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Volume 13, February-2
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Volume 13, January-2

Water, Volume 13, Issue 3 (February-1 2021) – 146 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The red colored waters of the heavily modified Lake Koronia are caused by the huge numbers of Daphnia magna reaching the water surface during daytime. Daphnia species display high sensitivity to pollutants and adaptation to various environmental changes, and are thus considered biomarkers of environmental health. Under a great diversity of stressors, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) can be triggered, providing benefits to develop stress resistance and adaptation. In our study, we present, for the first time, the expression HSPs and MAPKs in a Daphnia natural population and their role in the stress response to heavy environmental degradation. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Using Isotopic and Hydrochemical Indicators to Identify Sources of Sulfate in Karst Groundwater of the Niangziguan Spring Field, China
Water 2021, 13(3), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030390 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Karst groundwater in the Niangziguan spring fields is the main source to supply domestic and industrial water demands in Yangquan City, China. However, the safety of water supply in this region has recently suffered from deteriorating quality levels. Therefore, identifying pollution sources and [...] Read more.
Karst groundwater in the Niangziguan spring fields is the main source to supply domestic and industrial water demands in Yangquan City, China. However, the safety of water supply in this region has recently suffered from deteriorating quality levels. Therefore, identifying pollution sources and causes is crucial for maintaining a reliable water supply. In this study, a systematic sample collection for the karst groundwater in the Niangziguan spring fields was implemented to identify hydrochemical characteristics of the karst groundwater through comprehensive analyses of hydrochemistry (piper diagram, and ion ratios,) and stable isotopes (S and H-O). The results show that the karst groundwater in the Niangziguan spring fields was categorized as SO4·HCO3-Ca·Mg, HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg, and SO4-Ca types. K+, Cl-, and Na+ are mainly sourced from urban sewage and coal mine drainage. In addition, SO42− was mainly supplied by the dissolution of gypsum and the oxidation of FeS2 in coal-bearing strata. It is noteworthy that, based on H-O and S isotopes, 75% of the karst groundwater was contaminated by acidic water in coal mines at different degrees. In the groundwater of the Niangziguan spring field, the proportions of SO42− derived from FeS2 oxidation were 60.6% (N50, Chengxi spring), 30.3% (N51, Wulong spring), and 26.0% (N52, Four springs mixed with water). Acid mine drainage directly recharges and pollutes karst groundwater through faults or abandoned boreholes, or discharges to rivers, and indirectly pollutes karst groundwater through river infiltration in carbonate exposed areas. The main source of rapid increase of sulfate in karst groundwater is acid water from abandoned coal mines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Changes in French VF Treatment Wetland Porous Media during the Rest Period: An Ex Situ Study Using X-ray Tomography
Water 2021, 13(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030389 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Clogging constitutes a major operational issue for treatment wetlands. The rest period is a key feature of French Vertical Flow (VF) treatment wetlands and serves to mitigate clogging. An ex-situ drying experiment was performed to mimic the rest period and record structural changes [...] Read more.
Clogging constitutes a major operational issue for treatment wetlands. The rest period is a key feature of French Vertical Flow (VF) treatment wetlands and serves to mitigate clogging. An ex-situ drying experiment was performed to mimic the rest period and record structural changes in the porous media using X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Samples containing the deposit and gravel layers of a first stage French VF treatment wetland were extracted and left to dry in a control environment. Based on CT scans, three phases were identified (voids, biosolids, and gravels). The impact of the rest period was assessed by means of different pore-scale variables. Ultimately, the volume of biosolids had reduced to 58% of its initial value, the deposit layer thickness dropped to 68% of its initial value, and the void/biosolid specific surface area ratio increased from a minimum value of 1.1 to a maximum of 4.2. Cracks greater than 3 mm developed at the uppermost part of the deposit layer, while, in the gravel layer, the rise in void volume corresponds to pores smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Lastly, the air-filled microporosity is estimated to have increased by 0.11 v/v. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Neural Network Approach to Retrieving Ocean Subsurface Temperatures from Surface Parameters Observed by Satellites
Water 2021, 13(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030388 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 343
Abstract
The extraction of physical information about the subsurface ocean from surface information obtained from satellite measurements is both important and challenging. We introduce a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) method to determine the subsurface temperature of the North Pacific Ocean by selecting the optimum [...] Read more.
The extraction of physical information about the subsurface ocean from surface information obtained from satellite measurements is both important and challenging. We introduce a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) method to determine the subsurface temperature of the North Pacific Ocean by selecting the optimum input combination of sea surface parameters obtained from satellite measurements. In addition to sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface wind (SSW), we also included the sea surface velocity (SSV) as a new component in our study. This allowed us to partially resolve the non-linear subsurface dynamics associated with advection, which improved the estimated results, especially in regions with strong currents. The accuracy of the estimated results was verified with reprocessed observational datasets. Our results show that the BPNN model can accurately estimate the subsurface (upper 1000 m) temperature of the North Pacific Ocean. The corresponding mean square errors were 0.868 and 0.802 using four (SSH, SST, SSS and SSW) and five (SSH, SST, SSS, SSW and SSV) input parameters and the average coefficients of determination were 0.952 and 0.967, respectively. The input of the SSV in addition to the SSH, SST, SSS and SSW therefore has a positive impact on the BPNN model and helps to improve the accuracy of the estimation. This study provides important technical support for retrieving thermal information about the ocean interior from surface satellite remote sensing observations, which will help to expand the scope of satellite measurements of the ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasticity in Reproductive Traits, Condition and Energy Allocation of the Non-Native Pyrenean Gudgeon Gobio lozanoi in a Highly Regulated Mediterranean River Basin
Water 2021, 13(3), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030387 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
The invasion success of non-native fish, such as Pyrenean gudgeon Gobio lozanoi in several Iberian rivers, is often explained by the expression of its life history traits. This study provides the first insights into the reproductive traits, fish condition, and energy allocation (protein [...] Read more.
