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Water, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2019)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Modeling Platform for Landslide Stability: A Hydrological Approach
Water 2019, 11(10), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102146 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Landslide events are among natural hazards with many fatalities and financial losses. Studies demonstrate that natural factors such as rainfall and human activities such as deforestation are important causes of triggering a landslide. In this study, an integrated two-dimensional slope stability model, SSHV-2D, [...] Read more.
Landslide events are among natural hazards with many fatalities and financial losses. Studies demonstrate that natural factors such as rainfall and human activities such as deforestation are important causes of triggering a landslide. In this study, an integrated two-dimensional slope stability model, SSHV-2D, is developed that considers various aspects of hydrological effects and vegetation impacts on the stability of slopes. The rainfall infiltration and water uptake of roots change the water content of the unsaturated zone. The temporal and spatial distribution of water content is estimated in the hydrological unit of the developed model. The vegetation unit of the model considers interception loss due to the existence of canopies and trunks, soil reinforcement effect by roots, root water uptake, the impact of root on hydraulic conductivity, and the influence of vegetation weight on slope stability. Benchmark problems with and without vegetation are solved for the model verification. The analyses demonstrate that the consideration of matric suction in the unsaturated zone can increase the safety factor more than 90%. It is also observed that the existence of trees with high density on a slope can increase the factor of safety about 50% and prevent shallow landslides. The present model is a platform for further development of more comprehensive and elaborative slope stability models. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Application of Asymmetrical Statistical Distributions for 1D Simulation of Solute Transport in Streams
Water 2019, 11(10), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102145 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional (1D) advection–dispersion equations, describing the substance transport in streams, are often used because of their simplicity and computational speed. Practical computations, however, clearly show the limits and the inaccuracies of this approach. These are especially visible in cases [...] Read more.
Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional (1D) advection–dispersion equations, describing the substance transport in streams, are often used because of their simplicity and computational speed. Practical computations, however, clearly show the limits and the inaccuracies of this approach. These are especially visible in cases where the streams deform concentration distribution of the transported substance due to hydraulic and morphological conditions, e.g., by transient storage zones (dead zones), vegetation, and irregularities in the stream hydromorphology. In this paper, a new approach to the simulation of 1D substance transport is presented, adapted, and tested on tracer experiments available in the published research, and carried out in three small streams in Slovakia with dead zones. Evaluation of the proposed methods, based on different probability distributions, confirmed that they approximate the measured concentrations significantly better than those based upon the commonly used Gaussian distribution. Finally, an example of the application of the proposed methods to an iterative (inverse) task is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Hydraulics)
Open AccessArticle
Applying a Series and Parallel Model and a Bayesian Networks Model to Produce Disaster Chain Susceptibility Maps in the Changbai Mountain area, China
Water 2019, 11(10), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102144 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
The aim of this project was to produce an earthquake–landslide debris flow disaster chain susceptibility map for the Changbai Mountain region, China, by applying data-driven model series and parallel model and Bayesian Networks model. The accuracy of these two models was then compared. [...] Read more.
The aim of this project was to produce an earthquake–landslide debris flow disaster chain susceptibility map for the Changbai Mountain region, China, by applying data-driven model series and parallel model and Bayesian Networks model. The accuracy of these two models was then compared. Parameters related to the occurrence of landslide and debris flow disasters, including earthquake intensity, rainfall, elevation, slope, slope aspect, lithology, distance to rivers, distance to faults, land use, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were chosen and applied in these two models. Disaster chain susceptibility zones created using the two models were then contrasted and verified using the occurrence of past disasters obtained from remote sensing interpretations and field investigations. Both disaster chain susceptibility maps showed that the high susceptibility zones are situated within a 10 km radius around the Tianchi volcano, whereas the northern and southwestern sections of the study area comprise primarily very low or low susceptibility zones. The two models produced similar and compatible results as indicated by the outcomes of basic linear correlation and cross-correlation analyses. The verification results of the ROC curves were found to be 0.7727 and 0.8062 for the series and parallel model and BN model, respectively. These results indicate that the two models can be used as a preliminary base for further research activities aimed at providing hazard management tools, forecasting services, and early warning systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Artificial Intelligence Models for Landslide Hazard Assessment)
Open AccessArticle
A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Nitrogen Pollution in a Coastal Region with Mangroves of the Southern Gulf of Mexico
Water 2019, 11(10), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102143 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Nitrogen pollution is a growing problem in many rivers and estuaries of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. In Costa Esmeralda, a tourist destination in Veracruz, the increasing nitrogen pollution is causing severe environmental damage. However, very few studies addressed nitrogen pollution and its [...] Read more.
Nitrogen pollution is a growing problem in many rivers and estuaries of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. In Costa Esmeralda, a tourist destination in Veracruz, the increasing nitrogen pollution is causing severe environmental damage. However, very few studies addressed nitrogen pollution and its consequences for beaches and mangroves. In this study, a spatiotemporal evaluation of nitrogen concentrations was performed along two rivers discharging into Costa Esmeralda and the associated mangrove and coastal areas. The data used was obtained from the local government, which measured ammonium, nitrate and organic nitrogen concentrations between 2013 and 2016 with four annual measurements. Clustering analysis was used to detect the nitrogen concentration differences between riverine and coastal sites. Additionally, Mann-Kendall test was used to detect the trends throughout the study period. The Mann-Whitney W-test determined the difference in the median concentrations between the dry and the wet season. The results indicate that organic nitrogen concentrations are increasing in river mouths and coastal waters. Nitrogen pollution caused an intrusion of water hyacinths in touristic beaches and completely covered mangroves. The decomposition of these plants in saline waters was identified as the main potential source of increasing organic concentrations, driven by nitrogen pollution from wastewater, deforestation and fertilizers, and causing many environmental and socio-economic damage to the area. The results shed light on the prevailing water pollution problems in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle
Food Shortage Amplifies Negative Sublethal Impacts of Low-Level Exposure to the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid on Stream Mayfly Nymphs
Water 2019, 11(10), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102142 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Interactions of pesticides with biotic or anthropogenic stressors affecting stream invertebrates are still poorly understood. In a three-factor laboratory experiment, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, food availability, and population density on the New Zealand mayfly Deleatidium spp. (Leptophlebiidae). Larval mayflies (10 [...] Read more.
