Special Issue "Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Guillermo Donoso Harris

Guest Editor
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Interests: water allocation; water rights markets; collective water management; water pricing; governance; groundwater management
Prof. Jennie Barron

Guest Editor
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)
Interests: agricultural water management; food security; landscape hydrology; sustainability; resilience; climate change; human wellbeing
Prof. Dr. Stefan Uhlenbrook
Website
Guest Editor
International Water Management Institute, IWMI, Rome Office, Italy
Interests: water management; water, food and energy nexus; water and ecosystems; SDG 6; food system transformation; water and agricultural; global change; hydrological processes; nature-based solutions for water; integrated assessment
Dr. Hussam Hussein
Website
Guest Editor
University of Oxford
Interests: water policy; transboundary water; hydropolitics; middle east; jordan
Prof. Gyewoon Choi

Guest Editor
Incheon National University
Interests: smart water; flood resilience; smart water city; water stewardship; climate change adaptation; sustainable development; water supply; water security; global partnership; water industry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After more than three years of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the 2019 World Water Week in Stockholm has chosen to focus on inclusiveness with the theme “Water for society–Including all”. This is also the theme of this Special Issue that will bring together the scientific highlights presented during the week. Access to safe water and sanitation for all is essential for eradicating poverty, building peaceful and prosperous societies, and ensuring that ‘no one is left behind’ on the road towards sustainable development. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2019 concluded that these goals are entirely achievable, provided exclusion and inequality are addressed in both policy and practice, but this needs new science and effective ways to ensure implementation, bridging the science–policy gap.

Topics to be addressed include, but are not limited to, acute water scarcity for individuals and societies, water justice, lack of access to safe water supply and sanitation, food and energy insecurity, exposure to catastrophic weather extremes, and pathways to secure inclusive and resilient development. Inequality of access to and the benefits of water security can be found in all parts of society from the household and local community level, to landscape and global settings. Evidence shows that often the people who are furthest behind—e.g., people who experience discrimination because of age, gender, socio-economic status, impairments, membership of ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities, etc.—are those least able to access safe water and sanitation, and ultimately least able to progress towards enjoying all their human rights.

We invite research contributions from empirical practice and theoretical perspectives addressing the reasons, solutions, methods and challenges of inclusive water security. This Special Issue will be oriented around the topics of:

  • Water for women and youth
  • Water governance with and for all
  • Sanitation for society
  • Finance for water sector transformation to meet the SDGs
  • Migration through regional integration and water security
  • Water and equity in climate change adaptation
  • Entrepreneurship and innovation driving water impact for all
  • Linking water and biodiversity with inclusive development

Prof. Guillermo Donoso Harris
Prof. Jennie Barron
Prof. Stefan Uhlenbrook
Dr. Hussam Hussein
Prof. Gyewoon Choi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) will be covering the Article Processing Charge (APC) for open access for all accepted articles for the Special Issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • SDG implementation
  • inclusive water and sanitation development
  • inclusive climate change adaptation
  • water governance
  • regional integration and water security
  • innovation and finance

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Unpacking Water Governance: A Framework for Practitioners
Water 2020, 12(3), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030827 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Water governance has emerged as an important topic in the international arena and is acknowledged to be a crucial factor for adequate and sustained progress towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6. However, there is not enough clarity about the practical meaning of [...] Read more.
Water governance has emerged as an important topic in the international arena and is acknowledged to be a crucial factor for adequate and sustained progress towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6. However, there is not enough clarity about the practical meaning of the term “water governance” and how to work with it. This paper reviews the term’s use, to reveal how the concept is understood, referred to, and implemented in practice by different stakeholders. Based on literature review and consultations with experts, we identify and describe the core components of water governance (functions), describe their potential qualities when performed (attributes), and how they interrelate with the values and aspirations of the different stakeholders to achieve certain outcomes. These different components are described in detail to construct an operational framework to assess and work with water governance, which covers water and sanitation services delivery, water resources management and transboundary waters. This paper’s findings provide practical guidance for decision makers and practitioners on how action-oriented water governance processes can be meaningfully designed, and ultimately, how to strengthen efforts aiming to improve water governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The International Law and Politics of Water Access: Experiences of Displacement, Statelessness, and Armed Conflict
Water 2020, 12(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020340 - 24 Jan 2020
Abstract
This article analyses international law regarding the human right to water as it impacts people who are stateless, displaced, and/or residents of armed conflict zones in the contemporary Middle East. Deficiencies in international law, including humanitarian, water, human rights, and criminal law, are [...] Read more.