The invasion success of non-native fish, such as Pyrenean gudgeon Gobio lozanoi in several Iberian rivers, is often explained by the expression of its life history traits. This study provides the first insights into the reproductive traits, fish condition, and energy allocation (protein and lipid contents of tissues) of this species, along a longitudinal gradient in one of the most regulated river basins in the Iberian Peninsula, the Segura river. Larger sizes of first maturity, higher fecundity and larger oocytes were found in fluvial sectors with the most natural flow regimes, characterised by a low base flow with high flow peaks in spring and autumn. A delay in the reproductive period, lower fish condition and no differences in sex-ratio were observed in fluvial sectors with a high increase in base flow and notable inversion in the seasonal pattern of flow regime. Lipid contents in the liver and gonads were stable during the reproductive cycle and decreases in muscle were noted, whereas ovarian and liver proteins increased. In relation to energy allocation for G. lozanoi, an intermediate energy strategy was observed between income and capital breeding. Our results support the hypothesis that the high plasticity of G. lozanoi population traits plays a significant role in its success in a highly regulated Mediterranean river basin. Understanding the mechanisms by which flow regulation shapes fish populations in Mediterranean type-rivers could inform management actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology and Conservation of Freshwater Fishes Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle
Did the Construction of the Bhumibol Dam Cause a Dramatic Reduction in Sediment Supply to the Chao Phraya River?
Water 2021, 13(3), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030386 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The Bhumibol Dam on Ping River, Thailand, was constructed in 1964 to provide water for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, flood mitigation, fisheries, and saltwater intrusion control to the Great Chao Phraya River basin. Many studies, carried out near the basin outlet, have suggested [...] Read more.
The Bhumibol Dam on Ping River, Thailand, was constructed in 1964 to provide water for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, flood mitigation, fisheries, and saltwater intrusion control to the Great Chao Phraya River basin. Many studies, carried out near the basin outlet, have suggested that the dam impounds significant sediment, resulting in shoreline retreat of the Chao Phraya Delta. In this study, the impact of damming on the sediment regime is analyzed through the sediment variation along the Ping River. The results show that the Ping River drains a mountainous region, with sediment mainly transported in suspension in the upper and middle reaches. By contrast, sediment is mostly transported as bedload in the lower basin. Variation of long-term total sediment flux data suggests that, while the Bhumibol Dam does effectively trap sediment, there was only a 5% reduction in sediment supply to the Chao Phraya River system because of sediment additions downstream. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Interactions in Systems C.I. Direct Yellow 50—Weakly Basic Resins: Kinetic, Equilibrium, and Auxiliaries Addition Aspects
Water 2021, 13(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030385 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Intensive development of many industries, including textile, paper or plastic, which consume large amounts of water and generate huge amounts of wastewater-containing toxic dyes, contribute to pollution of the aquatic environment. Among many known methods of wastewater treatment, adsorption techniques are considered the [...] Read more.
Intensive development of many industries, including textile, paper or plastic, which consume large amounts of water and generate huge amounts of wastewater-containing toxic dyes, contribute to pollution of the aquatic environment. Among many known methods of wastewater treatment, adsorption techniques are considered the most effective. In the present study, the weakly basic anion exchangers such as Amberlyst A21, Amberlyst A23 and Amberlyst A24 of the polystyrene, phenol-formaldehyde and polyacrylic matrices were used for C.I. Direct Yellow 50 removal from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetic studies were described by the pseudo-second order model. The pseudo-second order rate constants were in the range of 0.0609–0.0128 g/mg·min for Amberlyst A24, 0.0038–0.0015 g/mg·min for Amberlyst A21 and 1.1945–0.0032 g/mg·min for Amberlyst A23, and decreased with the increasing initial concentration of dye from 100–500 mg/L, respectively. There were observed auxiliaries (Na2CO3, Na2SO4, anionic and non-ionic surfactants) impact on the dye uptake. The polyacrylic resin Amberlyst A24 can be promising sorbent for C.I. Direct Yellow 50 removal as it is able to uptake 666.5 mg/g of the dye compared to the phenol-formaldehyde Amberlyst A23 which has a 284.3 mg/g capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Drag Force on the Average Absorbed Power of Heaving Wave Energy Converters Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Water 2021, 13(3), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030384 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
In this paper, we investigated how the added mass, the hydrodynamic damping and the drag coefficient of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) can be calculated using DualSPHysics. DualSPHysics is a software application that applies the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, a Lagrangian meshless [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigated how the added mass, the hydrodynamic damping and the drag coefficient of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) can be calculated using DualSPHysics. DualSPHysics is a software application that applies the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, a Lagrangian meshless method used in a growing range of applications within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Furthermore, the effect of the drag force on the WEC’s motion and average absorbed power is analyzed. Particularly under controlled conditions and in the resonance region, the drag force becomes significant and can greatly reduce the average absorbed power of a heaving point absorber. Once the drag coefficient has been determined, it is used in a modified equation of motion in the frequency domain, taking into account the effect of the drag force. Three different methods were compared for the calculation of the average absorbed power: linear potential flow theory, linear potential flow theory modified to take the drag force into account and DualSPHysics. This comparison showed the considerable effect of the drag force in the resonance region. Calculations of the drag coefficient were carried out for three point absorber WECs: one spherical WEC and two cylindrical WECs. Simulations in regular waves were performed for one cylindrical WEC with two different power take-off (PTO) systems: a linear damping and a Coulomb damping PTO system. The Coulomb damping PTO system was added in the numerical coupling between DualSPHysics and Project Chrono. Furthermore, we considered the optimal PTO system damping coefficient taking the effect of the drag force into account. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Groundwater Remediation Process Using a Coupled Genetic Algorithm-Finite Difference Method
Water 2021, 13(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030383 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate as an oxidant is a remediation technique often used to treat contaminated groundwater. In this paper, groundwater flow with a full hydraulic conductivity tensor and remediation process through in situ chemical oxidation are simulated. The numerical approach [...] Read more.
