Special Issue "Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Thomas Panagopoulos
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: nature-based solutions; landscape restoration; sustainable development; climate change adaptation; green infrastructure
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urbanization presents one of the most urgent challenges of the 21st century. The global population is to reach almost 10 billion by 2050 and according to revised projections of the United Nations, the proportion that lives in urban areas is expected to increase from 54% to 70%. Meanwhile, unsustainable, non-resilient urbanization patterns have caused the degradation of ecosystems and their services.

Green infrastructure is a network of green (land) and blue (water) spaces designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services that can improve environmental conditions and therefore citizens' health and quality of life. Restoring, rehabilitating and increasing connectivity between existing, modified and new green areas within cities and at the urban–rural interface is necessary to enhance city adaptive capacity to cope with the effects of changes and to enable ecosystems to deliver their services for more livable, healthier and resilient cities.

The underlying economic conditions and the need for urban growth due to the growing population have to include environmentally-sustainable policies in order to address the problem in accordance with a healthy environment. It is needed a paradigm shift towards restorative sustainability for new and existing urban areas, and multidisciplinary knowledge, leading to solutions that celebrate the richness of design creativity while enhancing users’ experience, comfort, health, wellbeing and satisfaction, and in harmony with urban and natural ecosystems, reconnecting users to nature.

In this Special Issue, we invite papers focusing on, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Regeneration of declining post-industrial cities
  • Nature-Based Solutions and benefits of re-naturing cities
  • Biophilic design
  • Sustainable urban development
  • Landscape ecological urbanism
  • Climate change adaptation and mitigation
  • Creating green space through low-budget and upcycling strategies for positive use of waste materials
  • Placemaking: strengthening the connection between people and the places they share
  • Participatory approaches in re-designing and transforming public spaces to increase health and well-being in cities
  • Environmental justice: Innovative urban design and planning to reduce health-related environmental burdens, foster equitable access for all to public spaces and promote sustainable urban mobility patterns

We encourage contributions that present successful cases of designing healthier, greener, resilient, regenerated cities, with better living conditions for all, reduced crime and security costs, improved air and water quality, enhanced human health and wellbeing, reduced health costs, improved mobility conditions, and increased social cohesion.

We encourage contributions that demonstrate successful cases of increasing city resilience to climate change and disaster risk reduction thanks to the implementation of green infrastructure (e.g. reduced flood risks, mitigated heat stress and water-related challenges).

Dr. Thomas Panagopoulos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban regeneration
  • Post-Industrial redevelopment
  • Nature-Based Solutions
  • Re-naturing cities
  • Biophilic design
  • Landscape architecture
  • Public participation
  • Landscape reclamation
  • Environmental justice
  • Urban planning
  • Well-being

