote sensing has become a major technology for land use and land cover mapping. However, inventory compilers for the Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry (LULUCF) sector are still mostly [...] Read more.
Due to its cost-effectiveness and repeatability of observations, high resolution optical satellite remote sensing has become a major technology for land use and land cover mapping. However, inventory compilers for the Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry (LULUCF) sector are still mostly relying on annual census and periodic surveys for such inventories. This study proposes a new approach based on per-pixel supervised classification using Sentinel-2 imagery from 2016 for mapping greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with the LULUCF sector in Wallonia, Belgium. The Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey (LUCAS) of 2015 was used as training data and reference data to validate the map produced. Then, we investigated the performance of four widely used classifiers (maximum likelihood, random forest, k-nearest neighbor, and minimum distance) on different training sample sizes. We also studied the use of the rich spectral information of Sentinel-2 data as well as single-date and multitemporal classification. Our study illustrates how open source data can be effectively used for land use and land cover classification. This classification, based on Sentinel-2 and LUCAS, offers new opportunities for LULUCF inventory of greenhouse gas on a European scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Land Cover Change: Towards Sustainability)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Economic Centrality of Urban Centers in the Medieval Peloponnese: Late 11th–Mid-14th Centuries
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 430 | PDF Full-text (5054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Peloponnese, a province of the Byzantine Empire in the 11th and 12th centuries, was divided into three distinct political entities after 1204: the Frankish Principality of Achaia, the Venetian colonies of Modon and Coron, and the Byzantine lands in the southeast. The [...] Read more.
The Peloponnese, a province of the Byzantine Empire in the 11th and 12th centuries, was divided into three distinct political entities after 1204: the Frankish Principality of Achaia, the Venetian colonies of Modon and Coron, and the Byzantine lands in the southeast. The number and size of cities in the Peloponnese during the 11th and 12th centuries expanded, and the establishment of the new political entities of the 13th century did not hinder the development of its urban centers. New urban centers appeared, and the dynamics of the old urban centers witnessed a major shift. The focus of this paper is on port towns, since the majority of the available data derive from them, and aims to investigate the economic centrality of the port towns in the Peloponnese in the context of their environs, economic activities, and their position in the eastern Mediterranean exchange system. The theoretical framework is based on concepts of network theory, centrality, and economic complexity, as well as on a thorough evaluation of the material and textual evidence. In doing so, the economic profile of each central place is reconstructed, as well as a comparison between them. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Land Cover Changes in the Hinterland of Barranquilla (Colombia) Using Landsat Imagery and Logistic Regression
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
Viewed by 523 | PDF Full-text (6809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Barranquilla is known as a dynamically growing city in the Colombian Caribbean. Urbanisation induces land use and land cover (LULC) changes in the city and its hinterland affecting the region’s climate and biodiversity. This paper aims to identify the trends of land use [...] Read more.
Barranquilla is known as a dynamically growing city in the Colombian Caribbean. Urbanisation induces land use and land cover (LULC) changes in the city and its hinterland affecting the region’s climate and biodiversity. This paper aims to identify the trends of land use and land cover changes in the hinterland of Barranquilla corresponding to 13 municipalities in the north of the Department Atlántico. Landsat TM/ETM/OLI imagery from 1985 to 2017 was used to map and analyse the spatio-temporal development of land use and land cover changes. During the investigation period, the settlement areas grew by approximately 50% (from 103.3 to 153.6 km2), while areas with woody vegetation cover experienced dynamic changes and increased in size since 2001. Peri-urban and rural areas were characterized by highly dynamic changes, particularly regarding clearing and recovery of vegetated areas. Regression analyses were performed to identify the impact factors of detected vegetation cover changes. Computed logistic regression models included 20 independent variables, such as relief, climate, soil, proximity characteristics and socio-economic data. The results of this study may act as a basis to enable researchers and decision-makers to focus on the most important signals of systematic landscape transformations and on the conservation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle People and Post-Mining Environments: PPGIS Mapping of Landscape Values, Knowledge Needs, and Future Perspectives in Northern Finland
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Viewed by 867 | PDF Full-text (3185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mining can have a notable environmental and social footprint both during the production phase and after the mine closure. We examined local stakeholders’ viewpoints on two post-mining areas in northern Finland, Hannukainen and Rautuvaara, using a public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) approach. [...] Read more.
