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Water, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change Impact Assessment on Freshwater Inflow into the Small Aral Sea
Water 2019, 11(11), 2377; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112377 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
During the last few decades, the rapid separation of the Small Aral Sea from the isolated basin has changed its hydrological and ecological conditions tremendously. In the present study, we developed and validated the hybrid model for the Syr Darya River basin based [...] Read more.
During the last few decades, the rapid separation of the Small Aral Sea from the isolated basin has changed its hydrological and ecological conditions tremendously. In the present study, we developed and validated the hybrid model for the Syr Darya River basin based on a combination of state-of-the-art hydrological and machine learning models. Climate change impact on freshwater inflow into the Small Aral Sea for the projection period 2007–2099 has been quantified based on the developed hybrid model and bias corrected and downscaled meteorological projections simulated by four General Circulation Models (GCM) for each of three Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCP). The developed hybrid model reliably simulates freshwater inflow for the historical period with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.72 and a Kling–Gupta efficiency of 0.77. Results of the climate change impact assessment showed that the freshwater inflow projections produced by different GCMs are misleading by providing contradictory results for the projection period. However, we identified that the relative runoff changes are expected to be more pronounced in the case of more aggressive RCP scenarios. The simulated projections of freshwater inflow provide a basis for further assessment of climate change impacts on hydrological and ecological conditions of the Small Aral Sea in the 21st Century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluating Hydrological Responses to Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle
Principal Component Weighted Index for Wastewater Quality Monitoring
Water 2019, 11(11), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112376 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
The quality of raw and treated wastewater was evaluated using the principal component weighted index (PCWI) which was defined as a sum of principal component scores weighted according to their eigenvalues. For this purpose, five principal components (PCs) explaining 88% and 83% of [...] Read more.
The quality of raw and treated wastewater was evaluated using the principal component weighted index (PCWI) which was defined as a sum of principal component scores weighted according to their eigenvalues. For this purpose, five principal components (PCs) explaining 88% and 83% of the total variability of raw and treated wastewater samples, respectively, were extracted from 11 original physico-chemical parameters by robust principal component analysis (PCA). The PCWIs of raw and treated wastewater were analyzed in terms of their statistical distributions, temporal changes, mutual correlations, correlations with original parameters, and common water quality indexes (WQI). The PCWI allowed us to monitor temporal wastewater quality by one parameter instead of several. Unlike other weighted indexes, the PCWI is composed of independent variables with minimal information noise and objectively determined weights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Changes in Annual Maximum Precipitations in the Iberian Peninsula under Climate Change
Water 2019, 11(11), 2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112375 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Climate model projections can be used to assess the future expected behavior of extreme precipitation due to climate change. In Europe, the EURO-CORDEX project provides precipitation projections in the future under various representative concentration pathways (RCP), through regionalized outputs of Global Climate Models [...] Read more.
Climate model projections can be used to assess the future expected behavior of extreme precipitation due to climate change. In Europe, the EURO-CORDEX project provides precipitation projections in the future under various representative concentration pathways (RCP), through regionalized outputs of Global Climate Models (GCM) by a set of Regional Climate Models (RCM). In this work, 12 combinations of GCM and RCM under two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) supplied by the EURO-CORDEX project are analyzed in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Precipitation quantiles for a set of exceedance probabilities are estimated by using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution function fitted by the L-moment method. Precipitation quantiles expected in the future period are compared with the precipitation quantiles in the control period, for each climate model. An approach based on Monte Carlo simulations is developed to assess the uncertainty from the climate model projections. Expected changes in the future are compared with the sampling uncertainty in the control period to identify statistically significant changes. The higher the significance threshold, the fewer cells with changes are identified. Consequently, a set of maps are obtained for various thresholds to assist the decision making process in subsequent climate change studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Climate Change on Floods)
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Open AccessArticle
Financial Benefits of Mangroves for Surge Prone High-Value Areas
Water 2019, 11(11), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112374 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this paper, protection options for a high-value, industrial area along the coast of West Bengal (India) are investigated. The options are designed to protect against cyclone surges with a probability of 1/100 per year. Two alternatives are compared, a classical solution of [...] Read more.
In this paper, protection options for a high-value, industrial area along the coast of West Bengal (India) are investigated. The options are designed to protect against cyclone surges with a probability of 1/100 per year. Two alternatives are compared, a classical solution of a dike with a revetment and a solution with a mangrove belt in front of the dike. The results reveal that from a pure infrastructural cash-flow point-of-view, the mangrove solution is at least 25% cheaper than the classical solution with a rock revetment. An important finding is that this conclusion does not need the financial evaluation of the obvious additional ecological advantages that mangroves offer. It is postulated that these results are generally valid for high-value coastal areas under the attack of waves during storm surges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Coastal Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Hydropower Generation Scheduling of Large-Scale Cascade Reservoirs Using Chaotic Adaptive Multi-Objective Bat Algorithm
Water 2019, 11(11), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112373 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
With growing concerns over renewable energy, the cascade hydropower reservoirs operation (CHRO), which balances the development of economic benefits and power supply security, plays an increasingly important role in hydropower systems. Due to conflicting objectives and complicated operation constraints, the CHRO problem considering [...] Read more.