This article analyses international law regarding the human right to water as it impacts people who are stateless, displaced, and/or residents of armed conflict zones in the contemporary Middle East. Deficiencies in international law, including humanitarian, water, human rights, and criminal law, are examined to demonstrate international law’s strengths and weaknesses for functioning as a guarantor of essential rights for vulnerable groups already facing challenges resulting from ambiguous legal statuses. What are the political factors causing lack of water access, and what international legal protections exist to protect vulnerable groups when affected by water denial? The analysis is framed by Hannah Arendt’s assertion that loss of citizenship in a sovereign state leaves people lacking “the right to have rights”, as human rights are inextricably connected to civil rights. This article demonstrates that stateless/displaced persons and armed conflict zone residents are disproportionately impacted by lack of water, yet uniquely vulnerable under international law. This paper offers unprecedented analysis of international criminal law’s role in grappling with water access restrictions. I challenge existing “water wars” arguments, instead proposing remedies for international law’s struggle to guarantee the human right to water for refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs). Examples include Israel/Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Yemen. A key original contribution is the application of Arendt’s theory of the totalising impacts of human rights violations to cases of water access denial, arguing that these scenarios are examples of environmental injustice that restrict vulnerable persons’ abilities to access their human rights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Open AccessArticle
Syrian Refugees, Water Scarcity, and Dynamic Policies: How Do the New Refugee Discourses Impact Water Governance Debates in Lebanon and Jordan?
Water 2020, 12(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020325 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Since the Syrian crisis and the so-called “Arab Spring”, new discourses have been created, sparking the discursive water governance debates around water scarcity and hydropolitics. In Lebanon and Jordan—where most water resources are transboundary, and where most Syrian refugees have flown in—new discourses [...] Read more.
Since the Syrian crisis and the so-called “Arab Spring”, new discourses have been created, sparking the discursive water governance debates around water scarcity and hydropolitics. In Lebanon and Jordan—where most water resources are transboundary, and where most Syrian refugees have flown in—new discourses of climate change and especially of Syrian refugees as exacerbating water scarcity are emerging, shaping water governance debates. The aim of this paper is to engage in comparative discourse analysis about narratives of water crises and refugees in Lebanon and Jordan. This study is novel because of the focus on the new discourse of refugees in relation to water governance debates in both Lebanon and Jordan. This paper finds that in both countries the new discourses of refugees do not replace previous and existing discourses of water crisis and scarcity, but rather they build on and reinforce them. This paper finds that the impact these discourses had on the governance debates is that in Lebanon the resources mobilized focused on humanitarian interventions, while Jordan focused on development projects to strengthen the resilience of its water infrastructure and its overall water governance system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Water Rights Systems for Pro-Poor Water Governance in Africa
Water 2020, 12(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010155 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Water-permit systems are widely used across Africa as a blanket requirement for small and micro irrigation enterprises, as well as large enterprises. The present study aimed to, first, further understand the implications of permit systems for both the most vulnerable and the state, [...] Read more.
Water-permit systems are widely used across Africa as a blanket requirement for small and micro irrigation enterprises, as well as large enterprises. The present study aimed to, first, further understand the implications of permit systems for both the most vulnerable and the state, and, second, based on the findings, identify options for pro-poor water legislation that also meet the water governance requirements of the state. The growing recognition of the importance of farmer-led irrigation development for food security across the continent underlines the importance of these questions. Focusing on Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and other African countries, we found that permit systems criminalized instead of protected the water rights of small-scale farmers. Moreover, little if any attention is paid to the logistical burdens and costs to the state of implementing such systems relative to the intended revenue generation. As many small-scale farmers in Africa were found to operate under customary land and water tenure systems, the study proposes a hybrid system of water rights that formally recognizes such practices, along with the use of permits, including enforcement of conditions for large users, to serve the interests of both the state and small-scale farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Rural Piped-Water Enterprises in Cambodia: A Pathway to Women’s Empowerment?