Mining can have a notable environmental and social footprint both during the production phase and after the mine closure. We examined local stakeholders’ viewpoints on two post-mining areas in northern Finland, Hannukainen and Rautuvaara, using a public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) approach. Spatially explicit data on local residents’ and visitors’ values, knowledge needs, and future perspectives on mining landscapes were collected with an online map-based survey tool (Harava). The results show that post-mining sites were generally considered unpleasant places. A majority of respondents were of the opinion that areas would need better reclamation and landscaping measures. The landscape surrounding the post-mining sites contained a wide diversity of pleasant places with high nature and recreational value. Respondents addressed various environmental concerns related to the impacts of former mining activities on the quality of ground water and surface water, potential soil contamination, and the safety of natural products. Opinions on the planned mine reopening were strongly divided among the respondents. One of the key questions was whether a large open-pit mine and nature-based tourism can coexist in the same region. Our results highlight that “the shadow of the mine”—observed environmental impacts, uncertainties related to the spatial extent, duration, and magnitude of impacts, and knowledge gaps—can affect local stakeholders’ land use far outside the mining sites and long after the mine closure. Identifying and mapping stakeholder values, opinions, and knowledge needs could significantly improve post-mining land use planning and mitigate the loss of multifunctional landscapes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessing Stormwater Nutrient and Heavy Metal Plant Uptake in an Experimental Bioretention Pond
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
Viewed by 447 | PDF Full-text (3725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the purpose to study a solution based on Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) to reduce and treat stormwater runoff in urban areas, a bioretention pond (BP) was realized in the Agripolis campus of the University of Padova, Italy. The BP collected overflow [...] Read more.
With the purpose to study a solution based on Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) to reduce and treat stormwater runoff in urban areas, a bioretention pond (BP) was realized in the Agripolis campus of the University of Padova, Italy. The BP collected overflow water volumes of the rainwater drainage system of a 2270 m2 drainage area consisting almost entirely of impervious surfaces. Sixty-six Tech-IA® floating elements, supporting four plants each, were laid on the water surface. Eleven species of herbaceous perennial helophyte plants, with ornamental features, were used and tested. The early growth results of the BP functioning showed that nearly 50% of the total inflow water volume was stored or evapotranspirated, reducing the peak discharge on the urban drainage system. Among plants, Alisma parviflora, Caltha palustris, Iris ‘Black Gamecock’, Lysimachia punctata ‘Alexander’, Oenanthe javanica ‘Flamingo’, Mentha aquatica, Phalaris arundinacea ‘Picta’, and Typha laxmannii had the best survival and growth performances. A. parviflora and M. aquatica appeared interesting also for pollutant reduction in runoff water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Value of Soil Inorganic Carbon for Ecosystem Services in the Contiguous United States Based on Liming Replacement Costs
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
Viewed by 694 | PDF Full-text (2179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil databases are very important for assessing ecosystem services at different administrative levels (e.g., state, region etc.). Soil databases provide information about numerous soil properties, including soil inorganic carbon (SIC), which is a naturally occurring liming material that regulates soil pH and performs [...] Read more.
Soil databases are very important for assessing ecosystem services at different administrative levels (e.g., state, region etc.). Soil databases provide information about numerous soil properties, including soil inorganic carbon (SIC), which is a naturally occurring liming material that regulates soil pH and performs other key functions related to all four recognized ecosystem services (e.g., provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services). However, the ecosystem services value, or “true value,” of SIC is not recognized in the current land market. In this case, a negative externality arises because SIC with a positive value has zero market price, resulting in the market failure and the inefficient use of land. One potential method to assess the value of SIC is by determining its replacement cost based on the price of commercial limestone that would be required to amend soil. The objective of this study is to assess SIC replacement cost value in the contiguous United States (U.S.) by depth (0–20, 20–100, 100–200 cm) and considering different spatial aggregation levels (i.e., state, region, land resource region (LRR) using the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) soil database. A replacement cost value of SIC was determined based on an average price of limestone in 2014 ($10.42 per U.S. ton). Within the contiguous U.S., the total replacement cost value of SIC in the upper two meters of soil is between $2.16T (i.e., 2.16 trillion U.S. dollars, where T = trillion = 1012) and $8.97T. States with the highest midpoint total value of SIC were: (1) Texas ($1.84T), (2) New Mexico ($355B, that is, 355 billion U.S. dollars, where B = billion = 109) and (3) Montana ($325B). When normalized by area, the states with the highest midpoint SIC values were: (1) Texas ($2.78 m−2), (2) Utah ($1.72 m−2) and (3) Minnesota ($1.35 m−2). The highest ranked regions for total SIC value were: (1) South Central ($1.95T), (2) West ($1.23T) and (3) Northern Plains ($1.01T), while the highest ranked regions based on area-normalized SIC value were: (1) South Central ($1.80 m−2), (2) Midwest ($0.82 m−2) and (3) West ($0.63 m−2). For land resource regions (LRR), the rankings were: (1) Western Range and Irrigated Region ($1.10T), (2) Central Great Plains Winter Wheat and Range Region ($926B) and (3) Central Feed Grains and Livestock Region ($635B) based on total SIC value, while the LRR rankings based on area-normalized SIC value were: (1) Southwest Plateaus and Plains Range and Cotton Region ($3.33 m−2), (2) Southwestern Prairies Cotton and Forage Region ($2.83 m−2) and (3) Central Great Plains Winter Wheat and Range Region ($1.59 m−2). Most of the SIC is located within the 100–200 cm depth interval with a midpoint replacement cost value of $2.49T and an area-normalized value of $0.34 m−2. Results from this study provide a link between science-based estimates (e.g., soil order) of SIC replacement costs within the administrative boundaries (e.g., state, region etc.). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Agricultural Land Conversion, Land Economic Value, and Sustainable Agriculture: A Case Study in East Java, Indonesia