Interactions of pesticides with biotic or anthropogenic stressors affecting stream invertebrates are still poorly understood. In a three-factor laboratory experiment, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, food availability, and population density on the New Zealand mayfly Deleatidium spp. (Leptophlebiidae). Larval mayflies (10 or 20 individuals) were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of imidacloprid (controls, 0.97 and 2.67 μg L−1) for nine days following five days during which individuals were either starved or fed with stream algae. Imidacloprid exposure had severe lethal and sublethal effects on Deleatidium, with effects of the lower concentration occurring later in the experiment. The starvation period had delayed interactive effects, with prior starvation amplifying imidacloprid-induced increases in mayfly impairment (inability to swim or right themselves) and immobility (no signs of movement besides twitching appendages). Few studies have investigated interactions with other stressors that may worsen neonicotinoid impacts on non-target freshwater organisms, and experiments manipulating food availability or density-dependent processes are especially rare. Therefore, we encourage longer-term multiple-stressor experiments that build on our study, including mesocosm experiments involving realistic stream food webs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Simulating the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Regimes of a Sparsely Gauged Mountainous Basin, Northern Pakistan
Water 2019, 11(10), 2141; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102141 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Projected climate changes for the 21st century may cause great uncertainties on the hydrology of a river basin. This study explored the impacts of climate change on the water balance and hydrological regime of the Jhelum River Basin using the Soil and Water [...] Read more.
Projected climate changes for the 21st century may cause great uncertainties on the hydrology of a river basin. This study explored the impacts of climate change on the water balance and hydrological regime of the Jhelum River Basin using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Two downscaling methods (SDSM, Statistical Downscaling Model and LARS-WG, Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator), three Global Circulation Models (GCMs), and two representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for three future periods (2030s, 2050s, and 2090s) were used to assess the climate change impacts on flow regimes. The results exhibited that both downscaling methods suggested an increase in annual streamflow over the river basin. There is generally an increasing trend of winter and autumn discharge, whereas it is complicated for summer and spring to conclude if the trend is increasing or decreasing depending on the downscaling methods. Therefore, the uncertainty associated with the downscaling of climate simulation needs to consider, for the best estimate, the impact of climate change, with its uncertainty, on a particular basin. The study also resulted that water yield and evapotranspiration in the eastern part of the basin (sub-basins at high elevation) would be most affected by climate change. The outcomes of this study would be useful for providing guidance in water management and planning for the river basin under climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Open AccessArticle
Silica Storage, Fluxes, and Nutrient Stoichiometry in Different Benthic Primary Producer Communities in the Littoral Zone of a Deep Subalpine Lake (Lake Iseo, Italy)
Water 2019, 11(10), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102140 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Benthic vegetation at the land-water interface is recognized as a filter for silica fluxes, which represents an important but under-investigated subject. This paper aims to analyze stocks and fluxes of biogenic (BSi) and dissolved (DSi) silica in relation to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus [...] Read more.
Benthic vegetation at the land-water interface is recognized as a filter for silica fluxes, which represents an important but under-investigated subject. This paper aims to analyze stocks and fluxes of biogenic (BSi) and dissolved (DSi) silica in relation to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the littoral zone of a deep lake. Specifically, we evaluated how different primary producers can influence BSi retention and DSi release. The study was performed from April to October in 2017, in three different benthic communities: submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and microphytobenthos (MPB), both occurring in soft bottom sediments, and epilithic macro- and microalgae (EA) on rocky substrates. The main result was that SAV and MPB were a DSi source and a N and P sink with the DSi efflux from SAV nearly three times as much as in MPB patches. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that SAV mediates the DSi transport from pore water to the water column. Conversely, EA communities were a DSi sink and a N and P source. Overall, these results highlight the fact that the littoral zone of lakes plays a key role in regulating aquatic Si cycling, which is likely to depend on the health status of SAV communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Macrobiota in Aquatic Nutrient Cycling)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Hydraulic Structures in 2D High-Resolution Urban Flood Modeling
Water 2019, 11(10), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102139 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Urban flooding as a result of inadequate drainage capacity, failure of flood defenses, etc. is usually featured with highly transient hydrodynamics. Reliable and efficient prediction and forecasting of these urban flash floods is still a great technical challenge. Meanwhile, in urban environments, the [...] Read more.
Urban flooding as a result of inadequate drainage capacity, failure of flood defenses, etc. is usually featured with highly transient hydrodynamics. Reliable and efficient prediction and forecasting of these urban flash floods is still a great technical challenge. Meanwhile, in urban environments, the flooding hydrodynamics and process may be influenced by flow regulation and flood protection hydraulic infrastructure systems, such as sluice gates, which should be effectively taken into account in an urban flood model. However, direct simulation of hydraulic structures is not a current practice in 2D urban flood modeling. This work aims to develop a robust numerical approach to directly simulate the effects of gate structures in a 2D high-resolution urban flood model. A new modeling component is developed and fully coupled to a finite volume Godunov-type shock-capturing shallow water model, to directly simulate the highly transient flood waves through hydraulic structures. Different coupling approaches, i.e., flux term coupling and source term coupling, are implemented and compared. A numerical experiment conducted for an analytical dam-break test indicates that the flux term coupling approach may lead to more accurate results, with the calculated RMSE against water level 28%–38% less than that produced by the source term coupling approach. The flux term coupling approach is therefore adopted to improve the current urban flood model, and it is further tested by reproducing the laboratory experiments of flood routing in a flume with partially open sluice gates, conducted in the hydraulic laboratory at the Zhejiang Institute of Hydraulics and Estuary, China. The numerical results are compared favorably with experimental measurements, with a maximum RMSE of 0.0851 for all the individual tests. The satisfactory results demonstrate that the flood model implemented with the flux coupling approach is able to accurately simulate the flow through hydraulic structures, with enhanced predictive capability for urban flood modeling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correcting Satellite Precipitation Data and Assimilating Satellite-Derived Soil Moisture Data to Generate Ensemble Hydrological Forecasts within the HBV Rainfall-Runoff Model
Water 2019, 11(10), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102138 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
An implementation of bias correction and data assimilation using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) as a procedure, dynamically coupled with the conceptual rainfall-runoff Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model, was assessed for the hydrological modeling of seasonal hydrographs. The enhanced HBV model generated ensemble [...] Read more.