In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate as an oxidant is a remediation technique often used to treat contaminated groundwater. In this paper, groundwater flow with a full hydraulic conductivity tensor and remediation process through in situ chemical oxidation are simulated. The numerical approach was verified with a physical sandbox experiment and analytical solution for 2D advection-diffusion with a first-order decay rate constant. The numerical results were in good agreement with the results of physical sandbox model and the analytical solution. The developed model was applied to two different studies, using multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimise remediation design. In order to reach the optimised design, three objectives considering three constraints were defined. The time to reach the desired concentration and remediation cost regarding the number of required oxidant sources in the optimised design was less than any arbitrary design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Prediction of Groundwater Contaminant Plumes)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Rainfall Erosivity Factor Estimation Using Machine and Deep Learning Models
Water 2021, 13(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030382 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Rainfall erosivity factor (R-factor) is one of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) input parameters that account for impacts of rainfall intensity in estimating soil loss. Although many studies have calculated the R-factor using various empirical methods or the USLE method, these methods [...] Read more.
Rainfall erosivity factor (R-factor) is one of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) input parameters that account for impacts of rainfall intensity in estimating soil loss. Although many studies have calculated the R-factor using various empirical methods or the USLE method, these methods are time-consuming and require specialized knowledge for the user. The purpose of this study is to develop machine learning models to predict the R-factor faster and more accurately than the previous methods. For this, this study calculated R-factor using 1-min interval rainfall data for improved accuracy of the target value. First, the monthly R-factors were calculated using the USLE calculation method to identify the characteristics of monthly rainfall-runoff induced erosion. In turn, machine learning models were developed to predict the R-factor using the monthly R-factors calculated at 50 sites in Korea as target values. The machine learning algorithms used for this study were Decision Tree, K-Nearest Neighbors, Multilayer Perceptron, Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, eXtreme Gradient Boost, and Deep Neural Network. As a result of the validation with 20% randomly selected data, the Deep Neural Network (DNN), among seven models, showed the greatest prediction accuracy results. The DNN developed in this study was tested for six sites in Korea to demonstrate trained model performance with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.87. This means that our findings show that DNN can be efficiently used to estimate monthly R-factor at the desired site with much less effort and time with total monthly precipitation, maximum daily precipitation, and maximum hourly precipitation data. It will be used not only to calculate soil erosion risk but also to establish soil conservation plans and identify areas at risk of soil disasters by calculating rainfall erosivity factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil–Water Conservation, Erosion, and Landslide)
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Open AccessArticle
Wet Meadow Plant Communities of the Alliance Trifolion pallidi on the Southeastern Margin of the Pannonian Plain
Water 2021, 13(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030381 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The article deals with wet meadow plant communities of the alliance Trifolion pallidi that appear on the periodically inundated or waterlogged sites on the riverside terraces or gentle slopes along watercourses. These plant communities are often endangered by inappropriate hydrological interventions or management [...] Read more.
The article deals with wet meadow plant communities of the alliance Trifolion pallidi that appear on the periodically inundated or waterlogged sites on the riverside terraces or gentle slopes along watercourses. These plant communities are often endangered by inappropriate hydrological interventions or management practices. All available vegetation plots representing this vegetation type were collected, organized in a database, and numerically elaborated. This vegetation type appears in the southeastern part of the Pannonian Plain, which is still under the influence of the Mediterranean climate; its southern border is formed by southern outcrops of the Pannonian Plain and its northern border coincides with the influence of the Mediterranean climate (line Slavonsko Gorje-Fruška Gora-Vršačke Planine). Numerical analysis established four plant associations—Trifolio pallidi–Alopecuretum pratensis, Ventenato dubii–Trifolietum pallidi, Ranunculo strigulosi–Alopecuretum pratensis, and Ornithogalo pyramidale–Trifolietum pallidi. Each association was elaborated in detail: diagnostic plant species, nomenclature, geographical distribution, climatic and ecological conditions, and possible division into subassociations. Results are presented in a distribution map, figures resulting from numerical analysis, and a synoptic table. The hydrological gradient was found as the most important factor shaping the studied plant communities. The article also brings new field data on this vegetation type, which has not been sampled for decades and is in process of evaluation to be included as a special habitat type in the Habitat Directive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology-Shaped Plant Communities: Diversity and Ecological Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Classification and Prediction of Natural Streamflow Regimes in Arid Regions of the USA
Water 2021, 13(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030380 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Understanding how natural variation in flow regimes influences stream ecosystem structure and function is critical to the development of effective stream management policies. Spatial variation in flow regimes among streams is reasonably well understood for streams in mesic regions, but a more robust [...] Read more.
Understanding how natural variation in flow regimes influences stream ecosystem structure and function is critical to the development of effective stream management policies. Spatial variation in flow regimes among streams is reasonably well understood for streams in mesic regions, but a more robust characterization of flow regimes in arid regions is needed, especially to support biological monitoring and assessment programs. In this paper, we used long-term (41 years) records of mean daily streamflow from 287 stream reaches in the arid and semi-arid western USA to develop and compare several alternative flow-regime classifications. We also evaluated how accurately we could predict the flow-regime classes of ungauged reaches. Over the 41-year record examined (water years 1972–2013), the gauged reaches varied continuously from always having flow > zero to seldom having flow. We predicted ephemeral and perennial reaches with less error than reaches with an intermediate number of zero-flow days or years. We illustrate application of our approach by predicting the flow-regime classes at ungauged reaches in Arizona, USA. Maps based on these predictions were generally consistent with qualitative expectations of how flow regimes vary spatially across Arizona. These results represent a promising step toward more effective assessment and management of streams in arid regions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Flood Suspended Sediment Transport: Combined Modelling from Dilute to Hyper-Concentrated Flow
Water 2021, 13(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030379 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 476
Abstract
During flooding, the suspended sediment transport usually experiences a wide-range of dilute to hyper-concentrated suspended sediment transport depending on the local flow and ground conditions. This paper assesses the distribution of sediment for a variety of hyper-concentrated and dilute flows. Due to the [...] Read more.