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 535 | PDF Full-text (6183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive-driven process. In this paper, we further investigate the inter-relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated the LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas of East Java, [...] Read more.
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive-driven process. In this paper, we further investigate the inter-relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated the LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas of East Java, Indonesia. The first area represents peri-urban agriculture, which is facing rapid urbanization and experiencing a high rate of ALC. The second area represents rural agriculture, with zero ALC. Furthermore, we identified factors affecting LEV in both areas for both uses. The results of this study show that agricultural land yielded a higher economic benefit in rural areas. Conversely, compared to agricultural land, housing in urban areas yields a value that is seven times higher. Moreover, agricultural land was shown to yield a higher profit after conversion. Ironically, a similar comparison does not exist in rural areas. Agricultural land yielded a value that was only 19% higher, indicating that agricultural land can easily be converted. This is also proven by the growing number of new urban cores in the periphery area. There are several factors affecting land economic value, such as agricultural use, soil fertility, accessibility, and cropping pattern, which are important variables. Meanwhile, the accessibility and location of peri-urban areas increase the land value for housing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Cover/Land-Use Changes in South and Southeast Asia)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEssay The Emergence of Landscape Urbanism: A Chronological Criticism Essay
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
Viewed by 451 | PDF Full-text (2177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scholars and practitioners have great interest in topics related to spatial patterns and the organization and properties of space. Landscape urbanism is one of these topics of interest. This essay, in the form of chronological criticism, presents a broad historical overview of the [...] Read more.
Scholars and practitioners have great interest in topics related to spatial patterns and the organization and properties of space. Landscape urbanism is one of these topics of interest. This essay, in the form of chronological criticism, presents a broad historical overview of the rise of landscape urbanism, primarily from a landscape architectural/geographical/ecological perspective, comparing the normative theories derived in the Western traditions embedded in urban design and architecture with the general values of landscape urbanism. In part, the essay employs the metaphors of Euclidean/Cartesian mathematics and fractal geometry to illustrate these differences. At the conclusion of the article, the reader should understand the historical context in which the planning and design community derived the emergence of landscape urbanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Temporal Dynamics and Motivations for Urban Community Food Gardens in Medium-Sized Towns of the Eastern Cape, South Africa
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
Viewed by 379 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban agriculture is said to be increasing with global urbanization. However, there is little examination of the temporal or spatial dynamics of urban agriculture. We investigated the benefits and challenges experienced by community gardeners in four towns in South Africa, along with GIS [...] Read more.
Urban agriculture is said to be increasing with global urbanization. However, there is little examination of the temporal or spatial dynamics of urban agriculture. We investigated the benefits and challenges experienced by community gardeners in four towns in South Africa, along with GIS analysis of the number, area, and location of urban food community gardens over the last three decades. Common reasons for practicing community gardening were cash poverty (37%) and the need to grow food (34%). The most common benefits reported by respondents were a healthy lifestyle (58%) and consumption of the food produced (54%). Theft of garden infrastructure or produce was a noteworthy challenge to continued motivation and engagement in urban community gardening. There were declines in the number and area of urban community gardens, and more central location over the last three decades. Only 16% of the gardens present in the 1980s were still operating in the 2000s. Clearly community gardening is temporally and spatially dynamic, which requires context-sensitive policy initiatives. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Prioritizing Suitable Locations for Green Stormwater Infrastructure Based on Social Factors in Philadelphia
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 575 | PDF Full-text (1530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Municipalities across the United States are prioritizing green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) projects due to their potential to concurrently optimize the social, economic, and environmental benefits of the “triple bottom line”. While placement of these features is often based on biophysical variables regarding the [...] Read more.