An implementation of bias correction and data assimilation using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) as a procedure, dynamically coupled with the conceptual rainfall-runoff Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model, was assessed for the hydrological modeling of seasonal hydrographs. The enhanced HBV model generated ensemble hydrographs and an average stream-flow simulation. The proposed approach was developed to examine the possibility of using data (e.g., precipitation and soil moisture) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Satellite Application Facility for Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF), and to explore its usefulness in improving model updating and forecasting. Data from the Sola mountain catchment in southern Poland between 1 January 2008 and 31 July 2014 were used to calibrate the HBV model, while data from 1 August 2014 to 30 April 2015 were used for validation. A bias correction algorithm for a distribution-derived transformation method was developed by exploring generalized exponential (GE) theoretical distributions, along with gamma (GA) and Weibull (WE) distributions for the different data used in this study. When using the ensemble Kalman filter, the stochastically-generated ensemble of the model states generally induced bias in the estimation of non-linear hydrologic processes, thus influencing the accuracy of the Kalman analysis. In order to reduce the bias produced by the assimilation procedure, a post-processing bias correction (BC) procedure was coupled with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), resulting in an ensemble Kalman filter with bias correction (EnKF-BC). The EnKF-BC, dynamically coupled with the HBV model for the assimilation of the satellite soil moisture observations, improved the accuracy of the simulated hydrographs significantly in the summer season, whereas, a positive effect from bias corrected (BC) satellite precipitation, as forcing data, was observed in the winter. Ensemble forecasts generated from the assimilation procedure are shown to be less uncertain. In future studies, the EnKF-BC algorithm proposed in the current study could be applied to a diverse array of practical forecasting problems (e.g., an operational assimilation of snowpack and snow water equivalent in forecasting models). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS in Hydrology II)
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Dynamics of Bacterial Communities in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System Using Flow Cytometry
Water 2019, 11(10), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102137 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Microbial monitoring of drinking water is required to guarantee high quality water and to mitigate health hazards. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast and robust method that determines bacterial concentrations in liquids. In this study, FCM was applied to monitor the dynamics of [...] Read more.
Microbial monitoring of drinking water is required to guarantee high quality water and to mitigate health hazards. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast and robust method that determines bacterial concentrations in liquids. In this study, FCM was applied to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities over one year in a full-scale drinking water distribution system (DWDS), following implementation of ultrafiltration (UF) combined with coagulation at the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Correlations between the environmental conditions in the DWDS and microbial regrowth were observed, including increases in total cell counts with increasing retention time (correlation coefficient R = 0.89) and increasing water temperature (up to 5.24-fold increase in cell counts during summer). Temporal and spatial biofilm dynamics affecting the water within the DWDS were also observed, such as changes in the percentage of high nucleic acid bacteria with increasing retention time (correlation coefficient R = −0.79). FCM baselines were defined for specific areas in the DWDS to support future management strategies in this DWDS, including a gradual reduction of chloramine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Long-Term Water Level Variations in Qinghai Lake in China
Water 2019, 11(10), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102136 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 161
Abstract
Qinghai Lake is the largest inland saline lake on the Tibetan Plateau. Climate change and catchment modifications induced by human activities are the main drivers playing a significant role in the dramatic variation of water levels in the lake (Δh); hence, [...] Read more.
Qinghai Lake is the largest inland saline lake on the Tibetan Plateau. Climate change and catchment modifications induced by human activities are the main drivers playing a significant role in the dramatic variation of water levels in the lake (Δh); hence, it is crucial to provide a better understanding of the impacts caused by these phenomena. However, their respective contribution to and influence on water level variations in Qinghai Lake are still unclear and without characterizing them, targeted measures for a more efficient conservation and management of the lake cannot be implemented. In this paper, data monitored during the period 1960–2016 (e.g., meteorological and land use data) have been analyzed by applying multiple techniques to fill this gap and estimate the contribution of each parameter recorded to water level variations (Δh). Results obtained have demonstrated that the water level of Qinghai Lake declined between 1960 and 2004, and since then has risen continuously and gradually, due to the changes in evaporation rates, precipitation and consequently surface runoff associated with climate change effects and catchment modifications. The authors have also pinpointed that climate change is the main leading cause impacting the water level in Qinghai Lake because results demonstrated that 93.13% of water level variations can be attributable to it, while the catchment modifications are responsible for 6.87%. This is a very important outcome in the view of the fact that global warming clearly had a profound impact in this sensitive and responsive region, affecting hydrological processes in the largest inland lake of the Tibetan Plateau. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Aquatic Angiosperm Transplantation: A Tool for Environmental Management and Restoring in Transitional Water Systems
Water 2019, 11(10), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102135 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 122
Abstract
Since the 1960s, the Venice Lagoon has suffered a sharp aquatic plant constriction due to eutrophication, pollution, and clam fishing. Those anthropogenic impacts began to decline during the 2010s, and since then the ecological status of the lagoon has improved, but in many [...] Read more.