During flooding, the suspended sediment transport usually experiences a wide-range of dilute to hyper-concentrated suspended sediment transport depending on the local flow and ground conditions. This paper assesses the distribution of sediment for a variety of hyper-concentrated and dilute flows. Due to the differences between hyper-concentrated and dilute flows, a linear-power coupled model is proposed to integrate these considerations. A parameterised method combining the sediment size, Rouse number, mean concentration, and flow depth parameters has been used for modelling the sediment profile. The accuracy of the proposed model has been verified against the reported laboratory measurements and comparison with other published analytical methods. The proposed method has been shown to effectively compute the concentration profile for a wide range of suspended sediment conditions from hyper-concentrated to dilute flows. Detailed comparisons reveal that the proposed model calculates the dilute profile with good correspondence to the measured data and other modelling results from literature. For the hyper-concentrated profile, a clear division of lower (bed-load) to upper layer (suspended-load) transport can be observed in the measured data. Using the proposed model, the transitional point from this lower to upper layer transport can be calculated precisely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Floods in Urban Areas)
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Open AccessEditorial
Hydrological and Hydro-Meteorological Extremes and Related Risk and Uncertainty
Water 2021, 13(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030377 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Natural hazards have caused significant damages to natural and manmade environments during the last few decades [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Management of Urban Stormwater at Block-Level (MUST-B): A New Approach for Potential Analysis of Decentralized Stormwater Management Systems
Water 2021, 13(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030378 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Cities worldwide are facing problems to mitigate the impact of urban stormwater runoff caused by the increasing occurrence of heavy rainfall events and urban re-densification. This study presents a new approach for estimating the potential of the Management of Urban STormwater at Block-level [...] Read more.
Cities worldwide are facing problems to mitigate the impact of urban stormwater runoff caused by the increasing occurrence of heavy rainfall events and urban re-densification. This study presents a new approach for estimating the potential of the Management of Urban STormwater at Block-level (MUST-B) by decentralized blue-green infrastructures here called low-impact developments (LIDs) for already existing urban environments. The MUST-B method was applied to a study area in the northern part of the City of Leipzig, Germany. The Study areas was divided into blocks smallest functional units and considering two different soil permeability and three different rainfall events, seven scenarios have been developed: current situation, surface infiltration, swale infiltration, trench infiltration, trough-trench infiltration, and three different combinations of extensive roof greening, trough-trench infiltration, and shaft infiltration. The LIDs have been simulated and their maximum retention/infiltration potential and the required area have been estimated together with a cost calculation. The results showed that even stormwater of a 100 year rainfall event can be fully retained and infiltrated within the blocks on a soil with low permeability (kf = 10−6 m/s). The cost and the required area for the LIDs differed depending on the scenario and responded to the soil permeability and rainfall events. It is shown that the MUST-B method allows a simple down- and up-scaling process for different urban settings and facilitates decision making for implementing decentralized blue-green-infrastructure that retain, store, and infiltrate stormwater at block level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Low Impact Development Practices in Urban Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatio-Temporal Coupling Coordination Analysis between Urbanization and Water Resource Carrying Capacity of the Provinces in the Yellow River Basin, China
Water 2021, 13(3), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030376 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
With the rapid expansion of the Chinese economy in recent years, the urbanization process of the provinces in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) has put serious pressure on the sustainability of the water resources carrying capacity (WRCC). It is necessary to analyze and [...] Read more.
With the rapid expansion of the Chinese economy in recent years, the urbanization process of the provinces in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) has put serious pressure on the sustainability of the water resources carrying capacity (WRCC). It is necessary to analyze and diagnose the coordination state between urbanization and the WRCC. In this study, based on the Population-Economic-Social-Spatial (PESS) framework and Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model, we developed two index systems for the urbanization and WRCC, respectively. At the basis of the two index systems, the coupling coordination degree (CCD) of the two systems is calculated by applying the improved CCD model. Based on the calculated CCD for each province, the spatio-temporal analysis was performed to analyze the characteristics of CCD in the YRB. The obstacle factor model is utilized to obtain the main obstacle factors. The results show that: (1) the coordination state between the urbanization and WRCC systems was improved to some extent in 2017, compared to 2008, but there are differences in the coordination state of the different provinces in the YRB. (2) In terms of the level of urbanization, the gap between the seven provinces’ performance levels widened because urbanization grew at different rates. The WRCC system’s performance presented a fluctuating downward trend from 2008 to 2017 in the YRB. (3) The pressure subsystem had a significant impact on the two systems’ coordination state in the YRB, while the social urbanization and response subsystem had a less significant impact on the urbanization system and the WRCC system, respectively. Due to the growth of urbanization, the imbalanced development of the WRCC and urbanization has become the principal contradiction that must be solved in order to achieve sustainability in the YRB. The analysis of the coupling relationship between urbanization and WRCC may guide the policy makers in planning for realistic goals. The results provide a guide for high-quality development in the YRB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Management of the Phosphorus–Cladophora Dynamic at a Site on Lake Ontario Using a Multi-Module Bioavailable P Model
Water 2021, 13(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030375 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The filamentous green alga Cladophora grows to nuisance proportions in Lake Ontario. Stimulated by high phosphorus concentrations, nuisance growth results in the degradation of beaches and clogging of industrial water intakes with attendant loss of beneficial uses. We develop a multi-module bioavailable phosphorus [...] Read more.