Municipalities across the United States are prioritizing green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) projects due to their potential to concurrently optimize the social, economic, and environmental benefits of the “triple bottom line”. While placement of these features is often based on biophysical variables regarding the natural and built environments, highly urbanized areas often exhibit either limited data or minimal variability in these characteristics. Using a case study of Philadelphia and building on previous work to prioritize GSI features in disadvantaged communities, this study addresses the dual concerns of the inequitable benefits of distribution and suitable site placement of GSI using a model to evaluate and integrate social variables to support decision making regarding GSI implementation. Results of this study indicate locations both suitable and optimal for the implementation of four types of GSI features: tree trenches, pervious pavement, rain gardens, and green roofs. Considerations of block-level site placement assets and liabilities are discussed, with recommendations for use of this analysis for future GSI programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Statistical Approaches for Modelling Land-Use Change
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
Viewed by 515 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Land-use change can have local-to-global environment impacts such as loss of biodiversity and climate change as well as social-economic impacts such as social inequality. Models that are built to analyze land-use change can help us understand the causes and effects of change, which [...] Read more.
Land-use change can have local-to-global environment impacts such as loss of biodiversity and climate change as well as social-economic impacts such as social inequality. Models that are built to analyze land-use change can help us understand the causes and effects of change, which can provide support and evidence to land-use planning and land-use policies to eliminate or alleviate potential negative outcomes. A variety of modelling approaches have been developed and implemented to represent land-use change, in which statistical methods are often used in the classification of land use as well as to test hypotheses about the significance of potential drivers of land-use change. The utility of statistical models is found in the ease of their implementation and application as well as their ability to provide a general representation of land-use change given a limited amount of time, resources, and data. Despite the use of many different statistical methods for modelling land-use change, comparison among more than two statistical methods is rare and an evaluation of the performance of a combination of different statistical methods with the same dataset is lacking. The presented research fills this gap in land-use modelling literature using four statistical methods—Markov chain, logistic regression, generalized additive models and survival analysis—to quantify their ability to represent land-use change. The four methods were compared across three dimensions: accuracy (overall and by land-use type), sample size, and spatial independence via conventional and spatial cross-validation. Our results show that the generalized additive model outperformed the other three models in terms of overall accuracy and was the best for modelling most land-use changes with both conventional and spatial cross-validation regardless of sample size. Logistic regression and survival analysis were more accurate for specific land-use types, and Markov chain was able to represent those changes that could not be modeled by other approaches due to sample size restrictions. Spatial cross-validation accuracies were slightly lower than the conventional cross-validation accuracies. Our results demonstrate that not only is the choice of model by land-use type more important than sample size, but also that a hybrid land-use model comprising the best statistical modelling approaches for each land-use change can outperform individual statistical approaches. While Markov chain was not competitive, it was useful in providing representation using other methods or in other cases where there is no predictor data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Change Modelling)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Underground Space Utilization in the Urban Land-Use Planning of Casablanca (Morocco)
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Viewed by 660 | PDF Full-text (3578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapid rate of population growth and economic development, cities face enormous challenges that require both optimal and integrated solutions to meet the needs of growth and to protect the environment and sustainable development. These urban dynamics, which change over time, extend [...] Read more.
With the rapid rate of population growth and economic development, cities face enormous challenges that require both optimal and integrated solutions to meet the needs of growth and to protect the environment and sustainable development. These urban dynamics, which change over time, extend not only horizontally and upward, but also downward. Thus, underground space has been utilized increasingly to relieve the urban surface and to ensure the exploitation of underground resources. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibilities of using this space in Casablanca as part of urban land-use planning and, consequently, to suggest an integrated model of exploitation of this space that is adapted to the specificities of the study area. Thus, an analysis of the use of underground spaces in a set of European cities has been performed. The study of the characteristics of this space in Casablanca has been realized according to the levels of geology and hydrogeology and two underground infrastructure projects. This work has led to the implementation of a prototype model named “Sub-Urban Information Modeling”. The model’s objective is to gather all the data and knowledge related to the relevant underground space in an integrated platform that can be shared and updated in order to facilitate the understanding of this environment and its interaction with the surface and to ensure the rational and efficient use of its resources. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Valuing Environmental Benefit Streams in the Dryland Ecosystems of Sub-Saharan Africa
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
Viewed by 387 | PDF Full-text (454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Policy-makers and practitioners often struggle or fail to define and quantify the economic impacts that can be achieved through ecologically sustainable investments in dryland ecosystems. This paper reviews the current state of the art in the characterization and valuation of environmental benefits in [...] Read more.