With growing concerns over renewable energy, the cascade hydropower reservoirs operation (CHRO), which balances the development of economic benefits and power supply security, plays an increasingly important role in hydropower systems. Due to conflicting objectives and complicated operation constraints, the CHRO problem considering the requirements of maximizing power generation benefit and firm power output is determined as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOP). In this paper, a chaotic adaptive multi-objective bat algorithm (CAMOBA) is proposed to solve the CHRO problem, and the external archive set is added to preserve non-dominant solutions. Meanwhile, population initialization based on the improved logical mapping function is adopted to improve population diversity. Furthermore, the self-adaptive local search strategy and mutation operation are designed to escape local minima. The CAMOBA is applied to the CHRO problem of the Qingjiang cascade hydropower stations in southern China. The results show that CAMOBA outperforms the multi-objective bat algorithm (MOBA) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms-II (NSGA-II) in different hydrological years. The spacing (SP) and hypervolume (HV) metrics verify the excellent performance of CAMOBA in diversity and convergence. In summary, the CAMOBA is demonstrated to get better scheduling solutions, providing an effective approach for solving the cascade hydropower reservoirs operation (CHRO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Surface Charge on the Adsorption Capacity of Chromium(VI) of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared by Microwave-Assisted Synthesis
Water 2019, 11(11), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112372 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Solid phase extraction using magnetic nanoparticles has represented a leap forward in terms of the improvement of water quality, preventing the contamination of industrial effluents from discharge in a more efficient and affordable way. In the present work, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) [...] Read more.
Solid phase extraction using magnetic nanoparticles has represented a leap forward in terms of the improvement of water quality, preventing the contamination of industrial effluents from discharge in a more efficient and affordable way. In the present work, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) with different surface charges are tested as nanosorbents for the removal of chromium(VI) in aqueous solution. Uniform magnetic nanoparticles (~12 nm) were synthesized by a microwave polyol-mediated method, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) were grafted onto their surface, providing a variation in the surface charge. The adsorptive process of chromium was evaluated as a function of the pH, the initial concentration of chromium and contact time. Kinetic studies were best described by a pseudo-second order model in all cases. [email protected] barely removed the chromium from the media, while non-grafted particles and [email protected]@MNP followed the Langmuir model, with maximum adsorption capacities of 15 and 35 mgCr/g, respectively. The chromium adsorption capacities abruptly increased when the surface became positively charged as the species coexisting at the experimental pH are negatively charged. Furthermore, these particles have proven to be highly efficient in water remediation due their 100% reusability after more than six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies Developing in Heavy Metals' Removal from Water)
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Open AccessArticle
Flood Risk Mapping Worldwide: A Flexible Methodology and Toolbox
Water 2019, 11(11), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112371 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Flood risk assessments predict the potential consequences of flooding, leading to more effective risk management and strengthening resilience. However, adequate assessments rely on large quantities of high-quality input data. Developing regions lack reliable data or funds to acquire them. Therefore, this research has [...] Read more.
Flood risk assessments predict the potential consequences of flooding, leading to more effective risk management and strengthening resilience. However, adequate assessments rely on large quantities of high-quality input data. Developing regions lack reliable data or funds to acquire them. Therefore, this research has developed a flexible, low-cost methodology for mapping flood hazard, vulnerability and risk. A generic methodology was developed and customized for freely available data with global coverage, enabling risk assessment worldwide. The default workflow can be enriched with region-specific information when available. The practical application is assured by a modular toolbox developed on GDAL and PCRASTER. This toolbox was tested for the catchment of the river Moustiques, Haiti, for which several flood hazard maps were developed. Then, the toolbox was used to create social, economic and physical vulnerability maps. These were combined with the hazard maps to create the three corresponding flood risk maps. After creating these with the default data, more detailed information, gathered during field work, was added to verify the results of the basic workflow. These first tests of the developed toolbox show promising results. The toolbox allows policy makers in developing countries to perform reliable flood risk assessments and generate the necessary maps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Urban Flood Hazard Modeling Using Self-Organizing Map Neural Network
Water 2019, 11(11), 2370; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112370 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Floods are the most common natural disaster globally and lead to severe damage, especially in urban environments. This study evaluated the efficiency of a self-organizing map neural network (SOMN) algorithm for urban flood hazard mapping in the case of Amol city, Iran. First, [...] Read more.
Floods are the most common natural disaster globally and lead to severe damage, especially in urban environments. This study evaluated the efficiency of a self-organizing map neural network (SOMN) algorithm for urban flood hazard mapping in the case of Amol city, Iran. First, a flood inventory database was prepared using field survey data covering 118 flooded points. A 70:30 data ratio was applied for training and validation purposes. Six factors (elevation, slope percent, distance from river, distance from channel, curve number, and precipitation) were selected as predictor variables. After building the model, the odds ratio skill score (ORSS), efficiency (E), true skill statistic (TSS), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) were used as evaluation metrics to scrutinize the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance of the model. The results indicated that the SOMN model performed excellently in modeling flood hazard in both the training (AUC = 0.946, E = 0.849, TSS = 0.716, ORSS = 0.954) and validation (AUC = 0.924, E = 0.857, TSS = 0.714, ORSS = 0.945) steps. The model identified around 23% of the Amol city area as being in high or very high flood risk classes that need to be carefully managed. Overall, the results demonstrate that the SOMN model can be used for flood hazard mapping in urban environments and can provide valuable insights about flood risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flash Floods in Urban Areas)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlations of Stormwater Runoff and Quality: Urban Pavement and Property Value by Land Use at the Parcel Level in a Small Sized American City
Water 2019, 11(11), 2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112369 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
As the urban environment keeps growing, stormwater management programs have been adopted to address unregulated nonpoint runoff and pollutants across the world. Extensive studies on stormwater runoff and quality at smaller spatial scales exist, but are rare at larger spatial scales. Using the [...] Read more.