The filamentous green alga Cladophora grows to nuisance proportions in Lake Ontario. Stimulated by high phosphorus concentrations, nuisance growth results in the degradation of beaches and clogging of industrial water intakes with attendant loss of beneficial uses. We develop a multi-module bioavailable phosphorus model to examine the efficacy of phosphorus management strategies in mitigating nuisance algal growth. The model platform includes modules simulating hydrodynamics (FVCOM), phosphorus-phytoplankton dynamics (GEM) and Cladophora growth (GLCMv3). The model is applied along a 25 km stretch of the Lake Ontario nearshore, extending east from Toronto, ON and receiving effluent from three wastewater treatment plants. Simulation results identify the Duffin Creek wastewater treatment plant effluent as a driving force for nuisance conditions of Cladophora growth, as reflected in effluent bioavailable phosphorus concentrations and the dimensions of the plant’s phosphorus footprint. Simulation results demonstrate that phosphorus removal by chemically enhanced secondary treatment is insufficient to provide relief from nuisance conditions. Tertiary treatment (chemically enhanced secondary treatment with ballasted flocculation) is shown to eliminate phosphorus-saturated conditions associated with the Duffin Creek wastewater treatment plant effluent, providing local relief from nuisance conditions. Management guidance presented here has wider application at sites along the highly urbanized Canadian nearshore of Lake Ontario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Arbovirosis Potential Occurrence in Dobrogea, Romania
Water 2021, 13(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030374 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Climate change creates new challenges for preventing and protecting human health against different diseases that could appear and propagate. The Aedes albopictus mosquito species is an important vector for different diseases like dengue fever or zika. Although this species is not “indigenous” in [...] Read more.
Climate change creates new challenges for preventing and protecting human health against different diseases that could appear and propagate. The Aedes albopictus mosquito species is an important vector for different diseases like dengue fever or zika. Although this species is not “indigenous” in Europe, its presence is noticed in many countries on the continent. The Ae. albopictus establishment is conditioned by the species’ characteristics and environmental factors. To assess the possible spread of Ae. albopictus in the Dobrogea region (situated in the Southeast of Romania), we conducted the following analysis: (1) Investigation of the current distribution and climatic factors favoring Ae. albopictus’ establishment in Europe; (2) Analysis of climate dynamics in Dobrogea in terms of the parameters identified at stage (1); (3) Testing the hypothesis that the climate from Dobrogea favors Ae. albopictus’ establishment in the region; (4) Building a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model of the potential geographic distribution of Ae. albopictus in Dobrogea. Results show that the climate of Dobrogea favors the apparition of the investigated species and its proliferation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Effectiveness of Cooling Trenches for Stormwater Temperature Mitigation
Water 2021, 13(3), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030373 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Due to elevated runoff stormwater temperatures from impervious areas, one management strategy to reduce stormwater temperature is the use of underground flow through rock media termed a cooling trench. This paper examines the governing equations for the liquid phase and media phases for [...] Read more.
Due to elevated runoff stormwater temperatures from impervious areas, one management strategy to reduce stormwater temperature is the use of underground flow through rock media termed a cooling trench. This paper examines the governing equations for the liquid phase and media phases for modeling the temperature leaving a cooling trench assuming that changes in temperature occurred longitudinally through the cooling trench. This model is dependent on parameters such as the media type, porosity, media initial temperature, inflow rate, and inflow temperature. Several approaches were explored mathematically for evaluating the change in temperature of the water and the cooling trench media. Typical soil–water heat transfer coefficients were summarized. Examples of predictions of outflow temperatures were shown for different modeling assumptions, such as well-mixed conditions, batch mixing and subsequent release, and steady-state and dynamic conditions. Several of these examples evaluated how long rock media would cool following a stormwater event and how the cooling trench would respond to multiple stormwater events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Quality Modeling)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evolution of Salinity and Water Table Level of the Phreatic Coastal Aquifer of the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy)
Water 2021, 13(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030372 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
The coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean region are highly susceptible to seawater intrusion due to a combination of challenges such as land subsidence, high aquifer permeability, urbanization, drainage, and an unsustainable use of water during the dry summer months. The present study is [...] Read more.
The coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean region are highly susceptible to seawater intrusion due to a combination of challenges such as land subsidence, high aquifer permeability, urbanization, drainage, and an unsustainable use of water during the dry summer months. The present study is focused on a statistical analysis of groundwater data to evaluate the spatial changes of water level and electrical conductivity in the coastal phreatic aquifer of the Emilia-Romagna (Northeast Italy) for the period from 2009 to 2018. Data from 35 wells distributed across the entire regional coastal area are used to establish a temporal trend, as well as correlations between salinity, water table level, and rainfall. Water table and salinity distribution maps for the entire study area are discussed regarding surface geology and water management. Most of the wells are in the beach wedge sand unit, which allows for easy connectivity between groundwater and surface water. Surface water and groundwater salinization are enhanced along the surface water bodies connected to the sea. The lowest water table level occurs in the western and northern parts of the study area, because of the semiconfined behavior of the aquifer. Only in the northernmost, close to the Po River, and in the southernmost parts of the study area does the groundwater remain fresh for the whole period considered due to river aquifer recharge. In the rest of the region, the thickness of freshwater lenses, where present, is less than 4.5 m. The existence of a water table level below sea level and high saline water at the bottom of the aquifer in most of the study area suggest that the aquifer is in unstable hydrodynamic conditions and groundwater quality is not fit for human consumption or for irrigation. This study is the first to provide a regional overview of the state of groundwater level and salinization within the coastal aquifer of the Emilia-Romagna Region; it also suggests that, overall, the salinization trend has slightly decreased from 2009 to 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on the Salinization Issue in the Mediterranean Area)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Biological Assessment and Rehabilitation of the World’s Rivers: An Overview
Water 2021, 13(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030371 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The biological assessment of rivers i.e., their assessment through use of aquatic assemblages, integrates the effects of multiple-stressors on these systems over time and is essential to evaluate ecosystem condition and establish recovery measures. It has been undertaken in many countries since the [...] Read more.