Policy-makers and practitioners often struggle or fail to define and quantify the economic impacts that can be achieved through ecologically sustainable investments in dryland ecosystems. This paper reviews the current state of the art in the characterization and valuation of environmental benefits in drought-prone areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Benefit streams from ecosystem services associated with the production of food, energy and water are characterized, as well as those from supporting and regulating hydrological systems. For each value type, valuation approaches and examples of their application in Sub-Saharan African contexts are presented. The review is drawn from a series of recent methodological discussions, working papers and field research reports focusing on the benefits of locally determined and ecosystem-based adaptations under dryland climate extremes. The focus is on the challenges faced by practitioners and researchers tasked with developing benefit-cost assessments for investments in the adaptive management and conservation of dryland ecosystems, particularly in marginalized dry and drought-prone areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Recommendations could also interest a wider global community of dryland researchers and development practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arid Land Systems: Sciences and Societies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Urban River Recovery Inspired by Nature-Based Solutions and Biophilic Design in Albufeira, Portugal
Received: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
Viewed by 879 | PDF Full-text (5356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mass urbanisation presents one of the most urgent challenges of the 21st century. The development of cities and the related increasing ground sealing are asking even more for the restoration of urban rivers, especially in the face of climate change and its consequences. [...] Read more.
Mass urbanisation presents one of the most urgent challenges of the 21st century. The development of cities and the related increasing ground sealing are asking even more for the restoration of urban rivers, especially in the face of climate change and its consequences. This paper aims to demonstrate nature-inspired solutions in a recovery of a Southern European river that was canalised and transformed in culvert pipes. The river restoration project naturally tells the history of the city, creates a sense for the place, as well as unifying blue–green infrastructure in a symbolic way by offering areas for recreation. To improve well-being and city resilience in the long term, a regenerative sustainability approach based on biophilic design patterns was proposed. Such actions will provide greater health, social cohesion, and well-being for residents and simultaneously reduce the risks of climate change, such as heat island effect and flash floods, presenting the benefits of the transition to a regenerative economy and holistic thinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Resilience of Traditional Livelihood Approaches Despite Forest Grabbing: Ogiek to the West of Mau Forest, Uasin Gishu County
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 489 | PDF Full-text (4167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper is a summary of the findings of research work conducted in two case studies in the Rift Valley, Kenya. This study used the Neo-Institutional theory to interrogate how the rules and regulations (institutions involved) of the agrarian reform process in Kenya [...] Read more.
This paper is a summary of the findings of research work conducted in two case studies in the Rift Valley, Kenya. This study used the Neo-Institutional theory to interrogate how the rules and regulations (institutions involved) of the agrarian reform process in Kenya are constantly changing and helping to shape the livelihoods of social actors around Mau Forest. The first case study—Ndungulu, is a settlement scheme where the Ogiek ethnic community were resettled between 1995 and 1997 after the land clashes of 1992. The second case study is the Kamuyu cooperative farm, a post-colonial settlement scheme owned by a cooperative society that was founded in 1965 by members from the Kikuyu ethnic group. This study employed qualitative data collection methods intermittently between 2012 and 2017 for a total of two years. A total of 60 interviews were conducted for this research. Thirteen (13) of these were key informant interviews with experts on land. The qualitative interviews were complemented by participant observations and nine focus group discussions. The qualitative data from the interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed, coded and analyzed thematically. Observations documented as field notes were also analyzed to complement the study findings. In this paper, the challenges, bargaining position and power play between social actors and government institutions implicated in the agrarian reform process in Kenya has been brought to the forefront. For instance, due to the structural issues that date back to the colonial period, the Ogiek have found innovative ways to maintain their daily existence (e.g., maintaining traditional methods of apiculture in Mau Forest). However, constraints in accessing forest land has resulted in them taking desperate measures, namely; selling off land to the Kalenjin in what is called “distress land sales”. On the contrary, the neighboring Kikuyu have maintained their land ownership status despite recurrent ethnic clashes that have occurred during general election years. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Cypriot Extra-Urban Sanctuary as a Central Place: the Case of Agia Irini
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 681 | PDF Full-text (29153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article contributes to the ongoing debate on the relationship between sanctuaries and the territoriality of the Iron Age polities of Cyprus. The sanctuary site of Agia Irini, at the locality Alonia, is used as a case-study to test hypotheses regarding the connection [...] Read more.