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure
Land 2019, 8(7), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/land8070112 - 17 Jul 2019
Abstract
With the notion of landscape urbanism long neglected, interlinkages between ecology and architecture in the built environment are becoming visible. Yet, the diversity in understandings of the interconnections between cities and nature is the starting point for our research interest. This volume contains [...] Read more.
With the notion of landscape urbanism long neglected, interlinkages between ecology and architecture in the built environment are becoming visible. Yet, the diversity in understandings of the interconnections between cities and nature is the starting point for our research interest. This volume contains nine thoroughly refereed contributions concerning a wide range of topics in landscape architecture and urban green infrastructure. While some papers attempt to conceptualize the relation further, others clearly have an empirical focus. Thereby, this special issue provides a rich body of work, and will act as a starting point for further studies on biophilic urbanism and integrative policies, such as the sustainable development goals of the United Nations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Visitor Satisfaction with a Public Green Infrastructure and Urban Nature Space in Perth, Western Australia
Land 2018, 7(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040159 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The widely applied Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) provides relatively simple and straightforward techniques to assess how well the attributes of a good or service perform in meeting the expectations of consumers, clients, users, and visitors. Surprisingly, IPA has rarely been applied to inform the [...] Read more.
The widely applied Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) provides relatively simple and straightforward techniques to assess how well the attributes of a good or service perform in meeting the expectations of consumers, clients, users, and visitors. Surprisingly, IPA has rarely been applied to inform the management of urban public green infrastructure (PGI) or urban nature (UN) spaces. This case study explores the visitor satisfaction levels of people using a PGI space that incorporates UN, close to the central business district of Perth, Western Australia. With diminishing opportunities to acquire new PGI spaces within ever more densely populated urban centers, understanding, efficiently managing, and continuously improving existing spaces is crucial to accessing the benefits and services that PGI and UN provide for humankind. An intercept survey conducted within the Lake Claremont PGI space utilized a self-report questionnaire to gather qualitative and quantitative data (n = 393). This case study demonstrates how the IPA tool can assist urban planners and land managers to collect information about the attributes of quality PGI and UN spaces to monitor levels of service, to increase overall efficiency of site management, to inform future management decisions, and to optimize the allocation of scarce resources. The satisfaction of PGI users was analyzed using the IPA tool to determine where performance and/or resourcing of PGI attributes were not congruent with the expectations of PGI users (generally in the form of over-servicing or under-servicing). The IPA demonstrated that a majority of PGI users perceived the study site to be high performing and were satisfied with many of the assessed attributes. The survey identified the potential for some improvement of the amenity and/or infrastructure installations at the site, as well as directing attention towards a more effective utilization of scarce resources. Optimizing the management of PGI spaces will enhance opportunities for individuals to obtain the physiological, psychological, and emotional benefits that arise from experiencing quality urban PGI spaces. This case study promotes the important contribution that high-quality PGI spaces, which include remnant and restored UN spaces, make to the development of resilient and sustainable urban centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Stormwater Nutrient and Heavy Metal Plant Uptake in an Experimental Bioretention Pond
Land 2018, 7(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040150 - 01 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
With the purpose to study a solution based on Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) to reduce and treat stormwater runoff in urban areas, a bioretention pond (BP) was realized in the Agripolis campus of the University of Padova, Italy. The BP collected overflow [...] Read more.
With the purpose to study a solution based on Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) to reduce and treat stormwater runoff in urban areas, a bioretention pond (BP) was realized in the Agripolis campus of the University of Padova, Italy. The BP collected overflow water volumes of the rainwater drainage system of a 2270 m2 drainage area consisting almost entirely of impervious surfaces. Sixty-six Tech-IA® floating elements, supporting four plants each, were laid on the water surface. Eleven species of herbaceous perennial helophyte plants, with ornamental features, were used and tested. The early growth results of the BP functioning showed that nearly 50% of the total inflow water volume was stored or evapotranspirated, reducing the peak discharge on the urban drainage system. Among plants, Alisma parviflora, Caltha palustris, Iris ‘Black Gamecock’, Lysimachia punctata ‘Alexander’, Oenanthe javanica ‘Flamingo’, Mentha aquatica, Phalaris arundinacea ‘Picta’, and Typha laxmannii had the best survival and growth performances. A. parviflora and M. aquatica appeared interesting also for pollutant reduction in runoff water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Prioritizing Suitable Locations for Green Stormwater Infrastructure Based on Social Factors in Philadelphia
Land 2018, 7(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040145 - 26 Nov 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Municipalities across the United States are prioritizing green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) projects due to their potential to concurrently optimize the social, economic, and environmental benefits of the “triple bottom line”. While placement of these features is often based on biophysical variables regarding the [...] Read more.