The biological assessment of rivers i.e., their assessment through use of aquatic assemblages, integrates the effects of multiple-stressors on these systems over time and is essential to evaluate ecosystem condition and establish recovery measures. It has been undertaken in many countries since the 1990s, but not globally. And where national or multi-national monitoring networks have gathered large amounts of data, the poor water body classifications have not necessarily resulted in the rehabilitation of rivers. Thus, here we aimed to identify major gaps in the biological assessment and rehabilitation of rivers worldwide by focusing on the best examples in Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North, Central, and South America. Our study showed that it is not possible so far to draw a world map of the ecological quality of rivers. Biological assessment of rivers and streams is only implemented officially nation-wide and regularly in the European Union, Japan, Republic of Korea, South Africa, and the USA. In Australia, Canada, China, New Zealand, and Singapore it has been implemented officially at the state/province level (in some cases using common protocols) or in major catchments or even only once at the national level to define reference conditions (Australia). In other cases, biological monitoring is driven by a specific problem, impact assessments, water licenses, or the need to rehabilitate a river or a river section (as in Brazil, South Korea, China, Canada, Japan, Australia). In some countries monitoring programs have only been explored by research teams mostly at the catchment or local level (e.g., Brazil, Mexico, Chile, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam) or implemented by citizen science groups (e.g., Southern Africa, Gambia, East Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada). The existing large-extent assessments show a striking loss of biodiversity in the last 2–3 decades in Japanese and New Zealand rivers (e.g., 42% and 70% of fish species threatened or endangered, respectively). A poor condition (below Good condition) exists in 25% of South Korean rivers, half of the European water bodies, and 44% of USA rivers, while in Australia 30% of the reaches sampled were significantly impaired in 2006. Regarding river rehabilitation, the greatest implementation has occurred in North America, Australia, Northern Europe, Japan, Singapore, and the Republic of Korea. Most rehabilitation measures have been related to improving water quality and river connectivity for fish or the improvement of riparian vegetation. The limited extent of most rehabilitation measures (i.e., not considering the entire catchment) often constrains the improvement of biological condition. Yet, many rehabilitation projects also lack pre-and/or post-monitoring of ecological condition, which prevents assessing the success and shortcomings of the recovery measures. Economic constraints are the most cited limitation for implementing monitoring programs and rehabilitation actions, followed by technical limitations, limited knowledge of the fauna and flora and their life-history traits (especially in Africa, South America and Mexico), and poor awareness by decision-makers. On the other hand, citizen involvement is recognized as key to the success and sustainability of rehabilitation projects. Thus, establishing rehabilitation needs, defining clear goals, tracking progress towards achieving them, and involving local populations and stakeholders are key recommendations for rehabilitation projects (Table 1). Large-extent and long-term monitoring programs are also essential to provide a realistic overview of the condition of rivers worldwide. Soon, the use of DNA biological samples and eDNA to investigate aquatic diversity could contribute to reducing costs and thus increase monitoring efforts and a more complete assessment of biodiversity. Finally, we propose developing transcontinental teams to elaborate and improve technical guidelines for implementing biological monitoring programs and river rehabilitation and establishing common financial and technical frameworks for managing international catchments. We also recommend providing such expert teams through the United Nations Environment Program to aid the extension of biomonitoring, bioassessment, and river rehabilitation knowledge globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecological Assessment of Rivers and Estuaries: Present and Future)
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Open AccessArticle
Jacobian Free Methods for Coupling Transport with Chemistry in Heterogenous Porous Media
Water 2021, 13(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030370 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Reactive transport plays an important role in various subsurface applications, including carbon dioxide sequestration, nuclear waste storage, biogeochemistry and the simulation of hydro–thermal reservoirs. The model couples a set of partial differential equations, describing the transport of chemical species, to nonlinear algebraic or [...] Read more.
Reactive transport plays an important role in various subsurface applications, including carbon dioxide sequestration, nuclear waste storage, biogeochemistry and the simulation of hydro–thermal reservoirs. The model couples a set of partial differential equations, describing the transport of chemical species, to nonlinear algebraic or differential equations, describing the chemical reactions. Solution methods for the resulting large nonlinear system can be either fully coupled or can iterate between transport and chemistry. This paper extends previous work by the authors where an approach based on the Newton–Krylov method applied to a reduced system has been developed. The main feature of the approach is to solve the nonlinear system in a fully coupled manner while keeping transport and chemistry modules separate. Here we extend the method in two directions. First, we take into account mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions by using an interior point Newton method, so as to avoid the usual combinatorial approach. Second, we study two-dimensional heterogeneous geometries. We show how the method can make use of an existing transport solver, used as a black box. We detail the methods and algorithms for the individual modules, and for the coupling step. We show the performance of the method on synthetic examples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Highly Packed Biofilm Reactor with Cycle Cleaning for the Efficient Treatment of Rural Wastewater
Water 2021, 13(3), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030369 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Biological treatment processes perform satisfactory in wastewater treatment, but the relatively high cost and complicated maintenance limit its application in rural areas. In this study, a highly packed biofilm reactor (HPBR), with a 90% packing ratio of carriers in the bioreactor, was designed [...] Read more.
Biological treatment processes perform satisfactory in wastewater treatment, but the relatively high cost and complicated maintenance limit its application in rural areas. In this study, a highly packed biofilm reactor (HPBR), with a 90% packing ratio of carriers in the bioreactor, was designed for rural wastewater treatment. The results showed that the removal rates for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia were 3.04 ± 1.81 kg/m3/d and 0.49 ± 0.18 kg/m3/d, respectively. Besides, the removal efficiency of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) was 35.4% by the HPBR. The removal capacity of the HPBR is higher than other reported systems with fewer operational costs and maintenance. High-throughput sequencing was applied to further investigate the kinetics and principals. Microorganisms capable of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification were found to be dominant species in the HPBR system, which indicated that the nitrogen removal in HPBR is governed by simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. These findings suggest that HPBR can be used as an efficient reactor for rural wastewater treatment, demonstrating its feasibility in real applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Damage Characteristics and Mechanism of the 2017 Groundwater Inrush Accident That Occurred at Dongyu Coalmine in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
Water 2021, 13(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030368 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
On 22 May 2017, a groundwater inrush accident occurred in the gob area of coal floor at Dongyu Coal Mine in Qingxu County, Shanxi Province, China. The water inrush accident caused great damage, among which six people died and the direct economic loss [...] Read more.