Since the 1960s, the Venice Lagoon has suffered a sharp aquatic plant constriction due to eutrophication, pollution, and clam fishing. Those anthropogenic impacts began to decline during the 2010s, and since then the ecological status of the lagoon has improved, but in many choked areas no plant recolonization has been recorded due to the lack of seeds. The project funded by the European Union (LIFE12 NAT/IT/000331-SeResto) allowed to recolonize one of these areas, which is situated in the northern lagoon, by widespread transplantation of small sods and individual rhizomes. In-field activities were supported by fishermen, hunters, and sport associations; the interested surface measured approximately 36.6 km2. In the 35 stations of the chosen area, 24,261 rhizomes were transplanted during the first year, accounting for 693 rhizomes per station. About 37% of them took root in 31 stations forming several patches that joined together to form extensive meadows. Plant rooting was successful where the waters were clear and the trophic status low. But, near the outflows of freshwater rich in nutrients and suspended particulate matter, the action failed. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of small, widespread interventions and the importance of engaging the population in the recovery of the environment, which makes the action economically cheap and replicable in other similar environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Status Assessment of Transitional Waters)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture in Newly Implemented Agricultural Bench Terraces in the Ethiopian Plateau
Water 2019, 11(10), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102134 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 148
Abstract
In arid areas prone to desertification and soil erosion, the effectiveness of radical bench terracing in reducing drought risk is dependent on its correct implementation. However, the relationship between proper terracing implementation and the landscape capacity of holding soil moisture is still not [...] Read more.
In arid areas prone to desertification and soil erosion, the effectiveness of radical bench terracing in reducing drought risk is dependent on its correct implementation. However, the relationship between proper terracing implementation and the landscape capacity of holding soil moisture is still not understood. Moreover, spatial patterns of Soil Water Content (SWC) within the same terraced hillslope are weakly studied. The present paper analyses SWC variations in four newly implemented terraced sites in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. In all sites, terraced areas show SWC significantly higher than non-terraced ones, with the lower part of the terraced hillslope more humid than the others. A Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis highlighted significant dependency of SWC from the date of analysis, the position in the terraced slope, and its significant positive correlation with the percent of Water Stable Aggregates (WSA) analyzed at the study sites. Since high soil disturbance induces low soil aggregates stability, this result shows how low soil disturbance can significantly increase SWC of radical terraces. Overall, the results of the present paper testify the good performances of bench terraces in Northern Ethiopia in terms of soil water conservation, and can represent a benchmark study informing future terracing implementation in some arid and semi-arid agricultural areas of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terraced Landscapes and Hydrological-Geological Hazards)
Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Mesozooplankton Assemblage in Relation to Environmental Factors in the Maryland Coastal Bays
Water 2019, 11(10), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102133 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 128
Abstract
The mesozooplankton composition and dynamics in coastal lagoons of Maryland, mid-Atlantic region, USA have received little scientific attention despite the fact that the lagoons have undergone changes in water quality in the past two decades. We compared mesozooplankton abundance and community structure among [...] Read more.
The mesozooplankton composition and dynamics in coastal lagoons of Maryland, mid-Atlantic region, USA have received little scientific attention despite the fact that the lagoons have undergone changes in water quality in the past two decades. We compared mesozooplankton abundance and community structure among sites and seasons, and between 2012, a year of higher than average salinity (33.4), and 2013 with lower than average salinity (26.6). It was observed that the composition, diversity, and abundance of mesozooplankton in 2012 differed from those of 2013. Barnacle nauplii were abundant in 2012 contributing 31% of the non-copepod mesozooplankton abundance, whereas hydromedusae were more dominant in 2013 and contributed up to 83% of non-copepod zooplankton abundance. Gastropod veliger larvae were more abundant in 2013 than in 2012 while larvae of bivalves, polychaetes, and decapods, in addition to cladocerans and ostracods had higher abundances in 2012. The abundance and diversity of mesozooplankton were explained by variations in environmental factors particularly salinity, and by the abundance of predators such as bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchelli). Diversity was higher in spring and summer 2012 (dry year) than in 2013 (wet year). The reduction of salinity in fall 2012, due to high freshwater discharge associated with Hurricane Sandy, was accompanied by a decrease in mesozooplankton diversity. Spatially, diversity was higher at sites with high salinity near the Ocean City Inlet than at sites near the mouth of tributaries with lower salinity, higher nutrient levels and higher phytoplankton biomass. Perhaps, the relatively low salinity and high temperature in 2013 resulted in an increase in the abundance of hydromedusae, which through predation contributed to the reduction in the abundance of bivalve larvae and other taxa. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimization Difficulty Indicator and Testing Framework for Water Distribution Network Complexity
Water 2019, 11(10), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102132 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 124
Abstract
In the last three decades, benchmark water distribution networks (WDNs) have provided a common testbed for new optimization algorithms and design approaches. However, deriving generalized and reliable conclusions from such benchmark WDNs is difficult because their optimization difficulty levels (ODLs) are either too [...] Read more.
In the last three decades, benchmark water distribution networks (WDNs) have provided a common testbed for new optimization algorithms and design approaches. However, deriving generalized and reliable conclusions from such benchmark WDNs is difficult because their optimization difficulty levels (ODLs) are either too low or too high (i.e., biased). Final solutions do not consistently converge to a global optimum for a WDN problem with a high ODL. In addition, little effort has been given to quantifying and comparing the ODLs of WDNs with different characteristics and conditions. In this study, an ODL indicator was developed for WDNs: the coefficient of variation of the final solution fitness values. An ODL quantification framework was also developed with two phases: (1) generating network layouts with various topological characteristics, and (2) quantifying the statistics of the final solution quality and ODL by using a global parallel genetic algorithm. The proposed indicator and framework were applied to the design of a dense-grid B-city network and large C network, and the results demonstrated their applicability to generating a WDN benchmark problem with the target ODL. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Classification Method for Fish Swimming Behaviors under Incremental Water Velocity for Fishway Hydraulic Design
Water 2019, 11(10), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102131 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 107
Abstract
In fishway design, the combination of fish swimming behaviors and suitable fishway hydraulic characteristics increases the fish passage efficiency. In this study, the most representative grass carp among the “four major Chinese carps” was selected. Under conditions similar to the time period for [...] Read more.