Municipalities across the United States are prioritizing green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) projects due to their potential to concurrently optimize the social, economic, and environmental benefits of the “triple bottom line”. While placement of these features is often based on biophysical variables regarding the natural and built environments, highly urbanized areas often exhibit either limited data or minimal variability in these characteristics. Using a case study of Philadelphia and building on previous work to prioritize GSI features in disadvantaged communities, this study addresses the dual concerns of the inequitable benefits of distribution and suitable site placement of GSI using a model to evaluate and integrate social variables to support decision making regarding GSI implementation. Results of this study indicate locations both suitable and optimal for the implementation of four types of GSI features: tree trenches, pervious pavement, rain gardens, and green roofs. Considerations of block-level site placement assets and liabilities are discussed, with recommendations for use of this analysis for future GSI programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Urban River Recovery Inspired by Nature-Based Solutions and Biophilic Design in Albufeira, Portugal
Land 2018, 7(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040141 - 17 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Mass urbanisation presents one of the most urgent challenges of the 21st century. The development of cities and the related increasing ground sealing are asking even more for the restoration of urban rivers, especially in the face of climate change and its consequences. [...] Read more.
Mass urbanisation presents one of the most urgent challenges of the 21st century. The development of cities and the related increasing ground sealing are asking even more for the restoration of urban rivers, especially in the face of climate change and its consequences. This paper aims to demonstrate nature-inspired solutions in a recovery of a Southern European river that was canalised and transformed in culvert pipes. The river restoration project naturally tells the history of the city, creates a sense for the place, as well as unifying blue–green infrastructure in a symbolic way by offering areas for recreation. To improve well-being and city resilience in the long term, a regenerative sustainability approach based on biophilic design patterns was proposed. Such actions will provide greater health, social cohesion, and well-being for residents and simultaneously reduce the risks of climate change, such as heat island effect and flash floods, presenting the benefits of the transition to a regenerative economy and holistic thinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Justice in Accessibility to Green Infrastructure in Two European Cities
Land 2018, 7(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040134 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Although it is well-established that urban green infrastructure is essential to improve the population’s wellbeing, in many developed countries, the availability of green spaces is limited or its distribution around the city is uneven. Some minority groups may have less access or are [...] Read more.
Although it is well-established that urban green infrastructure is essential to improve the population’s wellbeing, in many developed countries, the availability of green spaces is limited or its distribution around the city is uneven. Some minority groups may have less access or are deprived of access to green spaces when compared with the rest of the population. The availability of public green spaces may also be directly related to the geographical location of the city within Europe. In addition, current planning for urban regeneration and the creation of new high-quality recreational public green spaces sometimes results in projects that reinforce the paradox of green gentrification. The aim of this study was to explore the concept of environmental justice in the distribution of the public green spaces in two contrasting cities, Tartu, Estonia; and Faro, Portugal. Quantitative indicators of public green space were calculated in districts in each city. The accessibility of those spaces was measured using the “walkability” distance and grid methods. The results revealed that there was more availability and accessibility to public green spaces in Tartu than in Faro. However, inequalities were observed in Soviet-era housing block districts in Tartu, where most of the Russian minority live, while Roma communities in Faro were located in districts without access to public green space. The availability of public green spaces varied from 1.22 to 31.44 m2/inhabitant in the districts of Faro, and 1.04 to 164.07 m2/inhabitant in the districts of Tartu. In both cities, 45% of the inhabitants had accessible public green spaces within 500 m of their residence. The development of targeted new green infrastructure could increase access to 88% of the population for the city of Faro and 86% for Tartu, delivering environmental justice without provoking green gentrification. The outcome of this study provides advice to urban planners on how to balance green space distribution within city neighbourhoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Residents’ Perception of Informal Green Space—A Case Study of Ichikawa City, Japan
Land 2018, 7(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7030102 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Urban green space (UGS) has been proven to be essential for improving the health of residents. Local governments thus need to provide attractive UGS to enhance residents’ wellbeing. However, cities face spatial and finanical limitations in creating and managing UGS. As a result, [...] Read more.
Urban green space (UGS) has been proven to be essential for improving the health of residents. Local governments thus need to provide attractive UGS to enhance residents’ wellbeing. However, cities face spatial and finanical limitations in creating and managing UGS. As a result, greening plans often fail or are postponed indefinitely. To evaluate whether informal urban green space (IGS) can supplement existing UGS, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 567 residents in Ichikawa (Japan), a city currently providing only 3.43 m2 green space per capita. In particular, we analyzed how residents’ existing green space activities affect IGS perception, as it may be difficult to recognize IGS as greenery because it is not an officially recognized space for recreation. Results show that residents took a favorable stance towards IGS, but perception differs depending on their green environment exposure. Residents who are frequently exposed to green environments in their daily lives highly recognized the environmental improvement aspects of IGS and significantly perceived spatial accessibility as an advantage of IGS. Willingness to participate in conservation activities of UGS was linked with a likelihood of recognizing IGS as UGS. Our results encourage understanding IGS as supplementary green space taking into account the attitude of residents to UGS, and contribute to introducing the IGS discourse into green space planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Usage and Perception of Pedestrian and Cycling Streets on Residents’ Well-being in Kalamaria, Greece