As the urban environment keeps growing, stormwater management programs have been adopted to address unregulated nonpoint runoff and pollutants across the world. Extensive studies on stormwater runoff and quality at smaller spatial scales exist, but are rare at larger spatial scales. Using the City of Corvallis, Oregon, a small sized American city, as a test-bed, this study estimates urban stormwater runoff and quality by zoning, which specifies land uses, and by parcel, which defines land ownership using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model and high resolution land use and land cover data. The correlations between stormwater runoff volume, stormwater quality, parcel land cover sizes, and values are then analyzed and visualized in RStudio. The results indicate that stormwater runoff and quality are determined by complex biophysical processes, with strong correlations between urban spatial sizes and property values for some land uses being observed. The research results provide suggestions for low impact development applications for different land uses, and the findings in this research can be used to suggest stormwater management policy for various land uses in small sized cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Open AccessArticle
Space–Time Kriging of Precipitation: Modeling the Large-Scale Variation with Model GAMLSS
Water 2019, 11(11), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112368 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Knowing the dynamics of spatial–temporal precipitation distribution is of vital significance for the management of water resources, in highlight, in the northeast region of Brazil (NEB). Several models of large-scale precipitation variability are based on the normal distribution, not taking into consideration the [...] Read more.
Knowing the dynamics of spatial–temporal precipitation distribution is of vital significance for the management of water resources, in highlight, in the northeast region of Brazil (NEB). Several models of large-scale precipitation variability are based on the normal distribution, not taking into consideration the excess of null observations that are prevalent in the daily or even monthly precipitation information of the region under study. This research proposes a novel way of modeling the trend component by using an inflated gamma distribution of zeros. The residuals of this regression are generally space–time dependent and have been modeled by a space–time covariance function. The findings show that the new techniques have provided reliable and precise precipitation estimates, exceeding the techniques used previously. The modeling provided estimates of precipitation in nonsampled locations and unobserved periods, thus serving as a tool to assist the government in improving water management, anticipating society’s needs and preventing water crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Effects of Wastewater Treatment Plant Modernization by Means of the Field Olfactometry Method
Water 2019, 11(11), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112367 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Methodological aspects of odor studies in ex-post analyses for Polish wastewater management facilities were analyzed based on the example of a modernized and enlarged wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Mazovia, in the vicinity of the Warsaw agglomeration. It is a mechanical–biological treatment plant [...] Read more.
Methodological aspects of odor studies in ex-post analyses for Polish wastewater management facilities were analyzed based on the example of a modernized and enlarged wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Mazovia, in the vicinity of the Warsaw agglomeration. It is a mechanical–biological treatment plant with increased efficiency of biogen removal, using activated sludge in the treatment process, with a maximum hydraulic capacity of 60,000 m3/day. Olfactometric research was carried out by means of a method based on identification and characterization of the odor plume emitted from the examined source. This paper presents the results of odor intensity assessment (in sensory examinations according to a 6-stage scale) and odor concentration measurement (using portable field olfactometers) after the completion of the project, and compares them with similar studies conducted before the commencement of the investment. A total of 10 measurement series were carried out before modernization, and 12 after modernization of the WWTP. Odor concentration and intensity were determined, and the current meteorological situation was assessed at the measurement and observation points (receptors) located within the premises (in total 462 points) and around the WWTP (342 points). In each series of measurements on the windward side of the treatment plant, the background of air pollution with odorous substances was marked. The research showed that air flowing into the area of the sewage treatment plant is clean in terms of odor. During the research, basic sources of odor nuisance were identified, and their impact before and after modernization was characterized. The results presented in radar diagrams show changes in the percentage distribution of frequency of occurrence of individual intensity values at receptor points within and outside the area of the treatment plant. After modernization, a significant decrease in the concentration of odor emitted from the sludge dewatering building and sludge containers was determined. The air-tightness of the sewage channel (covered with concrete slabs and sealed) resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of odor emitted from this source. Waste (in particular, sewage sludge) collected in the emergency waste storage yard was identified as the main source of odor nuisance. The waste, even after modernization, was an emitter of odorous compounds spreading outside the area of the WWTP. Nevertheless, as a result of the investment, the desired effect of reduction of the degree of odor nuisance was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
staRdom: Versatile Software for Analyzing Spectroscopic Data of Dissolved Organic Matter in R
Water 2019, 11(11), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112366 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
The roles of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in microbial processes and nutrient cycles depend on its composition, which requires detailed measurements and analyses. We introduce a package for R, called staRdom (“spectroscopic analysis of DOM in R”), to analyze DOM spectroscopic data (absorbance [...] Read more.
The roles of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in microbial processes and nutrient cycles depend on its composition, which requires detailed measurements and analyses. We introduce a package for R, called staRdom (“spectroscopic analysis of DOM in R”), to analyze DOM spectroscopic data (absorbance and fluorescence), which is key to deliver fast insight into DOM composition of many samples. staRdom provides functions that standardize data preparation and analysis of spectroscopic data and are inspired by practical work. The user can perform blank subtraction, dilution correction, Raman normalization, scatter removal and interpolation, and fluorescence normalization. The software performs parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of excitation–emission matrices (EEMs), including peak picking of EEMs, and calculates fluorescence indices, absorbance indices, and absorbance slope indices from EEMs and absorbance spectra. A comparison between PARAFAC solutions by staRdom in R compared with drEEM in MATLAB showed nearly identical solutions for most datasets, although different convergence criteria are needed to obtain similar results and interpolation of missing data is important when working with staRdom. In conclusion, staRdom offers the opportunity for standardized multivariate decomposition of spectroscopic data without requiring software licensing fees and presuming only basic R knowledge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synergies within the Water-Energy-Food Nexus to Support the Integrated Urban Resources Governance
Water 2019, 11(11), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112365 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Rapid urbanization poses great challenges to water-energy-food nexus (WEF-Nexus) system, calling for integrative resources governance to improve the synergies between subsystems that constitute the Nexus. This paper explores the synergies within the WEF-Nexus in Shenzhen city while using the synergetic model. We first [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization poses great challenges to water-energy-food nexus (WEF-Nexus) system, calling for integrative resources governance to improve the synergies between subsystems that constitute the Nexus. This paper explores the synergies within the WEF-Nexus in Shenzhen city while using the synergetic model. We first identify the order parameters and their causal paths in three subsystems and set several eigenvectors under each parameter. Secondly, a synergetic model is developed to calculate the synergy degree among parameters, and the synergetic networks are then further constructed. Centrality analysis on the synergetic networks reveals that the centralities of food subsystem perform the highest level while the water subsystem at the lowest level. Finally, we put forward some policy implications for cross-sectoral resources governance by embedding the synergy degree into causal paths. The results show that the synergies of the Nexus system in Shenzhen can be maximized by stabilizing water supply, coordinating the energy imports and exports, and reducing the crops sown areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights on the Water–Energy–Food Nexus)
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Open AccessArticle
Phosphate Induced Arsenic Mobilization as a Potentially Effective In-Situ Remediation Technique—Preliminary Column Tests
Water 2019, 11(11), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112364 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is commonly remediated by pump and treat. However, this technique is difficult to apply or maintain efficiently because the mobility of arsenic varies depending on the geochemical aquifer conditions. Arsenic interacting with the sediment can cause strong retardation, [...] Read more.
Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is commonly remediated by pump and treat. However, this technique is difficult to apply or maintain efficiently because the mobility of arsenic varies depending on the geochemical aquifer conditions. Arsenic interacting with the sediment can cause strong retardation, which is counteracted by ions competing for sedimentary sorption sites like silica, bicarbonate and phosphate. Phosphate competes most effectively with arsenic for sorption sites due to its chemical similarity. To accelerate an ongoing but ineffective pump and treat remediation, we examined the competitive effect of increasing phosphate doses on contaminated aquifer material of different depths and thus under distinct geochemical conditions. In the columns with phosphate addition, significant amounts of arsenic were released rapidly under oxic and anoxic conditions. In all tests, the grade of leaching was higher under anoxic conditions than under oxic conditions. As(III) was the dominant species, in particular during the first release peaks and the anoxic tests. Higher amounts of phosphate did not trigger the arsenic release further and led to a shift of arsenic species. We suggest that the competitive surface complexation is the major process of arsenic release especially when higher amounts of phosphate are used. Commonly arsenic release is described at iron reducing conditions. In contrast, we observed that a change in prevailing redox potential towards manganese reducing conditions in the oxic tests and iron reducing conditions in the anoxic column took place later and thus independently of arsenic release. The reduction of As(V) to As(III) under both redox conditions is presumed to be an effect of microbial detoxification. A loss of sulphate in all columns with phosphate indicates an increased microbial activity, which might play a significant role in the process of arsenic release. Preliminary tests with sediment material from a contaminated site showed that phosphate additions did not change the pH value significantly. Therefore, a release of other metals is not likely. Our results indicate that in-situ application of phosphate amendments to arsenic-contaminated sites could accelerate and enhance arsenic mobility to improve the efficiency of pump and treat remediation without negative side effects. The novelty of this approach is the use of only small amounts of phosphate in order to stimulate microbial activity in addition to surface complexation. Therefore, this method might become an innovative and cost-effective remediation for arsenic contaminated sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Human Activities and Natural Processes on the Seasonal Variability of River Water Quality in Two Watersheds in Lampung, Indonesia
Water 2019, 11(11), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112363 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study identified seasonal water quality characteristics in two adjacent mountainous rivers (Sangharus and Sekampung Hulu Rivers) in Lampung, Indonesia and determined the impacts of fertilizer application on river chemistry as a result of social forestry management. In 2016, we measured water chemistry [...] Read more.
This study identified seasonal water quality characteristics in two adjacent mountainous rivers (Sangharus and Sekampung Hulu Rivers) in Lampung, Indonesia and determined the impacts of fertilizer application on river chemistry as a result of social forestry management. In 2016, we measured water chemistry and conducted a farmers’ questionnaire survey to obtain information on fertilizer application. The water quality results indicated that several parameters, including nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4), were significantly higher in the Sangharus River than in the Sekampung Hulu River. In addition, several parameters were influenced by dilution from high river flow in the rainy season. Some parameters were likely influenced by the weathering of parent materials. By contrast, electrical conductivity (EC) and NO3 were higher in the rainy season, which was likely linked to the dominant timing of urea fertilizer application during this season. Despite the application of fertilizers in the watersheds, NO3 levels remained below the recommended standard. However, aluminum and iron concentrations were higher than the recommended level for drinking water, which was likely due to elevated soil erosion from improper land management. Therefore, we recommend that effective land management policies be implemented through the adoption of soil conservation practices for nutrient loss prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Passage Performance of Technical Pool-Type Fishways for Potamodromous Cyprinids: Novel Experiences in Semiarid Environments
Water 2019, 11(11), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112362 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Endemic freshwater fish from semiarid environments are among the most threated species in the world due to water overexploitation and habitat fragmentation problems. Stepped or pool-type fishways are used worldwide to reestablish longitudinal connectivity and mitigate fish migration problems. Many of them are [...] Read more.
Endemic freshwater fish from semiarid environments are among the most threated species in the world due to water overexploitation and habitat fragmentation problems. Stepped or pool-type fishways are used worldwide to reestablish longitudinal connectivity and mitigate fish migration problems. Many of them are being installed or planned in rivers of semiarid environments, however, very few studies about fish passage performance through pool-type fishways has been carried out to date on these regions. The present work focuses on the passage performance of two potamodromous cyprinids endemic of these regions, with different ecological and swimming behavior: southern Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus sclateri) and Iberian straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma polylepis). These are assessed in two of the most common types of stepped fishways: vertical slot and submerged notch with bottom orifice fishways. Experiments were carried out during the spawning season in the Segura River (southeastern Spain), using a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag and antenna system. Ascent success was greater than 80%, with a median transit time lower than 17 minutes per meter of height in all trials, and for both species and fishway types. Results show that both types of fishways, if correctly designed and constructed, provide interesting alternatives for the restoration of fish migration pathways in these regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydraulics of Pool-Type Fishways)
Open AccessArticle
Estimating River Discharges in Ungauged Catchments Using the Slope–Area Method and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Water 2019, 11(11), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112361 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
River discharge is of great significance in the development of water resources and ecological protection. There are several large ungauged catchments around the word still lacking sufficient hydrological data. Obtaining accurate hydrological information from these areas is an important scientific issue. New data [...] Read more.