This article contributes to the ongoing debate on the relationship between sanctuaries and the territoriality of the Iron Age polities of Cyprus. The sanctuary site of Agia Irini, at the locality Alonia, is used as a case-study to test hypotheses regarding the connection between extra-urban sacred space and the formation of political and cultural identities. After a short introduction to the theme, a combination of archaeological (context and iconography) and geographic data is implemented in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses in order to contextualise the centrality of this sanctuary within its political, economic, cultural and symbolic landscapes. The discussion proceeds with the examination of pottery evidence from the sanctuary, both published and unpublished, in order to reveal if and how site based analysis of a category of material may help to further reveal the significance of this sanctuary as a central place, albeit lying in an un-central landscape. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Forest Carbon Gain and Loss in Protected Areas of Uganda: Implications to Carbon Benefits of Conservation
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
Viewed by 542 | PDF Full-text (4674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uganda designated 16% of its land as Protected Area (PA). The original goal was natural resources, habitat and biodiversity conservation. However, PAs also offer great potential for carbon conservation in the context of climate change mitigation. Drawing on a wall-to-wall map of forest [...] Read more.
Uganda designated 16% of its land as Protected Area (PA). The original goal was natural resources, habitat and biodiversity conservation. However, PAs also offer great potential for carbon conservation in the context of climate change mitigation. Drawing on a wall-to-wall map of forest carbon change for the entire Uganda, that was developed using two Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets for the period 2000–2012, we (1) quantified forest carbon gain and loss within 713 PAs and their external buffer zones, (2) tested variations in forest carbon change among management categories, and (3) evaluated the effectiveness of PAs and the prevalence of local leakage in terms of forest carbon. The net annual forest carbon gain in PAs of Uganda was 0.22 ± 1.36 t/ha, but a significant proportion (63%) of the PAs exhibited a net carbon loss. Further, carbon gain and loss varied significantly among management categories. About 37% of the PAs were “effective”, i.e., gained or at least maintained forest carbon during the period. Nevertheless, carbon losses in the external buffer zones of those effective PAs significantly contrast with carbon gains inside of the PA boundaries, providing evidence of leakage and thus, isolation. The combined carbon losses inside the boundaries of a large number of PAs, together with leakage in external buffer zones suggest that PAs, regardless of the management categories, are threatened by deforestation and forest degradation. If Uganda will have to benefit from carbon conservation from its large number of PAs through climate change mitigation mechanisms such as REDD+, there is an urgent need to look into some of the current PA management approaches, and design protection strategies that account for the surrounding landscapes and communities outside of the PAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land-Use Change and Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Context and Opportunities for Expanding Protected Areas in Canada
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 802 | PDF Full-text (1396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At present, 10.5% of Canada’s land base is under some form of formal protection. Recent developments indicate Canada aims to work towards a target of protecting 17% of its terrestrial and inland water area by 2020. Canada is uniquely positioned globally as one [...] Read more.
At present, 10.5% of Canada’s land base is under some form of formal protection. Recent developments indicate Canada aims to work towards a target of protecting 17% of its terrestrial and inland water area by 2020. Canada is uniquely positioned globally as one of the few nations that has the capacity to expand the area under its protection. In addition to its formally protected areas, Canada’s remote regions form de facto protected areas that are relatively free from development pressure. Opportunities for expansion of formally protected areas in Canada include official delineation and designation of de facto protected areas and the identification and protection of land to improve connectivity between protected areas (PAs). Furthermore, there are collaborative opportunities for expanding PA through commitments from industry and provincial and territorial land stewards. Other collaborative opportunities include the contributions of First Nations aligning with international examples of Indigenous Protected Areas, or the incorporation and cultivation of private protection programs with documented inclusion in official PA networks. A series of incremental additions from multiple actors may increase the likelihood for achieving area-based targets, and expands stakeholder engagement and representation in Canada’s PA system. Given a generational opportunity and high-level interest in expansion of protected areas in Canada and elsewhere, it is evident that as a diverse number of stakeholders and rights holders collaboratively map current and future land uses onto forest landscapes, science-based conservation targets and spatial prioritizations can inform this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Protected Areas)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Changes in Human Population Density and Protected Areas in Terrestrial Global Biodiversity Hotspots, 1995–2015
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 718 | PDF Full-text (3654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biodiversity hotspots are rich in endemic species and threatened by anthropogenic influences and, thus, considered priorities for conservation. In this study, conservation achievements in 36 global biodiversity hotspots (25 identified in 1988, 10 added in 2011, and one in 2016) were evaluated in [...] Read more.
