Underground Space Utilization in the Urban Land-Use Planning of Casablanca (Morocco)
2. Integration of Underground Space in the Urban Land-Use Planning Processes
3. Review of Examples of Underground Space Integration in Urban Land-Use Planning in Europe
3.1. Glasgow Case
3.1.1. Issues of Underground Space in Glasgow
3.1.2. Integration of Underground Space in Glasgow’s Urban Planning
3.2. Hamburg Case
3.2.1. Issues of Urban Underground Space in Hamburg
3.2.2. Integration of Underground Space in Hamburg’s Urban Planning
3.3. Helsinki Case
3.3.1. Issues of Urban Underground Space in Helsinki
3.3.2. Integration of Underground Space in Helsinki’s Urban Planning
4. Components and Resources of Urban Underground Spaces
4.1. Usages of Underground Space Resource Families
4.1.1. The Use of Underground Land
4.1.2. The Use of Groundwater
- The urban distribution network, which is the main network that generally carries most of the drinking water resources;
- Alternative networks, which develop when water resources are limited; and
- Spot captures for individual users (industry, households, etc.).
4.1.3. The Use of Geothermal Energy
- Deep geothermal energy: The geothermal flow is operated by open systems at a depth that exceeds 5 km and at a temperature above 100 °C to produce electricity and heat.
- Medium-depth geothermal energy: the exploitation of the geothermal flow is done with an open system to produce heat at depths of 2–2.5 km and temperatures ranging from 60 to 80 °C. Exploitation tests for medium-depth geothermal energy are inconclusive. The exploitation can be done just at lower depths (thermal waters) in case of the presence of a thermal anomaly or from the tunnel drainage water.
- Shallow geothermal energy: Between 0 and 250 m and at temperatures between 10 and 20 °C. The thermal capacity of the subsurface is used to produce heat and cold for air conditioning. A heat pump is coupled with the structures.
4.1.4. The Use of Geomaterials
- Mineral building materials, such as concrete and asphalt aggregates; and
- Backfill materials for road and rail infrastructure, excavation work, and site alterations.
4.2. Interactions of the Uses of Urban Underground Space Resources
5. Modeling of Underground Space Resources and Their Integration into Urban Land-Use Planning
5.1. Three-Dimensional (3D) Urban Geological Models
- Layer modeling: It is the creation of a set of surfaces representing generally stratigraphic geological changes and other elements, such as faults. It is the most used, although it has limitations because of the creation time of the model and the difficulty of illustrating several lithologies . For example, the Dutch spatial planning model has three conceptual layers, namely the occupancy layer with buildings and other major land-use functions, the network layer representing the transport and utility infrastructure networks, and the underground layer with underground constructions, such as tunnels and mines .
- Stochastic modeling: This approach uses geostatistical techniques to determine the probabilities of some properties, such as lithology or hydraulic connectivity in 3D spaces. To do this, a 3D grid, in which the simulation can be fulfilled, must be created.
5.2. Models of Artificial Land
6. Usage and Modeling of Underground Space in Casablanca
6.1. Presentation of the Study Area (Casablanca)
6.1.1. Geographic and Socio-Economic Context
6.1.2. Horizontal Sprawl of the Urban Planning in Casablanca
6.2. Urban Underground Space of Casablanca
6.2.1. Geological Context
6.2.2. Resources of the Underground Space
- Ground land: The first works in the subsoil of Casablanca were conducted for the construction of the port’s quay in 1907 and then its extension in 1913 [50,51]. Low interest was given to the use of the subsoil with the exception of a few tunnels for networks or transportation or a few buildings for storage (cellar, parking). The urban expansion was horizontal and did not consider the waste of valuable land above the surface. The construction of an underground structure depends on the geological and hydrogeological conditions and the urban context in which the infrastructure fits. In practice, the evaluation of the technologies and the means to be implemented to carry out the project is performed by professionals on the basis of geotechnical and geological studies that present the quantitative parameters (direction of dip, mechanical parameters, permeability, etc.) and the qualitative parameters (particle size heterogeneity, heterogeneity of geological formations, etc.) and also on the basis of their expertise.
- Groundwater: The infiltrated rainwater accumulates or transits into groundwater reservoirs. The study area has two water tables and some streams, as shown in Figure 6. The first is the water table of the coastal Chaouia, which extends over 1.200 km² of the coastal strip and is 20 km wide. It is characterized by very low piezometric levels, varying between 8 and 20 m, medium to low permeability over its entire extent, and flows per structure generally not exceeding 4 L/s. It has a potential of 52 million m3 . Of a heterogeneous nature, it is contained at once in the calcareous formations of the plio-quaternary, in the Cenomanian marnocalcaries, and in the primary schistose, sandstone, and quartzitic terrains .
- Geomaterials: The development of mining activities is favored by a varied geological structure and its concentration in ores. The mineral potential of the Casablanca region, including the study area, is limited, and it is restricted to antimony, salt, and iron. However, the extraction and exploitation of certain ores is stalled because of their low economic return . As for the extraction of stone and aggregates, many quarries began at several points in the plio-pleistocene marine and dune formations consolidated into storied cords .
6.3. Underground Space Uses in Casablanca
6.3.1. Subway Project: An Example of Failure
6.3.2. Underground Super Collector Project: An Example of Success
6.4. Proposal for an Integrated Model of Urban Underground Space Use in Casablanca
6.4.1. Planning and Management of Urban Land-Use Planning in Casablanca
6.4.2. Towards a Model Integrating the Underground Space in Urban Land-Use Planning
Conflicts of Interest
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|Initial Surface (sq. km)||Final Surface (sq. km)||Zone of Change (%)||Expansion Speed (%/year)||Expansion Speed (sq. km/year)|
|Between 1984 and 1999||107||154.63||44.51||2.96||3.15|
|Between 1999 and 2017||154.63||287.59||85.98||4.77||7.38|
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Zerhouny, M.; Fadil, A.; Hakdaoui, M. Underground Space Utilization in the Urban Land-Use Planning of Casablanca (Morocco). Land 2018, 7, 143. https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040143
Zerhouny M, Fadil A, Hakdaoui M. Underground Space Utilization in the Urban Land-Use Planning of Casablanca (Morocco). Land. 2018; 7(4):143. https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040143Chicago/Turabian Style
Zerhouny, Mariama, Abdelhamid Fadil, and Mustapha Hakdaoui. 2018. "Underground Space Utilization in the Urban Land-Use Planning of Casablanca (Morocco)" Land 7, no. 4: 143. https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040143