River discharge is of great significance in the development of water resources and ecological protection. There are several large ungauged catchments around the word still lacking sufficient hydrological data. Obtaining accurate hydrological information from these areas is an important scientific issue. New data and methods must be used to address this issue. In this study, a new method that couples unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data with the classical slope–area method is developed to calculate river discharges in typical ungauged catchments. UAV data is used to obtain topographic information of the river channels. In situ experiments are carried out to validate the river data. Based on slope–area method, namely the Manning–Strickler formula (M–S), Saint-Venant system of equivalence (which has two definitions, S-V-1 and S-V-2), and the Darcy–Weisbach equivalence (D–W) are used to estimate river discharge in ten sections of the Tibet Plateau and Dzungaria Basin. Results show that the overall qualification rate of the calculated discharge is 70% and the average Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient is 0.97, indicating strong practical application in the study area. When the discharge is less than 10 m3⁄s, D–W is the most appropriate method; M–S and S-V-1 are better than other methods when the discharge is between 10 m3⁄s and 50 m3⁄s. However, if the discharge is greater than 50 m3⁄s, S-V-2 provides the most accurate results. Furthermore, we found that hydraulic radius is an important parameter in the slope–area method. This study offers a quick and convenient solution to extract hydrological information in ungauged catchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Impact of Climate Change on Water Balance Components and Droughts in the Guajoyo River Basin (El Salvador)
Water 2019, 11(11), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112360 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study assessed how changes in terms of temperature and precipitation might translate into changes in water availability and droughts in an area in a developing country with environmental interest. The hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to analyze [...] Read more.
This study assessed how changes in terms of temperature and precipitation might translate into changes in water availability and droughts in an area in a developing country with environmental interest. The hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to analyze the impacts of climate change on water resources of the Guajoyo River Basin in El Salvador. El Salvador is in one of the most vulnerable regions in Latin America to the effects of climate change. The predicted future climate change by two climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and five general circulation models (GCMs) were considered. A statistical analysis was performed to identify which GCM was better in terms of goodness of fit to variation in means and standard deviations of the historical series. A significant decreasing trend in precipitation and a significant increase in annual average temperatures were projected by the middle and the end of the twenty–first century. The results indicated a decreasing trend of the amount of water available and more severe droughts for future climate scenarios with respect to the base period (1975–2004). These findings will provide local water management authorities useful information in the face of climate change to help decision making. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Meteoric Water Lines for Iran Based on Air Masses and Moisture Sources
Water 2019, 11(11), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112359 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Iran is a semi-arid to arid country that faces a water shortage crisis. Its weather is also influenced by various air masses and moisture sources. Therefore, applying accurate stable isotope techniques to investigate Iran’s precipitation characteristics and developing Iran meteoric water lines (MWLs) [...] Read more.
Iran is a semi-arid to arid country that faces a water shortage crisis. Its weather is also influenced by various air masses and moisture sources. Therefore, applying accurate stable isotope techniques to investigate Iran’s precipitation characteristics and developing Iran meteoric water lines (MWLs) as an initial step for future isotope hydrology studies is vitally important. The aim of this study was to determine the MWLs for Iran by considering air masses and dominant moisture sources. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model backward analysis was used to determine the trajectories of various air masses in 19 weather stations in Iran and the areas covered by them. δ18O and δ2H contents were obtained for precipitation events from 32 stations in Iran and four in Iraq. Stable isotope samples were gathered from different sources and analyzed in various laboratories across the world. Three MWLs for north of Iran, south Zagros, and west Zagros, were determined based on the locations of dominant air masses and moisture sources. The proposed MWLs were validated by comparison with fresh karstic spring isotope data across Iran. In addition, Iran main moisture sources MWLs were used to determine dominant moisture sources role in karstic springs and surface water resources recharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Stable Isotopes in Hydrological Process)
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Open AccessArticle
Significance of Chlorinated Phenols Adsorption on Plastics and Bioplastics during Water Treatment
Water 2019, 11(11), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112358 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Microplastics and chlorinated phenols (CPs) are pollutants found ubiquitously in freshwater systems. Meanwhile, bioplastics are attracting much attention as alternatives to conventional plastics, but there is little data about their effect on the behaviour of pollutants. This work therefore investigates the sorption of [...] Read more.