Biodiversity hotspots are rich in endemic species and threatened by anthropogenic influences and, thus, considered priorities for conservation. In this study, conservation achievements in 36 global biodiversity hotspots (25 identified in 1988, 10 added in 2011, and one in 2016) were evaluated in relation to changes in human population density and protected area coverage between 1995 and 2015. Population densities were compared against 1995 global averages, and percentages of protected area coverage were compared against area-based targets outlined in Aichi target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (17% by 2020) and calls for half Earth (50%). The two factors (average population density and percent protected area coverage) for each hotspot were then plotted to evaluate relative levels of threat to biodiversity conservation. Average population densities in biodiversity hotspots increased by 36% over the 20-year period, and were double the global average. The protected area target of 17% is achieved in 19 of the 36 hotspots; the 17 hotspots where this target has not been met are economically disadvantaged areas as defined by Gross Domestic Product. In 2015, there are seven fewer hotspots (22 in 1995; 15 in 2015) in the highest threat category (i.e., population density exceeding global average, and protected area coverage less than 17%). In the lowest threat category (i.e., population density below the global average, and a protected area coverage of 17% or more), there are two additional hotspots in 2015 as compared to 1995, attributable to gains in protected area. Only two hotspots achieve a target of 50% protection. Although conservation progress has been made in most global biodiversity hotspots, additional efforts are needed to slow and/or reduce population density and achieve protected area targets. Such conservation efforts are likely to require more coordinated and collaborative initiatives, attention to biodiversity objectives beyond protected areas, and support from the global community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Protected Areas)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Trend Analysis of Las Vegas Land Cover and Temperature Using Remote Sensing
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 473 | PDF Full-text (6685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Las Vegas urban area expanded rapidly during the last two decades. In order to understand the impacts on the environment, it is imperative that the rate and type of urban expansion is determined. Remote sensing is an efficient and effective way to [...] Read more.
The Las Vegas urban area expanded rapidly during the last two decades. In order to understand the impacts on the environment, it is imperative that the rate and type of urban expansion is determined. Remote sensing is an efficient and effective way to study spatial change in urban areas and Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) is a valuable technique to retrieve subpixel landcover information from remote sensing images. In this research, urban growth trends in Las Vegas are studied over the 1990 to 2010 period using images from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). The SMA model of TM pixels is calibrated using high resolution NAIP classified image. The trends of land cover change are related to the land surface temperature trends derived from TM thermal infrared images. The results show that the rate of change of various land covers followed a linear trend in Las Vegas. The largest increase occurred in residential buildings followed by roads and commercial buildings. Some increase in vegetation cover in the form of tree cover and open spaces (grass) is also seen and there is a gradual decrease in barren land and bladed ground. Trend analysis of temperature shows a reduction over the new development areas with increased vegetation cover especially, in the form of golf courses and parks. This research provides a useful insight about the role of vegetation in ameliorating temperature rise in arid urban areas. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Environmental Justice in Accessibility to Green Infrastructure in Two European Cities
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
Viewed by 799 | PDF Full-text (3566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although it is well-established that urban green infrastructure is essential to improve the population’s wellbeing, in many developed countries, the availability of green spaces is limited or its distribution around the city is uneven. Some minority groups may have less access or are [...] Read more.
