Special Issue "Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Eng. Giuseppe Sappa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Building, and Environmental Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Interests: groundwater exploitation, protection and characterization; hydrogeochemistry; environmental tracing; seawater intrusion; karst aquifers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable grounwater exploitation is one of the most important scientific and technical challenges at present and in the future due to climate change pressure, expecially in developiong regions, though not only there. The term “sustainability” includes environmental, economic, and social aspects which have to be taken into account on a case-by-case basis. This Special Issue aims to collect and compare information collected in different hydrogeological and environment conditions, to give experts and stakeholders traditional and innovative tools to face the increasing groundwater demand through a sustainable approach in the civil, industrial, and agricultural field. This means that we expect case histories and specific and innovative methods to evaluate or estimate the safe yield, which can be exploited in different aquifers types, as well as sustainable groundwater exploitation. It is well known that safe yield is a key aspect in groundwater exploitation, both in coastal and karst aquifers. We welcome papers involving numerical or analytical models as well as geochemical and isotopical approaches, which apply these tracers to identify which parts of the aquifer are exploited to evaluate the related sustainability.  

Prof. Eng. Giuseppe Sappa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • groundwater exploitation
  • sustainability
  • safe yield
  • coastal aquifer
  • karst aquifer
  • seawater intrusion
  • transbounday aquifers
  • environmental tracers

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Improving the Methods for Processing Hard Rock Aquifers Boreholes’ Databases. Application to the Hydrodynamic Characterization of Metamorphic Aquifers from Western Côte d’Ivoire
Water 2021, 13(22), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223219 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Statistical analysis of a borehole database, linear discharges, and water strikes processing enabled an understanding of the structure, geometry and hydrodynamic properties of the metamorphic hard rock aquifers from the Montagnes District, Western Côte d’Ivoire. The database comprises 1654 boreholes among which 445 [...] Read more.
Statistical analysis of a borehole database, linear discharges, and water strikes processing enabled an understanding of the structure, geometry and hydrodynamic properties of the metamorphic hard rock aquifers from the Montagnes District, Western Côte d’Ivoire. The database comprises 1654 boreholes among which 445 only were usable for this research work after its pre-processing. Analysis shows that the structure of the aquifer is similar to that observed in several other areas in the world: it developed due to weathering processes, comprises the capacitive saprolite, 10–20 m thick on average, and an underlying transmissive fractured layer, overlying the unweathered impermeable hard rock. The fractured layer is 80 m thick, the first 40 to 45 metres being its most productive zone, with a 11.3 m3/h median productivity. This research shows that metamorphic aquifers exhibit similar aquifer properties (thickness, hydrodynamic parameters) as plutonic ones and that there is interest in using such databases for research and other purposes. However, a rigorous pre-treatment of the data is mandatory, and geological data from published maps must be used instead of the geological data from the database. A previous methodology aiming at processing the boreholes’ linear discharges was improved. It notably appears that the slope method must be preferred to the percentile method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation)
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Article
Mobility of nZVI in a Reconstructed Porous Media Monitored by an Image Analysis Procedure
Water 2021, 13(19), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192797 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (nZVI) technology has been found to be promising and effective for the remediation of soils or groundwater. However, while nanoparticles are traveling through porous media, they can rapidly aggregate, causing their settling and deposition. When nZVI are injected in the [...] Read more.
Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (nZVI) technology has been found to be promising and effective for the remediation of soils or groundwater. However, while nanoparticles are traveling through porous media, they can rapidly aggregate, causing their settling and deposition. When nZVI are injected in the groundwater flow, the behavior (mobility, dispersion, distribution) is unknown in groundwater, causing the use of enormous quantities of them if used at the field scale. In this paper, a laboratory experiment was carried out with groundwater flow in a two-dimensional, laboratory-scale tank to assess the nanoparticle behavior by means of an image analysis procedure. A solution of zero-valent iron nanoparticles, Nanofer 25S particles, were used and glass beads were utilized as porous medium. The laboratory experiment included the use of a digital camera for the acquisition of the images. The image analysis procedure was used to assess the behavior of nZVI plume. A calibration procedure and a mass balance were applied to validate the proposed image analysis procedure, with the hypothesis that nanoparticles would be uniformly distributed in the third dimension of the tank (thickness). The results show that the nanoparticles presented small dispersive effects and the motion was strongly influenced from the higher weight of them with respect to the water. Therefore, the results indicate that nanoparticles have an own motion not strongly influenced by the fluid flow but more determined from the injection phase and gravity. The statistical elaborations show that the nZVI plume did not respond to the classical mechanisms of the dispersion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation)
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Article
Analysis of Spatiotemporal Groundwater-Storage Variations in China from GRACE
Water 2021, 13(17), 2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172378 - 30 Aug 2021
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Abstract
In China, where some regions are over-reliant on groundwater, groundwater consumption is faster than replenishment, which results in a continuous decrease in the groundwater level. Here, we applied spatial and temporal methods to analyze the spatiotemporal variations in groundwater in China from GRACE, [...] Read more.