On 22 May 2017, a groundwater inrush accident occurred in the gob area of coal floor at Dongyu Coal Mine in Qingxu County, Shanxi Province, China. The water inrush accident caused great damage, among which six people died and the direct economic loss was about CNY 5.05 million. An elliptical permeable passage appeared at the floor of the water inrush point, and the lithology of the outburst is mainly fragmented sandy mudstone and siltstone of coal roof No.2 in the lower layer of coal seam No.3, which is currently being mined, with a peak inflow of 500 m3/h. The water inrush happened due to following reasons: There is an abandoned stagnant water-closed roadway in coal seam No.2, which is the lower mine group of coal seam No.3. The abandoned roadway of coal seam No.2 is an inclined roadway. The water level of the roadway far away from the accident point is higher than the floor elevation of coal seam No.3. Under the joint action of water pressure, mining disturbance, and weakening of goaf water immersion, the original equilibrium state was broken, resulting in the destruction of the only 7 m water-barrier rock pillar between coal seam No.3 and coal seam No.2. The water in the goaf led upward along the roof crack, gradually evolved from seepage to gushing water, and a large amount of goaf water poured into the roadway in the working face of the 03304 panel, finally leading to the occurrence of catastrophic water inrush. Technically, the miners did not implement the technical provisions of the coal mine water control regulations, leading to the accident. In addition, the failure to arrange evacuees to a safe location after apparent signs of water inrush also increased the catastrophic level of the accident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Using AHP and Spatial Analysis to Determine Water Surface Storage Suitability in Cambodia
Water 2021, 13(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030367 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Cambodia suffers from devastating droughts in the dry season and floods in the wet season. These events’ impacts are further amplified by ineffective water resources infrastructure that cannot retain water during the dry season. Water harvesting (the collection and management of floodwater or [...] Read more.
Cambodia suffers from devastating droughts in the dry season and floods in the wet season. These events’ impacts are further amplified by ineffective water resources infrastructure that cannot retain water during the dry season. Water harvesting (the collection and management of floodwater or rainwater runoff to increase water supply for domestic and agricultural use) is an approach that could improve Cambodia’s resiliency against droughts and floods. Despite the known benefits of water harvesting, there are currently few studies on water harvesting suitability in Cambodia. This research argues that suitable water harvesting sites can be identified by combining various expertise and evaluating hydrologic site conditions. Thirty-one local and USA water infrastructure experts made pairwise comparisons between essential engineering criteria: soil drainage, geologic porosity, precipitation, land cover, and slope. Then, model weights were calculated based on the comparisons. Using the model weights, a water harvesting suitability model showed that 19% of Cambodian land has high suitability, and about 13% of the land has the best suitability. This water harvesting model can help guide future water infrastructure projects to improve climate resiliency by identifying suitable sites for water harvesting reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Potential of a Water-Energy-Food Nexus Approach toward the Sustainable Development of Bangladesh
Water 2021, 13(3), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030366 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
In pursuit of continuous economic development, Bangladesh has undertaken long-term plans to boost its productivity in the agriculture, energy, and industrial sectors and to align with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unless these strong interconnections and cross sectoral impacts are recognized, [...] Read more.
In pursuit of continuous economic development, Bangladesh has undertaken long-term plans to boost its productivity in the agriculture, energy, and industrial sectors and to align with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unless these strong interconnections and cross sectoral impacts are recognized, achievement of the future policy goals and national priorities of the concerned ministries regarding food self-sufficiency, cleaner energy sources, and water availability will be compromised. This study focuses on evaluating the impacts of cross-sectoral policy decisions on the interconnected resource systems at a national scale in Bangladesh. A quantitative analysis is performed to identify resource requirements, synergies, and trade-offs related to a set of future strategies. The analysis concludes by showing that land is the most limiting resource for future expansion and that fresh water will become a critical resource if alternative sources of water are not explored, and, that energy generation, if coal and other fossil fuels are favored over alternative energy sources, will significantly add to the total carbon emissions. Given the limitations of land available for agricultural expansion, of renewable water resources, and the challenges in meeting increasing water, energy, and food demands, the strong interdependencies among the interconnected resource systems must be accounted for. The SDG and national priority indicators are found to improve under scenarios for which resources are conserved via alternative sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems Using Affordable and Clean Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Technological Spaces in the Semi-Arid High Plains: Examining Well Ownership and Investment in Water-Saving Appliances
Water 2021, 13(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030365 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Groundwater depletion has been a consequential problem in Kansas, a drought-prone state widely reliant on the High Plains aquifer. This manuscript explores well ownership’s moderating effects on the relationships between awareness of water supplies and the use of water-saving devices. It assesses one [...] Read more.
Groundwater depletion has been a consequential problem in Kansas, a drought-prone state widely reliant on the High Plains aquifer. This manuscript explores well ownership’s moderating effects on the relationships between awareness of water supplies and the use of water-saving devices. It assesses one of the only quantitative datasets of private water well owners used in social scientific research (n = 864) and discusses the intricate results of multi-group structural equation models with respondents organized by their water supplies. Well ownership and water literacy are significantly correlated to owning water-conservation technologies, and well ownership combined with access to municipal water weakens the correlations between awareness and owning water-saving appliances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Dam Breach Analysis and Flood Wave Risk Assessment Using HEC-RAS and Remote Sensing Data: A Multicriteria Approach
Water 2021, 13(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030364 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Dam breach has disastrous consequences for the economy and human lives. Floods are one of the most damaging natural phenomena, and some of the most catastrophic flash floods are related to dam collapses. The goal of the present study is to analyse the [...] Read more.