In fishway design, the combination of fish swimming behaviors and suitable fishway hydraulic characteristics increases the fish passage efficiency. In this study, the most representative grass carp among the “four major Chinese carps” was selected. Under conditions similar to the time period for feeding migration, juvenile grass carps were targeted to study the swimming characteristic indicators (i.e., critical and burst swimming speeds) and swimming behaviors that were closely associated with fishway hydraulic design using the incremental water velocity method in a homemade test water tank. (1) The study results reveal that both the absolute critical (Ucrit) and burst (Uburst) swimming speeds increased linearly with increasing body length and both the relative critical (U’crit) and burst (U′burst) swimming speeds decreased linearly with increasing body length. There existed a quantitative relationship between Uburst and Ucrit, which could facilitate the fishway hydraulic design. (2) This study analyzed the effects of water velocity changes on fish swimming behaviors and proposed a classification method for four fish swimming behaviors—swimming freely, staying, dashing at a long distance, and dashing at a short distance—of tested fish during the process of adapting to water velocity changes interspersed with one another. The entire swimming process under the incremental water velocity was divided into four stages. (3) This study suggests that the maximum water velocity of the mainstream in a fishway using grass carp as the major passage fish should not exceed 52–60% Uburst at stage 1. For the high-water velocity areas of a fishway, such as vertical slots and orifices, the optimal water velocity should not be higher than 76–79% Uburst at stage 2 and should absolutely not exceed 90–96% Uburst at stage 3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle
Uncertainty Impacts of Climate Change and Downscaling Methods on Future Runoff Projections in the Biliu River Basin
Water 2019, 11(10), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102130 - 14 Oct 2019
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Abstract
This paper assesses the uncertainties in the projected future runoff resulting from climate change and downscaling methods in the Biliu River basin (Liaoning province, Northeast China). One widely used hydrological model SWAT, 11 Global Climate Models (GCMs), two statistical downscaling methods, four dynamical [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the uncertainties in the projected future runoff resulting from climate change and downscaling methods in the Biliu River basin (Liaoning province, Northeast China). One widely used hydrological model SWAT, 11 Global Climate Models (GCMs), two statistical downscaling methods, four dynamical downscaling datasets, and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are applied to construct 22 scenarios to project runoff. Hydrology variables in historical and future periods are compared to investigate their variations, and the uncertainties associated with climate change and downscaling methods are also analyzed. The results show that future temperatures will increase under all scenarios and will increase more under RCP8.5 than RCP4.5, while future precipitation will increase under 16 scenarios. Future runoff tends to decrease under 13 out of the 22 scenarios. We also found that the mean runoff changes ranging from −38.38% to 33.98%. Future monthly runoff increases in May, June, September, and October and decreases in all the other months. Different downscaling methods have little impact on the lower envelope of runoff, and they mainly impact the upper envelope of the runoff. The impact of climate change can be regarded as the main source of the runoff uncertainty during the flood period (from May to September), while the impact of downscaling methods can be regarded as the main source during the non-flood season (from October to April). This study separated the uncertainty impact of different factors, and the results could provide very important information for water resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
Open AccessArticle
Shift of Sediments Bacterial Community in the Black-Odor Urban River during In Situ Remediation by Comprehensive Measures
Water 2019, 11(10), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102129 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 103
Abstract
The phenomenon of black-odor urban rivers with rapid urbanization has attracted extensive attention. In this study, we investigated the water quality and composition of sediment-associated bacteria communities in three remediation stages (before remediation, 30 days after remediation, and 90 days after remediation) based [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of black-odor urban rivers with rapid urbanization has attracted extensive attention. In this study, we investigated the water quality and composition of sediment-associated bacteria communities in three remediation stages (before remediation, 30 days after remediation, and 90 days after remediation) based on the in situ remediation using comprehensive measures (physical, chemical, and biological measures). The results show that the overlying water quality was notably improved after in situ remediation, while the diversity and richness of sediment-associated bacterial communities decreased. A growing trend of some dominant genus was observed following the remediation of a black-odor river, such as Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Decarbonamis, Leptolina, Longilina, Caldiseericum, Smithella, Mesotoga, Truepera, and Ralstonia, which play an important role in the removal of nitrogen, organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during the sediment remediation. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the bacterial community succession may accelerate the transformation of organic pollutants into inorganic salts in the sediment after in situ remediation. In a word, the water quality of the black-odor river was obviously improved after in situ remediation, and the bacterial community in the sediment notably changed, which determines the nutrients environment in the sediment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Spatial Distribution of the Microbial Community in a Contaminated Aquitard below an Industrial Zone
Water 2019, 11(10), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102128 - 14 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The industrial complex Neot Hovav, in Israel, is situated above an anaerobic fractured chalk aquitard, which is polluted by a wide variety of hazardous organic compounds. These include volatile and non-volatile, halogenated, organic compounds. In this study, we characterized the indigenous bacterial population [...] Read more.
The industrial complex Neot Hovav, in Israel, is situated above an anaerobic fractured chalk aquitard, which is polluted by a wide variety of hazardous organic compounds. These include volatile and non-volatile, halogenated, organic compounds. In this study, we characterized the indigenous bacterial population in 17 boreholes of the groundwater environment, while observing the spatial variations in the population and structure as a function of distance from the polluting source. In addition, the de-halogenating potential of the microbial groundwater population was tested through a series of lab microcosm experiments, thus exemplifying the potential and limitations for bioremediation of the site. In all samples, the dominant phylum was Proteobacteria. In the production plant area, the non-obligatory organo-halide respiring bacteria (OHRB) Firmicutes Phylum was also detected in the polluted water, in abundancies of up to 16 %. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis of the microbial community structure in the groundwater exhibited clusters of distinct populations following the location in the industrial complex and distance from the polluting source. Dehalogenation of halogenated ethylene was demonstrated in contrast to the persistence of brominated alcohols. Persistence is likely due to the chemical characteristics of brominated alcohols, and not because of the absence of active de-halogenating bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Flow, Solute and Heat Transfer in Groundwater)
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Open AccessArticle
Biogas Generation from Sonicated Excess Sludge
Water 2019, 11(10), 2127; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102127 - 14 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The article presents an analysis of the possibilities of biogas production in the process of methane fermentation of sonicated excess sludge. The greater the percentage of methane in biogas, the higher its calorific value. In order to increase the intensity of biogas production [...] Read more.
