Special Issue "New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Joanna Karpińska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Poland
Interests: study of processes determining the durability of selected biologically active compounds in the environment; new photocatalysts; endogenous antioxidants; liquid chromatography
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Urszula Kotowska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Poland
Interests: determination of emerging contaminants in wastewater; leachate and other objects of the water environment; phytoremediation; microextraction techniques; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The planned Special Issue will include the following topics:

Emerging pollutants (EPs) in waters;

Endocrine active compounds in water environments;

Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in various water bodies;

Advances in water purification processes;

New advanced oxidation processess;

Environmental risk assessment, the toxiticity of emerging contaminants, and their fate in the food chain;

Leacheates of municipal landfills, their impact on groundwater quality, and problems with their utilisation;

Analytical methods employed to monitor the presence of EP in waters and for the monitoring of water purification processes;

Phytoremediation of wastewaters;

Purification of industrial wastewater;

Sorption methods in wastewater treatment.

Prof. Dr. Joanna Karpińska
Dr. Urszula Kotowska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wastewater
  • municipal landfields leachate
  • groundwater
  • emerging contaminants
  • advanced oxidation methods
  • phytoremediation
  • chemical analysis
  • new methods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Kinetics and Mechanistic Studies of Photochemical and Oxidative Stability of Galaxolide
Water 2021, 13(13), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131813 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 357
Abstract
Studies on kinetics of galaxolide (HHCB) degradation under influence of UV, simulated sunlight and some advanced oxidation processes (H2O2, UV/H2O2, and Vis/H2O2) were conducted. Galaxolide appeared to be a photolabile compound. [...] Read more.
Studies on kinetics of galaxolide (HHCB) degradation under influence of UV, simulated sunlight and some advanced oxidation processes (H2O2, UV/H2O2, and Vis/H2O2) were conducted. Galaxolide appeared to be a photolabile compound. The first-order kinetics model was assumed for all studied processes. It was observed that basic pH favored HHCB degradation. The influence of natural matrices (river water and artificial sweat) on direct photolysis of HHCB was examined. It was stated that the process of the photodegradation proceeded slower at the presence of each matrix. HHCB lactone was identified using the GC-MS technique. The recorded chromatograms showed that apart from the lactone, other degradation products were formed that we could not identify. In order to deeper understand the HHCB degradation process, DFT calculations were performed. The results pointed out that OH radicals play a key role in HHCB decomposition, which mainly proceeds via H abstractions as well as OH additions. It follows from the calculations that the visible light is sufficient to initiate the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) under the oxidative conditions, whereas UV irradiation is needed to start decay with no oxidative agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
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Article
The Identification of Fouling in Reverse Osmosis in the Treatment of Water with Petroleum Substances
Water 2021, 13(8), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081092 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Water containing petroleum substances is very difficult to clean, and the treatment process usually consists of several stages. Despite the increasing use of integrated membrane processes to purify natural waters, including the removal of organic substances, work is underway on the search for [...] Read more.
Water containing petroleum substances is very difficult to clean, and the treatment process usually consists of several stages. Despite the increasing use of integrated membrane processes to purify natural waters, including the removal of organic substances, work is underway on the search for new processes and their optimization. This paper deals with the study of the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) group by reverse osmosis and optimization. The research was conducted on surface water enriched with a fuel mixture. Then, the reverse osmosis efficiency was modeled using the constant pressure filtration model (Hermia model), which determined the most likely membrane blocking mechanism. When the membrane was operated on surface water enriched with BTEX, the blocking of the membrane was based on the n = 0 cake mechanism. In surface water alone, the highest correlation coefficient was 0.9994 and corresponded to a temporary blocking mechanism (n = 1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
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Article
Physicochemical Interactions in Systems C.I. Direct Yellow 50—Weakly Basic Resins: Kinetic, Equilibrium, and Auxiliaries Addition Aspects
Water 2021, 13(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030385 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
Intensive development of many industries, including textile, paper or plastic, which consume large amounts of water and generate huge amounts of wastewater-containing toxic dyes, contribute to pollution of the aquatic environment. Among many known methods of wastewater treatment, adsorption techniques are considered the [...] Read more.
Intensive development of many industries, including textile, paper or plastic, which consume large amounts of water and generate huge amounts of wastewater-containing toxic dyes, contribute to pollution of the aquatic environment. Among many known methods of wastewater treatment, adsorption techniques are considered the most effective. In the present study, the weakly basic anion exchangers such as Amberlyst A21, Amberlyst A23 and Amberlyst A24 of the polystyrene, phenol-formaldehyde and polyacrylic matrices were used for C.I. Direct Yellow 50 removal from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetic studies were described by the pseudo-second order model. The pseudo-second order rate constants were in the range of 0.0609–0.0128 g/mg·min for Amberlyst A24, 0.0038–0.0015 g/mg·min for Amberlyst A21 and 1.1945–0.0032 g/mg·min for Amberlyst A23, and decreased with the increasing initial concentration of dye from 100–500 mg/L, respectively. There were observed auxiliaries (Na2CO3, Na2SO4, anionic and non-ionic surfactants) impact on the dye uptake. The polyacrylic resin Amberlyst A24 can be promising sorbent for C.I. Direct Yellow 50 removal as it is able to uptake 666.5 mg/g of the dye compared to the phenol-formaldehyde Amberlyst A23 which has a 284.3 mg/g capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
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Article
Variations in the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Metal-polluted Water with Salvinia biloba: Prospects and Toxicological Impacts
Water 2020, 12(6), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061737 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
The occurrence of heavy metals in industrial wastewater is unanimously considered a major concern since these pollutants cannot be chemically or biologically degraded and therefore have long residence times. Phytoremediation is one of the most widespread biotechnological applications worldwide, which consists in the [...] Read more.
The occurrence of heavy metals in industrial wastewater is unanimously considered a major concern since these pollutants cannot be chemically or biologically degraded and therefore have long residence times. Phytoremediation is one of the most widespread biotechnological applications worldwide, which consists in the use of plants to adsorb or accumulate a broad range of inorganic and organic contaminants from water, air, and soil. To improve the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of phytoremediation-based wastewater treatment systems, it is essential to use plants that are not only efficient in pollutants removal, but also abundant and easily accessible at the target site, requiring no-special culture conditions. In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of naturally-occurring aquatic macrophytes of the genus Salvinia (classified as Salvinia biloba) to phytoremediate water artificially contaminated with cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), or zinc (Zn) at equal molar concentrations (50 ± 2 and 100 ± 1 µM), during 48 h. Additionally, photosynthetic and antioxidant pigments (carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, and flavonoids), and soluble carbohydrate content was also measured in floating leaves of Salvinia specimens to appraise heavy metals phytotoxicity. Elemental analyses to plant tissue indicate that S. biloba was able to bioconcentrate all four metals analyzed, albeit with different degrees of affinity. In addition, the mechanisms of uptake and detoxification were dissimilar for each ion, resulting in greater removal of Cu and Pb (≥96%, at both concentrations), in comparison to Cd (79 ± 4% and 56 ± 2% for 50 ± 2 and 100 ± 1 µM, respectively) and Zn (77 ± 5% and 70 ± 4% for 50 ± 2 and 100 ± 1 µM, respectively). Accordingly, the assessment of the selected physiological parameters in floating leaves suggests that different response mechanisms are triggered by each metal in S. biloba to counteract the corresponding toxicological stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
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Review

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Review
Insights into the Use of Phytoremediation Processes for the Removal of Organic Micropollutants from Water and Wastewater; A Review
Water 2021, 13(15), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152065 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Greater awareness of micropollutants present in water and wastewater motivates the search for effective methods of their neutralization. Although their concentration in waters is measured in micro- and nanograms per liter, even at those levels, they may cause serious health consequences for different [...] Read more.
Greater awareness of micropollutants present in water and wastewater motivates the search for effective methods of their neutralization. Although their concentration in waters is measured in micro- and nanograms per liter, even at those levels, they may cause serious health consequences for different organisms, including harmful effects on the functioning of the endocrine system of vertebrates. Traditional methods of wastewater treatment, especially biological methods used in municipal wastewater treatment plants, are not sufficiently effective in removing these compounds, which results in their presence in natural waters. The growing interest in phytoremediation using constructed wetlands as a method of wastewater treatment or polishing indicates a need for the evaluation of this process in the context of micropollutant removal. Therefore, the present work presents a systematic review of the effectiveness in the removal of micropollutants from polluted waters by processes based on plant used. The article also analyzes issues related to the impact of micropollutants on the physiological processes of plants as well as changes in general indicators of pollution caused by contact of wastewater with plants. Additionally, it is also the first review of the literature that focuses strictly on the removal of micropollutants through the use of constructed wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
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Review
Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Different Matrices: Occurrence, Pathways, and Treatment Processes
Water 2021, 13(9), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091159 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 619
Abstract
The procedures for analyzing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are typically tedious and expensive and thus, it is necessary to synthesize all available information from previously conducted research. An extensive collection of PPCP data from the published literature was compiled to determine [...] Read more.
The procedures for analyzing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are typically tedious and expensive and thus, it is necessary to synthesize all available information from previously conducted research. An extensive collection of PPCP data from the published literature was compiled to determine the occurrence, pathways, and the effectiveness of current treatment technologies for the removal of PPCPs in water and wastewater. Approximately 90% of the compiled published papers originated from Asia, Europe, and the North American regions. The incomplete removal of PPCPs in different water and wastewater treatment processes was widely reported, thus resulting in the occurrence of PPCP compounds in various environmental compartments. Caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, triclosan, and triclocarban were among the most commonly reported compounds detected in water and solid matrices. Trace concentrations of PPCPs were also detected on plants and animal tissues, indicating the bioaccumulative properties of some PPCP compounds. A significant lack of studies regarding the presence of PPCPs in animal and plant samples was identified in the review. Furthermore, there were still knowledge gaps on the ecotoxicity, sub-lethal effects, and effective treatment processes for PPCPs. The knowledge gaps identified in this study can be used to devise a more effective research paradigm and guidelines for PPCP management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
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