Land 2018, 7(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7030100 - 30 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Pedestrian zones are public spaces intended for the continued and safe mobility of pedestrians and people with disabilities, and they provide multiple benefits to urban areas. They counterbalance the densely built-up areas, decrease atmospheric pollution, increase available green or social space, increase walking [...] Read more.
Pedestrian zones are public spaces intended for the continued and safe mobility of pedestrians and people with disabilities, and they provide multiple benefits to urban areas. They counterbalance the densely built-up areas, decrease atmospheric pollution, increase available green or social space, increase walking and cycling rates, and facilitate active play for children. Done properly, pedestrianization may also increase local business sales. Greece boasts open public spaces and the pedestrianization of common roads. The economic crisis that Greece has been experiencing since 2008 has led people to give up their vehicles and use the pedestrian streets more frequently. The purpose of this paper was to investigate residents’ perceptions and satisfaction rates concerning the pedestrian streets of Kalamaria, Greece, and evaluate their importance for residents’ well-being. Following a random sampling method, 400 residents were interviewed. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted. The survey showed that the urban residents visited pedestrian zones in Kalamaria at least once a week, and the visits lasted 46–60 min. The improvement of urban landscape aesthetics and people’s health and well-being were evaluated as important functions of pedestrian zones. The results also indicate that residents were not satisfied with their quality of life and the existing green infrastructures of the pedestrian streets, even though they have a positive disposition toward the construction or transformation of pedestrian streets. The residents expressed their unwillingness to pay more public taxes for the construction and maintenance of pedestrian and cycling streets. The safety and convenience of the mobility of residents were the most important advantages of the pedestrian streets. Meanwhile, overspill parking and difficulties with finding parking spaces were the main disadvantages for the residents. Local authorities can use the results of the present survey to manage the city’s green infrastructure and use this information in the urban planning framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Public Green Infrastructure Contributes to City Livability: A Systematic Quantitative Review
Land 2018, 7(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040161 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Consistent with the Land Urbanism and Green Infrastructure theme of this special issue of Land, the primary goal of this review is to provide a plain language overview of recent literature that reports on the psychological, physiological, general well-being, and wider societal benefits [...] Read more.
Consistent with the Land Urbanism and Green Infrastructure theme of this special issue of Land, the primary goal of this review is to provide a plain language overview of recent literature that reports on the psychological, physiological, general well-being, and wider societal benefits that humans receive as a result of experiencing public green infrastructure (PGI) and nature in urbanized landscapes. This enhanced well-being and the wider societal benefits that accrue to urban dwellers as a result of interacting with quality PGI contributes to the concept known as city or urban livability. The quantitative analysis and theoretical synthesis reported in this review can inform decision makers, stakeholders, and other PGI and urban nature (UN) researchers of the benefits that urban populations receive from experiencing quality PGI spaces and UN and the contribution those spaces make to the livability of urban areas. With diminishing opportunities for the acquisition of new public open space to increase PGI and re-establish UN near urban centers, the efficient management and continuous improvement of existing PGI and UN is essential to promote and foster opportunities for human-to-nature contact and the known benefits therein derived. In addition to identifying an increased research interest and publication of articles that report on the contribution of PGI spaces to urban livability over the past decade, the review identifies and reports on the seven focus areas of PGI-livability research and the six attributes of PGI spaces that the current literatures report as contributing to the livability of urbanized landscapes. After providing a quantitative analysis for the reporting of those research areas and PGI attributes and summarizing key findings reported in the literature regarding the contribution that PGI spaces make to urban livability, this review also identifies knowledge gaps in the published literature and puts forward recommendations for further research in this rapidly expanding multidisciplinary field of research and policy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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Other

Open AccessEssay
The Emergence of Landscape Urbanism: A Chronological Criticism Essay
Land 2018, 7(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7040147 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Scholars and practitioners have great interest in topics related to spatial patterns and the organization and properties of space. Landscape urbanism is one of these topics of interest. This essay, in the form of chronological criticism, presents a broad historical overview of the [...] Read more.
Scholars and practitioners have great interest in topics related to spatial patterns and the organization and properties of space. Landscape urbanism is one of these topics of interest. This essay, in the form of chronological criticism, presents a broad historical overview of the rise of landscape urbanism, primarily from a landscape architectural/geographical/ecological perspective, comparing the normative theories derived in the Western traditions embedded in urban design and architecture with the general values of landscape urbanism. In part, the essay employs the metaphors of Euclidean/Cartesian mathematics and fractal geometry to illustrate these differences. At the conclusion of the article, the reader should understand the historical context in which the planning and design community derived the emergence of landscape urbanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure) Printed Edition available
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