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Article

On Neglecting Free-Stream Turbulence in Numerical Simulation of the Wind-Induced Bias of Snow Gauges

1
Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genova, 16145 Genoa, Italy
2
World Meteorological Organization—Lead Centre “B. Castelli” on Precipitation Intensity, 00062 Vigna di Valle (RM), Italy
3
Artys s.r.l., 16121 Genoa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Shiklomanov
Water 2021, 13(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030363
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 25 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 31 January 2021
Numerical studies of the wind-induced bias of precipitation measurements assume that turbulence is generated by the interaction of the airflow with the gauge body, while steady and uniform free-stream conditions are imposed. However, wind is turbulent in nature due to the roughness of the site and the presence of obstacles, therefore precipitation gauges are immersed in a turbulent flow. Further to the turbulence generated by the flow-gauge interaction, we investigated the natural free-stream turbulence and its influence on precipitation measurement biases. Realistic turbulence intensity values at the gauge collector height were derived from 3D sonic anemometer measurements. Large Eddy Simulations of the turbulent flow around a chimney-shaped gauge were performed under uniform and turbulent free-stream conditions, using geometrical obstacles upstream of the gauge to provide the desired turbulence intensity. Catch ratios for dry snow particles were obtained using a Lagrangian particle tracking model, and the collection efficiency was calculated based on a suitable particle size distribution. The collection efficiency in turbulent conditions showed stronger undercatch at the investigated wind velocity and snowfall intensity below 10 mm h−1, demonstrating that adjustment curves based on the simplifying assumption of uniform free-stream conditions do not accurately portray the wind-induced bias of snow measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitation; measurement; accuracy; snow; snow gauge; wind; turbulence; CFD; LES; collection efficiency precipitation; measurement; accuracy; snow; snow gauge; wind; turbulence; CFD; LES; collection efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cauteruccio, A.; Colli, M.; Lanza, L.G. On Neglecting Free-Stream Turbulence in Numerical Simulation of the Wind-Induced Bias of Snow Gauges. Water 2021, 13, 363. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030363

AMA Style

Cauteruccio A, Colli M, Lanza LG. On Neglecting Free-Stream Turbulence in Numerical Simulation of the Wind-Induced Bias of Snow Gauges. Water. 2021; 13(3):363. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030363

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cauteruccio, Arianna, Matteo Colli, and Luca G. Lanza 2021. "On Neglecting Free-Stream Turbulence in Numerical Simulation of the Wind-Induced Bias of Snow Gauges" Water 13, no. 3: 363. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030363

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