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Article

Management of the Phosphorus–Cladophora Dynamic at a Site on Lake Ontario Using a Multi-Module Bioavailable P Model

1
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering and Great Lakes Research Center, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
2
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd. (NIWA), Riccarton, 8011 Christchurch, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Goethals
Water 2021, 13(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030375
Received: 8 November 2020 / Revised: 5 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 31 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Quality Modeling)
The filamentous green alga Cladophora grows to nuisance proportions in Lake Ontario. Stimulated by high phosphorus concentrations, nuisance growth results in the degradation of beaches and clogging of industrial water intakes with attendant loss of beneficial uses. We develop a multi-module bioavailable phosphorus model to examine the efficacy of phosphorus management strategies in mitigating nuisance algal growth. The model platform includes modules simulating hydrodynamics (FVCOM), phosphorus-phytoplankton dynamics (GEM) and Cladophora growth (GLCMv3). The model is applied along a 25 km stretch of the Lake Ontario nearshore, extending east from Toronto, ON and receiving effluent from three wastewater treatment plants. Simulation results identify the Duffin Creek wastewater treatment plant effluent as a driving force for nuisance conditions of Cladophora growth, as reflected in effluent bioavailable phosphorus concentrations and the dimensions of the plant’s phosphorus footprint. Simulation results demonstrate that phosphorus removal by chemically enhanced secondary treatment is insufficient to provide relief from nuisance conditions. Tertiary treatment (chemically enhanced secondary treatment with ballasted flocculation) is shown to eliminate phosphorus-saturated conditions associated with the Duffin Creek wastewater treatment plant effluent, providing local relief from nuisance conditions. Management guidance presented here has wider application at sites along the highly urbanized Canadian nearshore of Lake Ontario. View Full-Text
Keywords: Great Lakes; Lake Ontario; modeling; bioavailable phosphorus; nuisance algal growth; Cladophora; trophic state management Great Lakes; Lake Ontario; modeling; bioavailable phosphorus; nuisance algal growth; Cladophora; trophic state management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Auer, M.T.; McDonald, C.P.; Kuczynski, A.; Huang, C.; Xue, P. Management of the Phosphorus–Cladophora Dynamic at a Site on Lake Ontario Using a Multi-Module Bioavailable P Model. Water 2021, 13, 375. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030375

AMA Style

Auer MT, McDonald CP, Kuczynski A, Huang C, Xue P. Management of the Phosphorus–Cladophora Dynamic at a Site on Lake Ontario Using a Multi-Module Bioavailable P Model. Water. 2021; 13(3):375. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030375

Chicago/Turabian Style

Auer, Martin T., Cory P. McDonald, Anika Kuczynski, Chenfu Huang, and Pengfei Xue. 2021. "Management of the Phosphorus–Cladophora Dynamic at a Site on Lake Ontario Using a Multi-Module Bioavailable P Model" Water 13, no. 3: 375. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030375

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