Special Issue "Climate Change and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH): Resilience, Adaptation and Emissions"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Guy Howard
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Interests: climate change; resilience; water supply; sanitation; WASH; environmental health; management; policy; groundwater; greenhouse gases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change poses new challenges for the delivery of water and sanitation services supported by good personal hygiene. The projected likely changes in rainfall patterns and temperature are likely to mean increased frequency of floods, droughts and storms, all of which may damage infrastructure, contaminate sources and degrade catchments. In light of these threats, the WASH sector needs to build its resilience and adapt to changing and uncertain threats. At the same time, it is becoming clear that sanitation in particular may be a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions and that different technologies may have very different emission profiles. Life-cycle assessments for sanitation emissions are important as indirect emissions associated with transport may be significant and re-use of treated sludge and wastewater may offset emissions associated with use of inorganic fertilisers.

This Special Edition of Water will address the range of impacts, adaptation, resilience and emissions on water and sanitation services associated with climate. It will cover all aspects of domestic water supply and faecal waste management and the associated needs for good personal and domestic hygiene. Papers covering all parts of the world are welcome, but we would particularly encourage studies from low- and middle-income countries.

Prof. Guy Howard
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Adaptation
  • Resilience
  • GHGs
  • WASH
  • CR-WSPs
  • Vulnerability
  • Floods
  • Drought
  • Storm surges
  • Disease

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Vulnerability among Rural Areas and Small Towns in South Africa: Exploring the Role of Climate Change, Marginalization, and Inequality
Water 2021, 13(20), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202810 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)—including drainage-services—is essential for public health and socio-economic development, but access remains inadequate and inequitable in low- to middle-income countries such as South Africa. In South Africa, rural areas and small towns generally depend on a limited [...] Read more.
Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)—including drainage-services—is essential for public health and socio-economic development, but access remains inadequate and inequitable in low- to middle-income countries such as South Africa. In South Africa, rural areas and small towns generally depend on a limited and climate-sensitive economic base (e.g., farming), and they have a limited capacity and are located in areas where transport challenges can increase WASH access risks. Climate change shifts hydrological cycles, which can worsen WASH access and increase susceptibility to the interlinked impacts of droughts and flooding in already vulnerable regions. We adopted a transdisciplinary approach to explore the needs, barriers, and vulnerabilities with respect to WASH in rural areas and small towns in South Africa—using two case studies to explore climate risk and vulnerability assessment (CRVA) in one rural village in the northern Limpopo province and a small town in the Western Cape province. This holistic approach considered natural (environment and climate) and socio-economic (economic, social, governance, and political) factors and how they interplay in hampering access to WASH. Extreme weather events characterized by frequent and intense droughts or floods aggravate surface and groundwater availability and damage water infrastructure while threatening agriculture-dependent livelihoods. The lack of reliable transport infrastructure increases risks posed by flooding as roads to vital supplies are prone to damage. High inequality linked to rising unemployment and the Apartheid legacy of a segregated service delivery system result in inequitable access to WASH services. The intertwined ways in which natural elements and historical, social, economic, governance, and policy aspects are changing in South Africa increase WASH vulnerability in rural areas and small towns. Full article
Article
Analysis of the Arbovirosis Potential Occurrence in Dobrogea, Romania
Water 2021, 13(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030374 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Climate change creates new challenges for preventing and protecting human health against different diseases that could appear and propagate. The Aedes albopictus mosquito species is an important vector for different diseases like dengue fever or zika. Although this species is not “indigenous” in [...] Read more.
Climate change creates new challenges for preventing and protecting human health against different diseases that could appear and propagate. The Aedes albopictus mosquito species is an important vector for different diseases like dengue fever or zika. Although this species is not “indigenous” in Europe, its presence is noticed in many countries on the continent. The Ae. albopictus establishment is conditioned by the species’ characteristics and environmental factors. To assess the possible spread of Ae. albopictus in the Dobrogea region (situated in the Southeast of Romania), we conducted the following analysis: (1) Investigation of the current distribution and climatic factors favoring Ae. albopictus’ establishment in Europe; (2) Analysis of climate dynamics in Dobrogea in terms of the parameters identified at stage (1); (3) Testing the hypothesis that the climate from Dobrogea favors Ae. albopictus’ establishment in the region; (4) Building a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model of the potential geographic distribution of Ae. albopictus in Dobrogea. Results show that the climate of Dobrogea favors the apparition of the investigated species and its proliferation. Full article
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