Urban River Recovery Inspired by Nature-Based Solutions and Biophilic Design in Albufeira, Portugal
2. Theoretical Framework of the Study
2.1. Biophilia and Biophilic Design
2.2. Development of Cities and the Metamorphosis of Their Rivers
2.3. Urban River Restoration for City Resilience Enhancement
2.4. Regenerative Design for the Degraded Urban Ecosystem
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. The Study Area
3.2. Analysing the Study Area by the Science of Strolling
4.1. The Concept of the Project
4.2. Recreation for City Dwellers and Visitors Due to a Biophilic Design
4.3. Creating a Sense of Place
4.4. Nature-Based Solutions
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
Conflicts of Interest
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|Zone 1: Backyard silence||Unshaded plain park area without identifying the character, no integration of the river and the bordering camping area||Extending the atmosphere of the densely planted camping area with its community gardens by integrating the river as a connecting element and thus, creating a cooling comfort as well as a backyard feeling for recreation|
|Zone 2: Sub-urban laughter||Lined up landscape elements (residential—areapark—road) without any interaction and the disappearing of the river from view||Making the residential area interact with the park due to the creation of a joyful public area with the river integration as the main attraction as well as providing a sound and visual barrier for the bordering road linking both sides by a pedestrian underpass|
|Zone 3: Nature chirping||Busy road separating the municipal green belt and negatively influencing the recreational nature experience the character of the area||Connecting the green belt by implementing a green bridge for animal migration as well as extending the forest atmosphere of the surrounding mountains by the creation of urban woods and wetlands, providing a retention basin tangible in all states of flood levels|
|Zone 4: Urban sounds||Heat island effect strengthened by the absence of the river and a climate adapted infrastructure, as well as the lack of a historical sense of the place||Recreating the sense of place as well as linking public urban spaces by following the symbolic waterline acting at the same time as a part of the city’s blue and green infrastructure|
|Patterns||Stress Reduction||Cognitive Performance||Emotion, Mood and Preference|
|Visual connection with nature. A view to elements of nature, living systems, and natural processes||Lowered blood pressure and heart rate||Improved mental engagement/attentiveness||Positively impacted attitude and overall happiness|
|Non-visual connection with nature. Auditory, haptic, olfactory, or gustatory stimuli that create a deliberate reference to nature||Reduced systolic blood pressure and stress hormones||Positively impacted on cognitive performance||Perceived improvements in mental health and tranquillity|
|Thermal and airflow variability. Subtle changes in air temperature, relative humidity, airflow that mimic natural environments||Positively impacted comfort, well-being and productivity||Positively impacted concentration||Improved perception of temporal and spatial pleasure|
|Presence of water. A condition that enhances the experience of a place through seeing, hearing or touching of water||Reduced stress, increased feelings of tranquillity,||Improved concentration and memory restoration||Observed preferences and positive emotional responses|
|Connection with natural systems. Awareness of natural processes, seasonal changes, characteristic of a healthy ecosystem||Enhanced perception and psychological responsiveness||Enhanced positive health responses; shifted perception of the environment|
|Biomorphic forms and patterns. Symbolic references to contoured, patterned, textured or numerical arrangements that persist in nature||Lower heart rate and blood pressure||Observed view preference|
|Material connection with nature. Material and elements from nature that create a sense of place||Decreased diastolic blood pressure||Improved creative performance||Improved comfort|
|Complexity and order. Rich sensory information that adheres to a spatial hierarchy similar to those encountered in nature||Positive perceptual and physiological stress responses||Improved concentration, attention||Observed view preference|
|Prospect. An unimpeded view over a distance for surveillance and planning||Reduced stress||Reduced fatigue||Improved comfort and perceived safety|
|Refuge. A place for withdrawal from environmental conditions in which the individual is protected from behind and overhead||Reduced stress||Perception of safety||Improved comfort and perceived safety|
|Mystery. The promise of more information achieved through partially obscured views that tempt to travel deeper into the environment||Improved creative performance||Induced strong pleasure response|
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Blau, M.L.; Luz, F.; Panagopoulos, T. Urban River Recovery Inspired by Nature-Based Solutions and Biophilic Design in Albufeira, Portugal. Land 2018, 7, 141. https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040141
Blau ML, Luz F, Panagopoulos T. Urban River Recovery Inspired by Nature-Based Solutions and Biophilic Design in Albufeira, Portugal. Land. 2018; 7(4):141. https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040141Chicago/Turabian Style
Blau, Marie Luise, Frieder Luz, and Thomas Panagopoulos. 2018. "Urban River Recovery Inspired by Nature-Based Solutions and Biophilic Design in Albufeira, Portugal" Land 7, no. 4: 141. https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040141