Water 2019, 11(12), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122541 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
This research examined the extent to which women’s ownership and management of water supply schemes led to their empowerment, including their economic empowerment, in rural Cambodia. Privately managed water supply schemes in rural Cambodia serve over one million people. This study is the [...] Read more.
This research examined the extent to which women’s ownership and management of water supply schemes led to their empowerment, including their economic empowerment, in rural Cambodia. Privately managed water supply schemes in rural Cambodia serve over one million people. This study is the first of its kind to systematically investigate the experiences and needs of female water supply scheme owners, using well-established theoretical frameworks for women’s empowerment, namely Longwe’s stages of empowerment, and Rowlands, VeneKlasen and Miller’s elaboration on different types of power. Business management frameworks relevant to the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector were also drawn on to assess operational constraints and enablers. Fifteen structured interviews were conducted with female water entrepreneurs in rural Cambodia. Female entrepreneurs reported encountering four key barriers to establishing and managing water supply schemes. The first were operational, and government and regulatory related issues, followed by financial issues and limited demand for water services. Three important enablers were reported by entrepreneurs: social enablers, economic enablers and program support from government, associations and non-government organisations (NGOs). This study found that, whilst there was evidence of empowerment reported by female water enterprise owners, the complexity of the ongoing empowerment process, challenges and limitations were also observed. Women’s empowerment can be advanced through leadership of, and involvement in water enterprises, as evidenced by this study, however, gender norms constrained women, especially with respect to mobility (leaving the home for extended periods), and household and family duties impacting on income-generating work or vice versa. As such, targeted strategies are needed by a range of actors to address such constraints. The findings of this study can assist NGOs, donors and governments incentivizing entrepreneurship in water services, to ensure that these interventions are not gender blind, and to draw on evidence of the barriers and enablers for female entrepreneurs and how these are influenced by contextualized gender norms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceCommunication
EU Horizon 2020 Research for A Sustainable Future: INNOQUA—A Nature-Based Sanitation Solution
Water 2019, 11(12), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122461 - 23 Nov 2019
Abstract
This paper explores the experiences of partners in the multi-national, EU-funded INNOQUA project, who have developed and are currently demonstrating the potential for novel nature-based, decentralised wastewater treatment solutions in ten different countries. Four solutions are under investigation, each at different Technology Readiness [...] Read more.
This paper explores the experiences of partners in the multi-national, EU-funded INNOQUA project, who have developed and are currently demonstrating the potential for novel nature-based, decentralised wastewater treatment solutions in ten different countries. Four solutions are under investigation, each at different Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs): Lumbrifilter; Daphniafilter; Bio-Solar Purification unit; UV disinfection unit. An overview of the solutions is provided, along within data from pilot sites. The project is currently entering an intensive demonstration phase, during which sites will be open for visits and act as the focus for training and dissemination activities on sustainable wastewater treatment. Barriers to market for nature-based solutions are also explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Mobilising Finance for WASH: Getting the Foundations Right
Water 2019, 11(11), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112425 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Responding to the substantial finance gap for achieving Sustainable Development Goals 6.1 and 6.2, the water and sanitation sector has mobilized to launch new blended finance vehicles with increasing frequency. The sustainability and scale-up of financial solutions is intended to support increased access [...] Read more.
Responding to the substantial finance gap for achieving Sustainable Development Goals 6.1 and 6.2, the water and sanitation sector has mobilized to launch new blended finance vehicles with increasing frequency. The sustainability and scale-up of financial solutions is intended to support increased access to unserved, marginalized populations. However, without addressing foundational issues in the sector, any finance mechanism, whether public, private or blended, will be a short-term, band-aid solution and the sector will continue the cycle of dependency on external assistance. This paper presents the results of a collaborative effort of Water.org; the IRC water, sanitation and hygiene sector (WASH); and the World Bank Water Global Practice. Drawing from the latest research on effective public financial management and based on evidence from the countries where these organizations work, the paper demonstrates that sustainable success in mobilising finance on a large scale is dependent on a reasonable level of performance across 10 foundational areas. The paper presents evidence on the 10 foundational areas and discusses why other aspects of finance and governance, while necessary, are not sufficient. Better coordination amongst all development partners and governments, including a collective commitment to and prioritization of working on these foundational issues, is a necessary first step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Flood Risk Mapping Worldwide: A Flexible Methodology and Toolbox
Water 2019, 11(11), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112371 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Flood risk assessments predict the potential consequences of flooding, leading to more effective risk management and strengthening resilience. However, adequate assessments rely on large quantities of high-quality input data. Developing regions lack reliable data or funds to acquire them. Therefore, this research has [...] Read more.