Microplastics and chlorinated phenols (CPs) are pollutants found ubiquitously in freshwater systems. Meanwhile, bioplastics are attracting much attention as alternatives to conventional plastics, but there is little data about their effect on the behaviour of pollutants. This work therefore investigates the sorption of four CPs (4-chlorophenol—4-CP, 2,4-dichlorophenol—2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol—2,4,6-TCP and pentachlorophenol—PCP) on three different plastics (polyethylene (PЕg), polypropylene (PP) and polylactic acid (PLA)) using kinetics and isotherm studies. All experiments were carried out in a synthetic water matrix and in spiked Danube river water. In all cases, adsorption kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second order rate model. Adsorption proceeded through two linear phases, corresponding to transport from the bulk solution to the external surfaces and then into the interior pores of the sorbents. Maximum adsorption capacities calculated with the Langmuir isotherm indicated that whereas adsorption of 4-CP was not significantly affected by the type of plastic present, the adsorption of 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP and PCP varied greatly, with polypropylene showing the greatest affinity for CPs adsorption. The differences observed between the adsorption behaviour of CPs in the synthetic and natural water matrices suggest further investigation is required into how the different fractions of natural organic matter impact interactions between CPs and plastics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Interactive Effect of Meteorological Drought and Vegetation Types on Root Zone Soil Moisture and Runoff in Rangeland Watersheds
Water 2019, 11(11), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112357 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
The meteorological droughts in the climate transition zone of the Great Plains of the USA are projected to intensify, potentially leading to major shifts in water provisioning services in rangelands. To understand how meteorological drought interacts with vegetation to regulate runoff response, we [...] Read more.
The meteorological droughts in the climate transition zone of the Great Plains of the USA are projected to intensify, potentially leading to major shifts in water provisioning services in rangelands. To understand how meteorological drought interacts with vegetation to regulate runoff response, we collected precipitation, root zone soil moisture, and runoff data from experimental grassland and juniper (Juniperus virginiana L., redcedar) woodland watersheds for five years encompassing a drought year to pluvial year cycle. We contrasted the frequency distribution of precipitation intensities and applied wavelet analysis to reveal the coherence between precipitation and root zone soil moisture patterns. Compared with grassland, the root zone soil moisture in woodland had a narrower range, with the peak frequency skewed to a lower soil moisture content. The conversion of herbaceous vegetation to evergreen juniper woodland results in a delayed response of runoff to precipitation due to reduced antecedent soil moisture. The reduction of streamflow from the woodland watershed was greater in the normal and pluvial years than in the drought year. Thus, conversion from grassland to evergreen woody vegetation prolongs the impact of meteorological drought on soil moisture and streamflow. Restoring prairie that is heavily encroached by woody species may serve as an adaptive measure to mitigate the climate change impact on water resources and other ecosystem services provided by rangeland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Design and Operational Factors in the Removal of Pharmaceuticals by Constructed Wetlands
Water 2019, 11(11), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112356 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study evaluates the role of design, operational, and physicochemical parameters of constructed wetlands (CWs) in the removal of pharmaceuticals (PhCs). The correlation analysis demonstrates that the performance of CWs is governed by several design and operational factors (area, depth, hydraulic loading rate, [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the role of design, operational, and physicochemical parameters of constructed wetlands (CWs) in the removal of pharmaceuticals (PhCs). The correlation analysis demonstrates that the performance of CWs is governed by several design and operational factors (area, depth, hydraulic loading rate, organic loading rate, and hydraulic retention time), and physicochemical parameters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH); the removal efficiency of about 50% of the examined PhCs showed a significant correlation with two or more factors. Plants contributed significantly in the removal of some of the PhCs by direct uptake and by enhancing the process of aerobic biodegradation. The use of substrate material of high adsorption capacity, rich in organic matter, and with high surface area enhanced the removal of PhCs by adsorption/sorption processes, which are the major removal mechanisms of some PhCs (codeine, clarithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, oxytetracycline, carbamazepine, and atenolol) in CWs. Although the removal of almost all of the studied PhCs showed seasonal differences, statistical significance was established in the removal of naproxen, salicylic acid, caffeine, and sulfadiazine. The effective PhCs removal requires the integrated design of CWs ensuring the occurrence of biodegradation along with other processes, as well as enabling optimal values of design and operational factors, and physicochemical parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Case-Study Application of the Experimental Watershed Study Design to Advance Adaptive Management of Contemporary Watersheds
Water 2019, 11(11), 2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112355 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Land managers are often inadequately informed to make management decisions in contemporary watersheds, in which sources of impairment are simultaneously shifting due to the combined influences of land use change, rapid ongoing human population growth, and changing environmental conditions. There is, thus, a [...] Read more.
Land managers are often inadequately informed to make management decisions in contemporary watersheds, in which sources of impairment are simultaneously shifting due to the combined influences of land use change, rapid ongoing human population growth, and changing environmental conditions. There is, thus, a great need for effective collaborative adaptive management (CAM; or derivatives) efforts utilizing an accepted methodological approach that provides data needed to properly identify and address past, present, and future sources of impairment. The experimental watershed study design holds great promise for meeting such needs and facilitating an effective collaborative and adaptive management process. To advance understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on sources of impairment, and to demonstrate the approach in a contemporary watershed, a nested-scale experimental watershed study design was implemented in a representative, contemporary, mixed-use watershed located in Midwestern USA. Results identify challenges associated with CAM, and how the experimental watershed approach can help to objectively elucidate causal factors, target critical source areas, and provide the science-based information needed to make informed management decisions. Results show urban/suburban development and agriculture are primary drivers of alterations to watershed hydrology, streamflow regimes, transport of multiple water quality constituents, and stream physical habitat. However, several natural processes and watershed characteristics, such as surficial geology and stream system evolution, are likely compounding observed water quality impairment and aquatic habitat degradation. Given the varied and complicated set of factors contributing to such issues in the study watershed and other contemporary watersheds, watershed restoration is likely subject to physical limitations and should be conceptualized in the context of achievable goals/objectives. Overall, results demonstrate the immense, globally transferrable value of the experimental watershed approach and coupled CAM process to address contemporary water resource management challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dose-Dependent Phytotoxicity of Pesticides in Simulated Nursery Runoff on Landscape Nursery Plants
Water 2019, 11(11), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112354 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Managers of ornamental nurseries are increasingly reusing runoff water as an irrigation source, but residual pesticides in recycled water may result in plant phytotoxicity on crop plants. Our study focused on understanding the responses of container-grown landscape plants to residual pesticides in irrigation [...] Read more.