The article presents an analysis of the possibilities of biogas production in the process of methane fermentation of sonicated excess sludge. The greater the percentage of methane in biogas, the higher its calorific value. In order to increase the intensity of biogas production containing approximately 70% of methane, sewage sludge is disintegrated. In particular, excess sludge formed as a result of advanced wastewater treatment by the activated sludge method shows low biodegradability. The study aim was to examine the effect of the ultrasonic field disintegration of excess sludge on biogas production. As a result of subjecting the sludge to disintegration by ultrasonic field, there was an increase in the digestion degree of sewage sludge. In the methane fermentation process of modified sludge, an increase of the biogas yield was noted, which confirmed the supportive action of ultrasonic field on the excess sludge biodegradation. In the case of disintegration of excess sludge by ultrasonic field, for the ultrasonic field intensity value of 4.3 W cm−2 and a sonication time equal to 300 s, the highest values of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), total organic carbon (TOC), and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations were obtained. In the process of conventional methane fermentation, biogas yield value was 0.303 L g VSS−1, while in the process of methane fermentation of sonicated excess sludge, the value 0.645 L g VSS−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancement of Anaerobic Digestion for Energy and Resource Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Probabilistic Hydrological Post-Processing at Scale: Why and How to Apply Machine-Learning Quantile Regression Algorithms
Water 2019, 11(10), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102126 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 110
Abstract
We conduct a large-scale benchmark experiment aiming to advance the use of machine-learning quantile regression algorithms for probabilistic hydrological post-processing “at scale” within operational contexts. The experiment is set up using 34-year-long daily time series of precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and streamflow for 511 [...] Read more.
We conduct a large-scale benchmark experiment aiming to advance the use of machine-learning quantile regression algorithms for probabilistic hydrological post-processing “at scale” within operational contexts. The experiment is set up using 34-year-long daily time series of precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and streamflow for 511 catchments over the contiguous United States. Point hydrological predictions are obtained using the Génie Rural à 4 paramètres Journalier (GR4J) hydrological model and exploited as predictor variables within quantile regression settings. Six machine-learning quantile regression algorithms and their equal-weight combiner are applied to predict conditional quantiles of the hydrological model errors. The individual algorithms are quantile regression, generalized random forests for quantile regression, generalized random forests for quantile regression emulating quantile regression forests, gradient boosting machine, model-based boosting with linear models as base learners and quantile regression neural networks. The conditional quantiles of the hydrological model errors are transformed to conditional quantiles of daily streamflow, which are finally assessed using proper performance scores and benchmarking. The assessment concerns various levels of predictive quantiles and central prediction intervals, while it is made both independently of the flow magnitude and conditional upon this magnitude. Key aspects of the developed methodological framework are highlighted, and practical recommendations are formulated. In technical hydro-meteorological applications, the algorithms should be applied preferably in a way that maximizes the benefits and reduces the risks from their use. This can be achieved by (i) combining algorithms (e.g., by averaging their predictions) and (ii) integrating algorithms within systematic frameworks (i.e., by using the algorithms according to their identified skills), as our large-scale results point out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques for Mapping and Assessing Surface Runoff)
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Open AccessArticle
Sediment Transport in Sewage Pressure Pipes, Part I: Continuous Determination of Settling and Erosion Characteristics by In-Situ TSS Monitoring Inside a Pressure Pipe in Northern Germany
Water 2019, 11(10), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102125 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Continuous measurement systems are widely spread in sewers, especially in non-pressure systems. Due to its relatively low costs, turbidity sensors are often used as a surrogate for other indicators (solids, heavy metals, organic compounds). However, little effort is spent to turbidity sensors in [...] Read more.
Continuous measurement systems are widely spread in sewers, especially in non-pressure systems. Due to its relatively low costs, turbidity sensors are often used as a surrogate for other indicators (solids, heavy metals, organic compounds). However, little effort is spent to turbidity sensors in pressurized systems so far. This work presents the results of one year in-situ turbidity/total suspended solids (TSS) monitoring inside a pressure pipe (600 mm diameter) in an urban region in northern Germany. The high-resolution sensor data (5 s interval) are used for the determination of solids sedimentation (within pump pauses) and erosion behavior (within pump sequences). In-situ results from sensor measurements are similar to laboratory results presented in previous studies. TSS is decreasing exponentially in pump pauses under dry weather inflow with an average of 0.23 mg/(L s). During pump sequences, solids eroded completely at a bed shear stress of 0.5 N/m². Sedimentation and erosion behavior changes with the inflow rate. Solids settle faster with increasing inflow: at storm water inflow with an average of 0.9 mg/(L s) and at diurnal inflow variation up to 0.6 mg/(L s) at 12:00 a.m. The results are used as calibration data for a sediment transport simulation in Part II. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Modeling and Management of Urban Water Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Explicit Solution for Critical Depth in Closed Conduits Flowing Partly Full
Water 2019, 11(10), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102124 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Critical depth is an essential parameter for the design, operation, and maintenance of conduits. Circular, arched, and egg-shaped sections are often used in non-pressure conduits in hydraulic engineering, irrigation, and sewerage works. However, equations governing the critical depth in various sections are complicated [...] Read more.
Critical depth is an essential parameter for the design, operation, and maintenance of conduits. Circular, arched, and egg-shaped sections are often used in non-pressure conduits in hydraulic engineering, irrigation, and sewerage works. However, equations governing the critical depth in various sections are complicated implicit transcendental equations. The function model is established for the geometric features of multiple sections using the mathematical transform method and while considering non-dimensional parameters. Then, revised PSO algorithms are implemented in MATLAB, and the right solution’s formula for the critical depths in various non-pressure conduit sections is established through optimization. The error analysis results show that the established formula has broad applicability. The maximum relative errors of the formula for critical depths are less than 0.182%, 0.0629%, and 0.170% in circular, arched, and egg-shaped sections, respectively, which are more accurate than those of existing formulas; the form of the formula proposed in this work is also more compact than that of the existing formulas. The results of this research may be useful in design, operation, and maintenance in conduit engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Designing Aquaponic Production Systems towards Integration into Greenhouse Farming
Water 2019, 11(10), 2123; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102123 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Aquaponics is a sustainable method of food production, whereby aquaculture and hydroponics are combined in one circular system. A few aquaponics startup companies are emerging in Europe with a limited production area of a few hundred or a few thousand square meters, whereas [...] Read more.