Although it is well-established that urban green infrastructure is essential to improve the population’s wellbeing, in many developed countries, the availability of green spaces is limited or its distribution around the city is uneven. Some minority groups may have less access or are deprived of access to green spaces when compared with the rest of the population. The availability of public green spaces may also be directly related to the geographical location of the city within Europe. In addition, current planning for urban regeneration and the creation of new high-quality recreational public green spaces sometimes results in projects that reinforce the paradox of green gentrification. The aim of this study was to explore the concept of environmental justice in the distribution of the public green spaces in two contrasting cities, Tartu, Estonia; and Faro, Portugal. Quantitative indicators of public green space were calculated in districts in each city. The accessibility of those spaces was measured using the “walkability” distance and grid methods. The results revealed that there was more availability and accessibility to public green spaces in Tartu than in Faro. However, inequalities were observed in Soviet-era housing block districts in Tartu, where most of the Russian minority live, while Roma communities in Faro were located in districts without access to public green space. The availability of public green spaces varied from 1.22 to 31.44 m2/inhabitant in the districts of Faro, and 1.04 to 164.07 m2/inhabitant in the districts of Tartu. In both cities, 45% of the inhabitants had accessible public green spaces within 500 m of their residence. The development of targeted new green infrastructure could increase access to 88% of the population for the city of Faro and 86% for Tartu, delivering environmental justice without provoking green gentrification. The outcome of this study provides advice to urban planners on how to balance green space distribution within city neighbourhoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Soil-Related Sustainable Development Goals: Four Concepts to Make Land Degradation Neutrality and Restoration Work
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1451 | PDF Full-text (2103 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the effort to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to food, health, water, and climate, an increase in pressure on land is highly likely. To avoid further land degradation and promote land restoration, multifunctional use of land is needed within the [...] Read more.
In the effort to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to food, health, water, and climate, an increase in pressure on land is highly likely. To avoid further land degradation and promote land restoration, multifunctional use of land is needed within the boundaries of the soil-water system. In addition, awareness-raising, a change in stakeholders’ attitudes, and a change in economics are essential. The attainment of a balance between the economy, society, and the biosphere calls for a holistic approach. In this paper, we introduce four concepts that we consider to be conducive to realizing LDN in a more integrated way: systems thinking, connectivity, nature-based solutions, and regenerative economics. We illustrate the application of these concepts through three examples in agricultural settings. Systems thinking lies at the base of the three others, stressing feedback loops but also delayed responses. Their simultaneous use will result in more robust solutions, which are sustainable from an environmental, societal, and economic point of view. Solutions also need to take into account the level of scale (global, national, regional, local), stakeholders’ interests and culture, and the availability and boundaries of financial and natural capital. Furthermore, sustainable solutions need to embed short-term management in long-term landscape planning. In conclusion, paradigm shifts are needed. First, it is necessary to move from excessive exploitation in combination with environmental protection, to sustainable use and management of the soil-water system. To accomplish this, new business models in robust economic systems are needed based on environmental systems thinking; an approach that integrates environmental, social, and economic interests. Second, it is necessary to shift from a “system follows function” approach towards a “function follows system” one. Only by making the transition towards integrated solutions based on a socio-economical-ecological systems analysis, using concepts such as nature-based solutions, do we stand a chance to achieve Land Degradation Neutrality by 2030. To make these paradigm shifts, awareness-raising in relation to a different type of governance, economy and landscape and land-use planning and management is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN))
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Extent of Historical, Current, and Future Land Use Systems in Uganda
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 511 | PDF Full-text (5592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable land use systems planning and management requires a wider understanding of the spatial extent and detailed human-ecosystem interactions astride any landscape. This study assessed the extent of historical, current, and future land use systems in Uganda. The specific objectives were to (i) [...] Read more.
Sustainable land use systems planning and management requires a wider understanding of the spatial extent and detailed human-ecosystem interactions astride any landscape. This study assessed the extent of historical, current, and future land use systems in Uganda. The specific objectives were to (i) characterize and assess the extent of historical and current land use systems, and (ii) project future land use systems. The land use systems were defined and classified using spatially explicit land use/cover layers for the years 1990 and 2015, while the future prediction (for the year 2040) was determined using land use systems datasets for both years through a Markov chain model. This study reveals a total of 29 classes of land use systems that can be broadly categorized as follows: three of the land use systems are agricultural, five are under bushland, four under forest, five under grasslands, two under impediments, three under wetlands, five under woodland, one under open water and urban settlement respectively. The highest gains in the land amongst the land use systems were experienced in subsistence agricultural land and grasslands protected, while the highest losses were seen in grasslands unprotected and woodland/forest with low livestock densities. By 2040, subsistence agricultural land is likely to increase by about 1% while tropical high forest with livestock activities is expected to decrease by 0.2%, and woodland/forest unprotected by 0.07%. High demand for agricultural and settlement land are mainly responsible for land use systems patchiness. This study envisages more land degradation and disasters such as landslides, floods, droughts, and so forth to occur in the country, causing more deaths and loss of property, if the rate at which land use systems are expanding is not closely monitored and regulated in the near future. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Land EISSN 2073-445X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top