Managers of ornamental nurseries are increasingly reusing runoff water as an irrigation source, but residual pesticides in recycled water may result in plant phytotoxicity on crop plants. Our study focused on understanding the responses of container-grown landscape plants to residual pesticides in irrigation water. Hydrangea paniculata ‘Limelight’, Cornus obliqua ‘Powell garden’, and Hosta ‘Gold standard’ were exposed to various concentrations of isoxaben, chlorpyrifos, and oxyfluorfen (0, 0.15, 0.35, 0.7, and 1.4 mg/L of isoxaben; 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/L of chlorpyrifos; and 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, and 0.02 mg/L of oxyfluorfen) applied as overhead irrigation. After three months of application, we assessed the dry weight biomass, growth, and parameters related to photosynthetic physiology (SPAD chlorophyll index, light-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthesis carbon dioxide response (A/Ci) curves. We also sampled plant leaf, stem, and root tissues for residual pesticides. The effects of the pesticides were pesticide-specific and taxa-specific. Exposure to oxyfluorfen resulted in visible injury in all three taxa and reduced total biomass, chlorophyll index, and photosynthesis in Hydrangea and Hosta. All three taxa absorbed and retained pesticides in leaf and stem tissues. Growers should follow best management practices to reduce exposure from irrigation with runoff, particularly for herbicides with post-emergent activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Irrigation and Water Resources Management of Landscape Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
The Comparison of Selected Types of Municipal Sewage Sludge Filtrates Toxicity in Different Biological Models: From Bacterial Strains to Mammalian Cells. Preliminary Study
Water 2019, 11(11), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112353 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Sewage sludge (SS) is a complex mixture of potentially toxic compounds, which may affect the environment. Many methodologies are being implemented in order to assess the risk that SS may cause after the exposition, but usually they rely on chemical analyses that cannot [...] Read more.
Sewage sludge (SS) is a complex mixture of potentially toxic compounds, which may affect the environment. Many methodologies are being implemented in order to assess the risk that SS may cause after the exposition, but usually they rely on chemical analyses that cannot predict their toxicological impact. Therefore, biological systems are essential in such studies. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 3 types of SS filtrates: sludge from primary clarifier, sludge from aeration tank and sludge from thickened sludge tank after flocculant addition. In order to thoroughly investigate SS cytotoxicity, we proposed different biological models: Aliivibrio fischeri, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and LN-229 glioblastoma cell line. Obtained results indicate that SS3 was the most toxic against A. fisheri, but tests conducted with the use of E. coli and LN-229 human cell line showed the higher toxicity of SS1. Different toxicity of analyzed filtrates in different biological models could be explained by differences in applied model structure, metabolism and life requirements. Therefore, the reuse of SS should be conducted with caution, and it is important for the SS to undergo a specific remediation process before introducing them into the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Streamflow and Sediment Declines in a Loess Hill and Gully Landform Basin Due to Climate Variability and Anthropogenic Activities
Water 2019, 11(11), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112352 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Streamflow and sediment runoff are important indicators for the changes in hydrological processes. In the context of environmental changes, decreases in both streamflow and sediment (especially in the flood season) are often observed in most of the tributaries of the middle Yellow River [...] Read more.
Streamflow and sediment runoff are important indicators for the changes in hydrological processes. In the context of environmental changes, decreases in both streamflow and sediment (especially in the flood season) are often observed in most of the tributaries of the middle Yellow River in China’s Loess Plateau. Understanding the effect of human activities could be useful for the management of soil and water conservation (SWC) and new constructions. In this paper, changes in streamflow and sediment during the flood season (June–September) of the 1966–2017 period in a typical loess hill and gully landform basin were analyzed. Basin-wide rainfall of the flood season decreased nonsignificantly with an average rate of −0.6 mm/flood season for the whole study period by using the trend-free pre-whitening based Mann–Kendall trend test, while the decreasing rate was weakened on the time scale. A remarkable warming trend (1985–1999) and two decreasing trends (1966–1984 and 2000–2017) were observed, and the overall increasing trend could be found in air temperature series with a rate of 0.01 °C/flood season during the study period. Statistical models were developed to describe the rainfall-runoff and rainfall-sediment processes in the pre-impact period (when the hydrological series was stationary). Furthermore, the relative effects of climate variability and human activities on hydrological changes were quantified. Results proved the dominant role of human activities (versus climate variability) on the reductions of both streamflow and sediment load. The relative contribution of human activities to streamflow decrease was 84.6% during the post-impact period 1995–2017, while the contributions were 48.8% and 80.1% for two post-impact periods (1982–1996 and 1997–2017), respectively, to the reduction of sediment load. Besides, the effect of the exclusion of anomalous streamflow or sediment events on change-point detection was also analyzed. It indicated that the anomalous events affect the detection of change points and should be given full consideration in order to decide whether to remove them in the change-point detection. Otherwise, the full series with anomalous samples will completely affect the attribution results of hydrological changes. We also suggest that large-scale SWC measures with different construction quality and operational life could intercept and relieve most floods and high sediment concentration processes, but may amplify the peaks of streamflow and sediment when the interception capacities are exceeded under the condition of extreme rainstorm events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduction of Potable Water Consumption and Sewage Generation on a City Scale: A Case Study in Brazil
Water 2019, 11(11), 2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112351 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
This article aims to estimate the reduction of potable water consumption and sewage generation in the city of Joinville, southern Brazil. Four strategies were considered to promote potable water savings: replacement of conventional toilets with dual-flush ones, greywater reuse, rainwater harvesting, and the [...] Read more.