Aquaponics is a sustainable method of food production, whereby aquaculture and hydroponics are combined in one circular system. A few aquaponics startup companies are emerging in Europe with a limited production area of a few hundred or a few thousand square meters, whereas hydroponics is a common practice in a commercially viable manner most often with production units of several hectares. In Iceland, greenhouse farmers operate on relatively small production units, often between 2000 and 5000 m2. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to develop and design aquaponic production systems towards integration into small greenhouse farming strengthening economic viability and sustainability. Since the local market in Iceland is small and import is relatively expensive due to the distance from other markets, the suitability of commercially available fish feed and the selection of plant species were assessed in relation to production efficiency and available market and resources. The effects of water flow on plant growth and on nutrient utilization in culture water were measured and evaluated. Four aquaponics test systems were designed, built and operated, and results were used to develop a pilot commercial aquaponics system implemented for greenhouse farming in Iceland. One of the test systems was a media filled flood and drain system and the other three were deep water culture systems. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the most popular fish in aquaculture, was reared in all systems, while different leafy greens and fruiting vegetables were grown in the hydroponics. The fish was fed with commercial aquaculture feed made for cod and charr. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was used to assess the effectiveness of feed on fish growth. The FCR observed in this research was between 0.9 and 1.2, within the typical values for tilapia growth in aquaculture. The production of the leafy green plants (e.g., pak-choi) was approximately four times, by weight, that of the production of fish, a similar yield as shown in other researches in the field. The continuous rise of nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the aquaponic system indicated the potential to support even higher crop yield. Long daylength in the summer in Iceland is clearly beneficial for crop production in aquaponics. Based on the results, it is concluded that aquaponics can be a feasible opportunity for greenhouse farming at least to diversify the current business model. Not only can the fish provide an extra income but also the effluent from the aquaculture is easily used as fertilizer for the plants, thus the circular production system offers new innovative ideas for diversifying and value-adding the business further, for example into crayfish production and/or into educational and experience tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water–Food–Energy Nexus)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Freezing–Thawing Cycle Mode on Alpine Vegetation in the Nagqu River Basin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
Water 2019, 11(10), 2122; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102122 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 132
Abstract
The freezing–thawing cycle is a basic feature of a frozen soil ecosystem, and it affects the growth of alpine vegetation both directly and indirectly. As the climate changes, the freezing–thawing mode, along with its impact on frozen soil ecosystems, also changes. In this [...] Read more.
The freezing–thawing cycle is a basic feature of a frozen soil ecosystem, and it affects the growth of alpine vegetation both directly and indirectly. As the climate changes, the freezing–thawing mode, along with its impact on frozen soil ecosystems, also changes. In this research, the freezing–thawing cycle of the Nagqu River Basin in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau was studied. Vegetation growth characteristics and microbial abundance were analyzed under different freezing–thawing modes. The direct and indirect effects of the freezing–thawing cycle mode on alpine vegetation in the Nagqu River Basin are presented, and the changing trends and hazards of the freezing–thawing cycle mode due to climate change are discussed. The results highlight two major findings. First, the freezing–thawing cycle in the Nagqu River Basin has a high-frequency mode (HFM) and a low-frequency mode (LFM). With the influence of climate change, the LFM is gradually shifting to the HFM. Second, the alpine vegetation biomass in the HFM is lower than that in the LFM. Frequent freezing–thawing cycles reduce root cell activity and can even lead to root cell death. On the other hand, frequent freezing–thawing cycles increase microbial (Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Pseudomonas) death, weaken symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the disease resistance of vegetation, accelerate soil nutrient loss, reduce the soil water holding capacity and soil moisture, and hinder root growth. This study provides a complete response mechanism of alpine vegetation to the freezing–thawing cycle frequency while providing a theoretical basis for studying the change direction and impact on the frozen soil ecosystem due to climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Numerical Method for Simulating Large-Scale Free Water Surface by Massive Parallel Computing on a GPU
Water 2019, 11(10), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102121 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Water wave dynamics and its engineering application have always been a key issue in the field of hydraulics, and effective and efficient numerical methods need to be proposed to perform three-dimensional (3-D) simulation of large-scale water fluctuation in engineering practice. A single-phase free-surface [...] Read more.
Water wave dynamics and its engineering application have always been a key issue in the field of hydraulics, and effective and efficient numerical methods need to be proposed to perform three-dimensional (3-D) simulation of large-scale water fluctuation in engineering practice. A single-phase free-surface lattice Boltzmann method (SPFS-LB method) is coupled with a large-eddy simulation approach for simulating large-scale free water surface flows, and the simulation is accelerated on a GPU (graphic processing unit). The coupling model is used to simulate the evolution process of dam-break wave after complete and partial dam-break. The formation mechanism of horizontal and vertical vortices in water after partial dam-break and the advance and evolution process of dam-break flow on non-contour riverbed are analyzed. The method has been verified to be reasonable and can obtain a more accurate time curve of water level fluctuation. Applying this method to practical arch dams, discharge coefficients consistent with empirical formulas can be obtained by comparison and analysis, and the surface flow phenomena (such as tongue diffusion, surface fragmentation, and surface fusion) can be well simulated by this method. In addition, based on the key technology of parallel computing on a GPU, the implementation of the SPFS-LB model on a GPU unit achieves tens of millions of lattice updates per second, which is over fifty times higher than that on a single CPU chip. It is proved that the proposed method for large-scale water fluctuations can be used to study practical engineering problems. The mathematical model method realizes the efficient and accurate simulation of practical physical problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
Open AccessArticle
Investigation into Groundwater Resources in Southern Part of the Red River’s Delta Plain, Vietnam by the Use of Isotopic Techniques
Water 2019, 11(10), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102120 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Groundwater in the Red River’s delta plain, North Vietnam, was found in Holocene, Pleistocene, Neogene and Triassic aquifers in fresh, brackish and saline types with a total dissolved solids (TDS) content ranging from less than 1 g L−1 to higher than 3 [...] Read more.
