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Changes in Human Population Density and Protected Areas in Terrestrial Global Biodiversity Hotspots, 1995–2015

Context and Opportunities for Expanding Protected Areas in Canada

Canadian Forest Service (Pacific Forestry Centre), Natural Resources Canada, Victoria, BC V8Z 1M5, Canada
Department of Natural Resource Sciences and McGill School of Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada
Apex Resource Management Solutions Ltd., Ottawa, ON K2A 3K2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2018, 7(4), 137;
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Protected Areas)
At present, 10.5% of Canada’s land base is under some form of formal protection. Recent developments indicate Canada aims to work towards a target of protecting 17% of its terrestrial and inland water area by 2020. Canada is uniquely positioned globally as one of the few nations that has the capacity to expand the area under its protection. In addition to its formally protected areas, Canada’s remote regions form de facto protected areas that are relatively free from development pressure. Opportunities for expansion of formally protected areas in Canada include official delineation and designation of de facto protected areas and the identification and protection of land to improve connectivity between protected areas (PAs). Furthermore, there are collaborative opportunities for expanding PA through commitments from industry and provincial and territorial land stewards. Other collaborative opportunities include the contributions of First Nations aligning with international examples of Indigenous Protected Areas, or the incorporation and cultivation of private protection programs with documented inclusion in official PA networks. A series of incremental additions from multiple actors may increase the likelihood for achieving area-based targets, and expands stakeholder engagement and representation in Canada’s PA system. Given a generational opportunity and high-level interest in expansion of protected areas in Canada and elsewhere, it is evident that as a diverse number of stakeholders and rights holders collaboratively map current and future land uses onto forest landscapes, science-based conservation targets and spatial prioritizations can inform this process. View Full-Text
Keywords: conservation; biodiversity; ecosystems; IUCN; land use; protected areas conservation; biodiversity; ecosystems; IUCN; land use; protected areas
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wulder, M.A.; Cardille, J.A.; White, J.C.; Rayfield, B. Context and Opportunities for Expanding Protected Areas in Canada. Land 2018, 7, 137.

AMA Style

Wulder MA, Cardille JA, White JC, Rayfield B. Context and Opportunities for Expanding Protected Areas in Canada. Land. 2018; 7(4):137.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wulder, Michael A., Jeffrey A. Cardille, Joanne C. White, and Bronwyn Rayfield. 2018. "Context and Opportunities for Expanding Protected Areas in Canada" Land 7, no. 4: 137.

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