This article aims to estimate the reduction of potable water consumption and sewage generation in the city of Joinville, southern Brazil. Four strategies were considered to promote potable water savings: replacement of conventional toilets with dual-flush ones, greywater reuse, rainwater harvesting, and the combination of these three strategies. Residential, public, and commercial sectors were assessed. The potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.7% to 50.5%, and the potential for sewage generation reduction ranged from 2.1% to 52.1%. The single-family residential sector was the most representative for water savings and sewage generation reduction. The public sector would be the least contributor to such reductions. It was found that in the city of Joinville, for low non-potable water demands, greywater reuse was the most viable strategy to save water. When non-potable demand is high and there is a large catchment area, it is recommended to install rainwater harvesting systems. It was concluded that there is a high potential for potable water savings and reduction of sewage generation if measures were adopted in Joinville, but it is necessary to evaluate which strategy is the most appropriate for each building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmentally Sensitive Elements in Groundwater of an Industrial Town in India: Spatial Distribution and Human Health Risk
Water 2019, 11(11), 2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112350 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study to assess the groundwater quality in an industrial town located in Punjab, India. A total of 99 samples of groundwater were analyzed during the premonsoon and postmonsoon periods of 2018, which revealed the presence of [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a study to assess the groundwater quality in an industrial town located in Punjab, India. A total of 99 samples of groundwater were analyzed during the premonsoon and postmonsoon periods of 2018, which revealed the presence of numerous environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs), namely, arsenic (As), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb). Geographic information system (GIS)-based spatial interpolation showed higher contamination levels around the industrial areas and the drainage channel where industrial effluent is generally discharged. Further, groundwater quality was assessed using the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and the metal index (MI), which indicated poor drinkability of the groundwater. Human exposure to groundwater contaminated with ESEs can pose serious health risks; therefore, noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks due to presence of these elements were also evaluated. Reported health risks to humans from exposure to contaminated groundwater indicate the importance of regular monitoring of groundwater for ESEs vis-a-vis industrial effluent disposal practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle
Endemic Freshwater Fish Range Shifts Related to Global Climate Changes: A Long-Term Study Provides Some Observational Evidence for the Mediterranean Area
Water 2019, 11(11), 2349; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112349 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Climate changes will lead to a worsening of the ecological conditions, in terms of hydrological instability and rising water temperatures, of the Mediterranean rivers. Freshwater fishes inhabiting this area can be threatened in the near future by accelerating drought and decreased ecological connectivity. [...] Read more.
Climate changes will lead to a worsening of the ecological conditions, in terms of hydrological instability and rising water temperatures, of the Mediterranean rivers. Freshwater fishes inhabiting this area can be threatened in the near future by accelerating drought and decreased ecological connectivity. The main aim of the research was to analyze changes in the distribution of the endemic freshwater fishes Padogobius nigricans, Squalius lucumonis and Telestes muticellus in the Tiber River basin (Italy), within a proven period of climate warming, in terms of increasing water temperature and droughts. A multivariate analysis was conducted using fish and environmental data collected in 117 sites over the years 1990–2017. For the three species, population abundance, age structure and body condition were analyzed. Detectability, occupancy, local extinction and colonization processes were also examined. We showed that S. lucumonis and T. muticellus have shifted their distributions upstream, likely in order to reach their thermal optimum. Padogobius nigricans did not move upstream significantly, since the species is characterized by limited vagility and thus a low dispersal capability in a context of high river fragmentation. In the study area, elevation and river barriers seem to play a key role in extirpation and colonization processes; for S. lucumonis and T. muticellus the extinction probability decreased with increasing altitude, while for P. nigricans the colonization probability decreased with an increasing degree of river fragmentation. These results highlight how species-specific dispersal ability can lead to varying adaptability to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Human Activities and Climate Change on Freshwater Fish)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Contribution of the Amazon River Discharge to Regional Sea Level in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean
Water 2019, 11(11), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112348 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
The Amazon River is by far the largest river by volume of water in the world, representing around 17% of the global riverine discharge to the oceans. Recent studies suggested that its impact on sea level is potentially important at global and regional [...] Read more.
The Amazon River is by far the largest river by volume of water in the world, representing around 17% of the global riverine discharge to the oceans. Recent studies suggested that its impact on sea level is potentially important at global and regional scales. This study uses a set of regional simulations based on the ocean model NEMO to quantify the influence of the Amazon runoff on sea level in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean. The model is forced at its boundaries with daily fields from the ocean reanalysis GLORYS2V4. Air-sea fluxes are computed using atmospheric variables from DFS5.2, which is a bias-corrected version of ERAinterim reanalysis. The particularity of this study is that interannual daily runoffs from the up-to-date ISBA-CTRIP land surface model are used. Firstly, mean state of sea level is investigated through a comparison between a simulation with an interannual river discharge and a simulation without any Amazon runoff. Then, the impact of the Amazon River on seasonal and interannual variability of sea level is examined. It was shown that the Amazon River has a local contribution to the mean state sea level at the river mouth but also a remote contribution of 3.3 cm around the whole Caribbean Archipelago, a region threatened by the actual sea level rise. This effect is mostly due to a halosteric sea level contribution for the upper 250 m of the ocean. This occurs in response to the large scale advection of the plume and the downward mixing of subsurface waters at winter time. The Amazon discharge also induces an indirect thermosteric sea level contribution. However, this contribution is of second order and tends to counterbalance the halosteric sea level contribution. Regional mass redistributions are also observed and consist in a 8 cm decrease of the sea level at the river mouth and a 4.5 increases on continental shelves of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. In terms of variability, simulations indicate that the Amazon discharge may contributes to 23% and 12% of the seasonal and interannual sea level variances in the Caribbean Archipelago area. These variances are first explained by the Amazon time mean discharge and show very weak sensitivity to the seasonal and interannual variability of the Amazon runoff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Past, Present and Future Trends in Sea Level Change)
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