Groundwater in the Red River’s delta plain, North Vietnam, was found in Holocene, Pleistocene, Neogene and Triassic aquifers in fresh, brackish and saline types with a total dissolved solids (TDS) content ranging from less than 1 g L−1 to higher than 3 g L−1. Saline water exists inHolocene aquifer, but fresh and brackish water exist in Pleistocene, Neogene and Triassic aquifers. This study aims at the investigation into genesis and processes controlling quality of water resources in the region. For this isotopic, combined with geochemical techniques were applied. The techniques include: (i) measurement of water’s isotopic compositions (δ2H, δ18O) in water; (ii) determination of water’s age by the 3H- and 14C-dating method, and (iii) chemical analyses for main cations and anions in water. Results obtained revealed that saline water in Holocene aquifer was affected by seawater intrusion, fresh water in deeper aquifers originated from meteoric water but with old ages, up to 10,000–14,000 yr. The recharge area of fresh water is from the northwest highland at an altitude of 140–160m above sea level. The recharge water flows northwesterly towards southeasterly to the seacoast at a rate of 2.5m y−1. Chemistry of water resources in the study region is controlled by ferric, sulfate and nitrate reduction with organic matters as well as dissolution of inorganic carbonate minerals present in the sediment deposits. Results of isotopic signatures in water from Neogene, Triassic and Pleistocene aquifers suggested the three aquifers are connected to each other due to the existence of faults and fissures in Mesozoic basement across the delta region in combination with high rate of groundwater mining. Moreover, the high rate of freshwater abstraction from Pleistocene aquifer currently causes sea water to flow backwards to production well field located in the center of the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Stable Isotopes in Hydrological Process)
Open AccessArticle
Innovative Variance Corrected Sen’s Trend Test on Persistent Hydrometeorological Data
Water 2019, 11(10), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102119 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 194
Abstract
Trend detection in observations helps one to identify anthropogenic forces on natural hydrological and climatic systems. Hydrometeorological data are often persistent over time that deviates from the assumption of independence used by many statistical methods. A recently proposed Sen’s trend test claimed to [...] Read more.
Trend detection in observations helps one to identify anthropogenic forces on natural hydrological and climatic systems. Hydrometeorological data are often persistent over time that deviates from the assumption of independence used by many statistical methods. A recently proposed Sen’s trend test claimed to be free of this problem and thereby received widespread attention. However, both theoretical derivation and stochastic simulation of the current study implies that persistence inflates the trend significance, leading to false trends. To tackle this problem, we incorporate the feature of persistence into the variance of the trend test statistic, whereby an innovative variance-corrected Sen’s trend test is developed. Two theoretical variances of the trend test statistic are newly derived to account for short-term and long-term persistent behavior. The original variance for independent data is also corrected because of its negative bias. A stepwise procedure, including steps to specify the underlying persistent behavior and to test trend with new statistic, is outlined for performing the new test on factual data. Variance-corrected Sen’s trend test can effectively restore the inflated trend significance back to its nominal state. This study may call for the reassessment of published results of the original Sen’s trend test on data with persistence. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Tractor Passes on Hydrological and Soil Erosion Processes in Tilled and Grassed Vineyards
Water 2019, 11(10), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102118 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 174
Abstract
Soil erosion is affected by rainfall temporal patterns and intensity variability. In vineyards, machine traffic is implemented with particular intensity from late spring to harvest, and it is responsible for soil compaction, which likely affects soil hydraulic properties, runoff, and soil erosion. Additionally, [...] Read more.
Soil erosion is affected by rainfall temporal patterns and intensity variability. In vineyards, machine traffic is implemented with particular intensity from late spring to harvest, and it is responsible for soil compaction, which likely affects soil hydraulic properties, runoff, and soil erosion. Additionally, the hydraulic and physical properties of soil are highly influenced by vineyards’ inter-rows soil management. The effects on soil compaction and both hydrological and erosional processes of machine traffic were investigated on a sloping vineyard with different inter-row soil managements (tillage and permanent grass cover) in the Alto Monferrato area (Piedmont, NW Italy). During the investigation (November 2016–October 2018), soil water content, rainfall, runoff, and soil erosion were continuously monitored. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil penetration resistance, and bulk density were recorded periodically in portions of inter-rows affected and not affected by the machine traffic. Very different yearly precipitation characterized the observed period, leading to higher bulk density and lower infiltration rates in the wetter year, especially in the tilled vineyard, whereas soil penetration resistance was generally higher in the grassed plot and in drier conditions. In the wet year, management with grass cover considerably reduced runoff (−76%) and soil loss (−83%) compared to tillage and in the dry season. Those results highlight the need to limit the tractor traffic, in order to reduce negative effects due to soil compaction, especially in tilled inter-rows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Hydrology on Soil Erosion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Techno-Economic Assessment of Air and Water Gap Membrane Distillation for Seawater Desalination under Different Heat Source Scenarios
Water 2019, 11(10), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102117 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 107
Abstract
Membrane distillation (MD) has a great deal of potential and this is currently being explored by the scientific community. However, this technology has not yet been implemented by industry, and an estimation of final product costs is key to its commercial success. In [...] Read more.
Membrane distillation (MD) has a great deal of potential and this is currently being explored by the scientific community. However, this technology has not yet been implemented by industry, and an estimation of final product costs is key to its commercial success. In this study a techno-economic assessment of air gap MD (AGMD) and water gap MD (WGMD) for seawater desalination under different capacities and heat source scenarios was developed. The simplified cost of water (SCOW) method, which estimates investment costs, fixed and variable costs, as well as amortization factors and price influence over time was applied. In addition, experimental data from a laboratory-scale MD desalination plant were also used. The results showed water costs in the range of 1.56 to 7.53 €/m3 for WGMD and 2.38 to 9.60 €/m3 for AGMD. Specifically, the most feasible scenario was obtained for WGMD with a capacity of 1000 m3 daily using waste and solar heat. Finally, the costs obtained for MD were similar to those of conventional desalination technologies at the same scale factor. Therefore, although large-scale pilot studies and optimization of manufacturing processes are needed, MD shows very promising results that should be considered further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies and Water Treatment)
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