Dam breach has disastrous consequences for the economy and human lives. Floods are one of the most damaging natural phenomena, and some of the most catastrophic flash floods are related to dam collapses. The goal of the present study is to analyse the impact of a possible failure–collapse on a potentially affected area downstream of the existing Bramianos dam on southern Crete Island. HEC-RAS hydraulic analysis software was used to study the dam breach, the flood wave propagation, and estimate the extent of floods. The analysis was performed using two different relief datasets of the same area: a digital elevation model (DEM) taken from very high-resolution orthophoto images (OPH) of the National Cadastre and Mapping Agency SA and a detailed digital surface model (DSM) extracted from aerial images taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Remote sensing data of the Sentinel-2 satellite and OPH were utilised to create the geographic information system (GIS) layers of a thorough land use/cover classification (LULC) for the potentially flooded area, which was used to assess the impact of the flood wave. Different dam breach and flood scenarios, where the water flows over man-made structures, settlements, and olive tree cultivations, were also examined. The study area is dominated mainly by three geological formations with different hydrogeological characteristics that dictated the positioning and structure of the dam and determine the processes that shape the geomorphology and surface roughness of the floodplain, affecting flow conditions. The results show that the impact of a potential dam break at Bramianos dam is serious, and appropriate management measures should be taken to reduce the risk. The water flow downstream of the collapsed dam depends on the water volume stored in the reservoir. Moreover, the comparison of DSM and DEM cases shows that the detailed DSM may indicate more accurately the surface relief and existing natural obstacles such as vegetation, buildings, and greenhouses, enabling more realistic hydraulic simulation results. Dam breach flood simulations and innovative remote sensing data can provide valuable outcomes for engineers and stakeholders for decision-making and planning in order to confront the consequences of similar incidents worldwide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On Neglecting Free-Stream Turbulence in Numerical Simulation of the Wind-Induced Bias of Snow Gauges
Water 2021, 13(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030363 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Numerical studies of the wind-induced bias of precipitation measurements assume that turbulence is generated by the interaction of the airflow with the gauge body, while steady and uniform free-stream conditions are imposed. However, wind is turbulent in nature due to the roughness of [...] Read more.
Numerical studies of the wind-induced bias of precipitation measurements assume that turbulence is generated by the interaction of the airflow with the gauge body, while steady and uniform free-stream conditions are imposed. However, wind is turbulent in nature due to the roughness of the site and the presence of obstacles, therefore precipitation gauges are immersed in a turbulent flow. Further to the turbulence generated by the flow-gauge interaction, we investigated the natural free-stream turbulence and its influence on precipitation measurement biases. Realistic turbulence intensity values at the gauge collector height were derived from 3D sonic anemometer measurements. Large Eddy Simulations of the turbulent flow around a chimney-shaped gauge were performed under uniform and turbulent free-stream conditions, using geometrical obstacles upstream of the gauge to provide the desired turbulence intensity. Catch ratios for dry snow particles were obtained using a Lagrangian particle tracking model, and the collection efficiency was calculated based on a suitable particle size distribution. The collection efficiency in turbulent conditions showed stronger undercatch at the investigated wind velocity and snowfall intensity below 10 mm h−1, demonstrating that adjustment curves based on the simplifying assumption of uniform free-stream conditions do not accurately portray the wind-induced bias of snow measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pollen Geochronology from the Atlantic Coast of the United States during the Last 500 Years
Water 2021, 13(3), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030362 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Building robust age–depth models to understand climatic and geologic histories from coastal sedimentary archives often requires composite chronologies consisting of multi-proxy age markers. Pollen chronohorizons derived from a known change in vegetation are important for age–depth models, especially those with other sparse or [...] Read more.
Building robust age–depth models to understand climatic and geologic histories from coastal sedimentary archives often requires composite chronologies consisting of multi-proxy age markers. Pollen chronohorizons derived from a known change in vegetation are important for age–depth models, especially those with other sparse or imprecise age markers. However, the accuracy of pollen chronohorizons compared to other age markers and the impact of pollen chronohorizons on the precision of age–depth models, particularly in salt marsh environments, is poorly understood. Here, we combine new and published pollen data from eight coastal wetlands (salt marshes and mangroves) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States (U.S.) from Florida to Connecticut to define the age and uncertainty of 17 pollen chronohorizons. We found that 13 out of 17 pollen chronohorizons were consistent when compared to other age markers (radiocarbon, radionuclide 137Cs and pollution markers). Inconsistencies were likely related to the hyperlocality of pollen chronohorizons, mixing of salt marsh sediment, reworking of pollen from nearby tidal flats, misidentification of pollen signals, and inaccuracies in or misinterpretation of other age markers. Additionally, in a total of 24 models, including one or more pollen chronohorizons, increased precision (up to 41 years) or no change was found in 18 models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impact on Coastal Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Shallow-Buried High-Intensity Mining on Soil Water Content in Ningtiaota Minefield
Water 2021, 13(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030361 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Shallow-buried high-intensity mining (SHM) activities commonly in China’s western mining area will lead to the decrease of groundwater level and soil water content (SWC), which will aggravate the further deterioration of the local fragile ecological environment. In this study, the applicability and limitations [...] Read more.
Shallow-buried high-intensity mining (SHM) activities commonly in China’s western mining area will lead to the decrease of groundwater level and soil water content (SWC), which will aggravate the further deterioration of the local fragile ecological environment. In this study, the applicability and limitations of six typical soil dielectric models were comprehensively evaluated based on ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology and shallow drilling methods. Moreover, experiments were performed to test the variation of SWC in Ningtiaota minefield affected by the SHM. The results show that the fitting effect of the four empirical models and two semi-empirical models on the clay is better than that of the medium sand. Among the six models, the Ledieu model has the best performance for medium sand, and the Topp model for clay. After SHM, the shallow SWC decreases as a whole. The decreasing range is 4.37–15.84%, showing a gradual downward trend compared with the one before mining. The shorter the lagging working face distance, the greater the drop of SWC will be. The longer the lagging working face distance, the smaller the drop of SWC will be showing a gradual and stable trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Linking Soil Science and Hydrology)
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