Flood risk assessments predict the potential consequences of flooding, leading to more effective risk management and strengthening resilience. However, adequate assessments rely on large quantities of high-quality input data. Developing regions lack reliable data or funds to acquire them. Therefore, this research has developed a flexible, low-cost methodology for mapping flood hazard, vulnerability and risk. A generic methodology was developed and customized for freely available data with global coverage, enabling risk assessment worldwide. The default workflow can be enriched with region-specific information when available. The practical application is assured by a modular toolbox developed on GDAL and PCRASTER. This toolbox was tested for the catchment of the river Moustiques, Haiti, for which several flood hazard maps were developed. Then, the toolbox was used to create social, economic and physical vulnerability maps. These were combined with the hazard maps to create the three corresponding flood risk maps. After creating these with the default data, more detailed information, gathered during field work, was added to verify the results of the basic workflow. These first tests of the developed toolbox show promising results. The toolbox allows policy makers in developing countries to perform reliable flood risk assessments and generate the necessary maps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Unpacking Barriers to Socially Inclusive Weather Index Insurance: Towards a Framework for Inclusion
Water 2019, 11(11), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112235 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
Floods account for a majority of disasters, especially in South Asia, where they affect 27 million people annually, causing economic losses of over US$1 billion. Climate change threatens to exacerbate these risks. Risk transfer mechanisms, such as weather index insurance (WII) may help [...] Read more.
Floods account for a majority of disasters, especially in South Asia, where they affect 27 million people annually, causing economic losses of over US$1 billion. Climate change threatens to exacerbate these risks. Risk transfer mechanisms, such as weather index insurance (WII) may help buffer farmers against these hazards. However, WII programs struggle to attract the clients most in need of protection, including marginalized women and men. This risks re-enforcing existing inequalities and missing opportunities to promote pro-poor and gender-sensitive development. Key questions, therefore, include what factors constrain access to WIIs amongst heterogeneous communities, and how these can be addressed. This paper contributes to that end through primary data from two WII case studies (one in India, the other in Bangladesh) that identify contextual socio-economic and structural barriers to accessing WII, and strategies to overcome these. More significantly, this paper synthesizes the case study findings and those from a review of the literature on other WII initiatives into a framework to promote a systematic approach to address these challenges: an important step forward in moving from problem analysis to remedial action. The framework highlights actions across WII product design, implementation and post-implementation, to minimize risks of social exclusion in future WII schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Open AccessArticle
Water Users Associations in Tanzania: Local Governance for Whom?
Water 2019, 11(10), 2178; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102178 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
In order to implement Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) according to good practice, governments and development agencies have promoted the setting-up of Water Users Associations (WUAs) as a broadly applicable model for water management at the local level. WUAs are promoted as key [...] Read more.
In order to implement Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) according to good practice, governments and development agencies have promoted the setting-up of Water Users Associations (WUAs) as a broadly applicable model for water management at the local level. WUAs are promoted as key to the rolling out of IWRM principles through a participative process. Using intensive qualitative data, this paper discusses Tanzanian WUAs in light of the Regulatory Framework within which they operate. I argue that although the government’s objectives are to achieve an equitable and sustainable allocation of water resources, the formalisation of water allocation has led to the exclusion of specific water users. This paper focuses on the Great Ruaha River Catchment (GRRC), where water scarcity has led to competition between investors and small-scale water users. The GRRC is an environment in which formal and informal practices overlap, due to legal pluralism and the incremental implementation of water governance frameworks. This study calls for a reassessment of the role of WUAs in Tanzania. There is a clear gap between the theoretical clarity of tasks handed to WUAs (particularly their role in formalising access to water), and the messiness of everyday practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improved Water Services Cooperation through Clarification of Rules and Roles
Water 2019, 11(10), 2172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102172 - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Water services face global challenges, many of which are institutional by nature. While technical solutions may suit several situations, institutional frameworks are likely to vary more. On the basis of constructive research approach and new institutional economics we analyze and illustrate water services [...] Read more.