In China, where some regions are over-reliant on groundwater, groundwater consumption is faster than replenishment, which results in a continuous decrease in the groundwater level. Here, we applied spatial and temporal methods to analyze the spatiotemporal variations in groundwater in China from GRACE, GRACE-FO, and GLDAS data. From a national perspective, groundwater storage showed a decreasing trend in northern China and an increasing trend in southern China. The results showed that the rates of groundwater depletion in North China, the Loess Plateau, and Northwest China were −10.09 ± 0.94, −10.05 ± 1.05, and –4.91 ± 0.28 mm y−1 equivalent height of water from 2003 to 2019, respectively. Furthermore, the groundwater in South China, the middle-lower Yangtze River, and the Ch-Yu region had a positive trend, with rates of 7.26 ± 1.51, 7.73 ± 1.35, and 3.61 ± 0.53 mm y−1 equivalent height of water, respectively. We also found that groundwater storage fluctuated slightly before 2016 on the Qinhai-Tibet Plateau and in Northeast China and decreased significantly after 2016. The Yun-Gui Plateau had a fluctuating trend. Investigating the spatiotemporal variation in groundwater storage in China can provide data for initiating regional ecological and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation)
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Article
Investigating Effect of Pumping Ratio on Effectiveness of Barrier Wells for Saltwater Intrusion: Lab-Scale Experiments and Numerical Modeling
Water 2021, 13(15), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152100 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Saltwater intrusion, leading to the salinization of fresh groundwater, is the most challenging problem in coastal regions. Saltwater pumping from a barrier well is widely applied to prevent saltwater intrusion. Owing to its easy installation, many studies have investigated saltwater pumping. However, quantitative [...] Read more.
Saltwater intrusion, leading to the salinization of fresh groundwater, is the most challenging problem in coastal regions. Saltwater pumping from a barrier well is widely applied to prevent saltwater intrusion. Owing to its easy installation, many studies have investigated saltwater pumping. However, quantitative relationships between the barrier and inland production wells have not been revealed. In this study, lab-scale experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of a barrier well on the possible flow rate of freshwater from a production well. Moreover, a two-dimensional numerical model was created and simulated under the same conditions as those used in the experiments to analyze the experimental results. Consequently, a critical pumping ratio of 1.9 was obtained. In the numerical simulation, it was confirmed that an upconing of highly concentrated saltwater toward the barrier well was observed when the pumping ratio was less than the critical ratio. In conclusion, there is a critical pumping ratio between the barrier and the production well, and saltwater intrusion can be controlled by keeping the pumping rates under the critical ratio. Although further studies have yet to be conducted on a practical scale, this study showed the potential of the pumping ratio control to manage saltwater intrusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation)
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Technical Note
Damage Characteristics and Mechanism of the 2017 Groundwater Inrush Accident That Occurred at Dongyu Coalmine in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
Water 2021, 13(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030368 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 679
Abstract
On 22 May 2017, a groundwater inrush accident occurred in the gob area of coal floor at Dongyu Coal Mine in Qingxu County, Shanxi Province, China. The water inrush accident caused great damage, among which six people died and the direct economic loss [...] Read more.
On 22 May 2017, a groundwater inrush accident occurred in the gob area of coal floor at Dongyu Coal Mine in Qingxu County, Shanxi Province, China. The water inrush accident caused great damage, among which six people died and the direct economic loss was about CNY 5.05 million. An elliptical permeable passage appeared at the floor of the water inrush point, and the lithology of the outburst is mainly fragmented sandy mudstone and siltstone of coal roof No.2 in the lower layer of coal seam No.3, which is currently being mined, with a peak inflow of 500 m3/h. The water inrush happened due to following reasons: There is an abandoned stagnant water-closed roadway in coal seam No.2, which is the lower mine group of coal seam No.3. The abandoned roadway of coal seam No.2 is an inclined roadway. The water level of the roadway far away from the accident point is higher than the floor elevation of coal seam No.3. Under the joint action of water pressure, mining disturbance, and weakening of goaf water immersion, the original equilibrium state was broken, resulting in the destruction of the only 7 m water-barrier rock pillar between coal seam No.3 and coal seam No.2. The water in the goaf led upward along the roof crack, gradually evolved from seepage to gushing water, and a large amount of goaf water poured into the roadway in the working face of the 03304 panel, finally leading to the occurrence of catastrophic water inrush. Technically, the miners did not implement the technical provisions of the coal mine water control regulations, leading to the accident. In addition, the failure to arrange evacuees to a safe location after apparent signs of water inrush also increased the catastrophic level of the accident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation)
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