Water services face global challenges, many of which are institutional by nature. While technical solutions may suit several situations, institutional frameworks are likely to vary more. On the basis of constructive research approach and new institutional economics we analyze and illustrate water services and the roles of various water sector actors in Finnish water utility setting using the “soccer analogy” by the Nobel Laureate D.C. North: Institutions are the “formal and informal rules of the game” while organizations are the “players”. Additionally, we assess the Finnish water governance system and discuss issues of scale and fragmentation and distinguish terms water provision and production. Finally, we elaborate the limitations of the soccer analogy to water services through ownership of the systems. According to the soccer analogy, inclusive institutional development requires skillful players (competent staff), team play (collaboration), proper coaching (education), supporters (citizens, media), managers (policymakers), and referees (authorities). We argue that institutional diversity and player/stakeholder collaboration are the foundation for enhancing good multi-level water governance, and that water management, although fragmented, should be seen as a connector of different sectors. For successful outcomes, scientific results should be communicated to public in more common language. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Less to Lose? Drought Impact and Vulnerability Assessment in Disadvantaged Regions
Water 2020, 12(4), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041136 - 16 Apr 2020
Abstract
Droughts hit the most vulnerable people the hardest. When this happens, everybody in the economy loses over the medium- to long-term. Proactive policies and planning based on vulnerability and risk assessments can reduce drought risk before the worst impacts occur. The aim of [...] Read more.
Droughts hit the most vulnerable people the hardest. When this happens, everybody in the economy loses over the medium- to long-term. Proactive policies and planning based on vulnerability and risk assessments can reduce drought risk before the worst impacts occur. The aim of this article is to inform a global initiative, led by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), to mitigate the effects of drought on vulnerable ecosystems and communities. This is approached through a rapid review of experiences from selected nations and of the available literature documenting methodological approaches to assess drought impacts and vulnerability at the local level. The review finds that members of the most vulnerable communities can integrate available methods to assess drought risks to their land and ecosystem productivity, their livelihoods and their life-supporting hydrological systems. This integration of approaches helps to ensure inclusive assessments across communities and ecosystems. However, global economic assessments often still fail to connect to holistic consideration of vulnerability at a local scale. As a result, they routinely fall short of capturing the systemic effects of land and water management decisions that deepen vulnerability to droughts over time. To ensure proactive and inclusive drought risk mitigation, multiscale, systemic approaches to drought vulnerability and risk assessment can be further reinforced at a global level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Improving Water Management Education across the Latin America and Caribbean Region
Water 2019, 11(11), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112318 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Education can help secure inclusive and resilient development around water resources. However, it is difficult to provide the latest science to those managing water resources (both now and in the future). Collectively, we hypothesize that dissemination and promotion of scientific knowledge using students [...] Read more.
Education can help secure inclusive and resilient development around water resources. However, it is difficult to provide the latest science to those managing water resources (both now and in the future). Collectively, we hypothesize that dissemination and promotion of scientific knowledge using students as central agents to transfer theoretical knowledge into practice is an efficient way to address this difficulty. In this study, we test this hypothesis in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region as a representative case study region. First, we use a literature review to map a potential gap in research on education around water resources across the LAC region. We then review potential best practices to address this gap and to better translate water resources education techniques into the LAC region. Integral to these efforts is adopting students as agents for information transfer to help bridge the gap between the global state-of-the science and local water resources management. Our results highlight the need to establish a new standard of higher educational promoting exchange between countries as local populations are vulnerable to future shifts in climate at global scales and changes in land usage at regional scales. The new standard should include peer-to-peer mentoring achieved by jointly exchanging and training students and practitioners in water management techniques, increasing access to water data and pedagogic information across the region, and lowering administration roadblocks that prevent student exchange. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2019 World Water Week)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop