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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is amongst the dietary factors most [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Glucose and Lipid Dysmetabolism in a Rat Model of Prediabetes Induced by a High-Sucrose Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060638
Received: 2 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1735 | PDF Full-text (5418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose [...] Read more.
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)—received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)—received vehicle (water). Body weight, food, and beverage consumption were monitored and glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Serum and liver triglyceride concentrations, as well as the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis were assessed. The insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were also measured in freshly isolated adipocytes. Even in the absence of obesity, this rat model already presented the main features of prediabetes, with fasting normoglycemia but reduced glucose tolerance, postprandial hyperglycemia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, as well as decreased insulin sensitivity (resistance) and hypertriglyceridemia. In addition, impaired hepatic function, including altered gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways, as well as increased expression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase in the liver, were observed, suggesting that liver glucose and lipid dysmetabolism may play a major role at this stage of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Despite Inflammation, Supplemented Essential Amino Acids May Improve Circulating Levels of Albumin and Haemoglobin in Patients after Hip Fractures
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060637
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1428 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Essential amino acids (EAAs) are nutritional substrates that promote body protein synthesis; thus we hypothesised that their supplementation may improve circulating albumin (Alb) and haemoglobin (Hb) in rehabilitative elderly patients following hip fractures (HF). Out of the 145 HF patients originally enrolled in [...] Read more.
Essential amino acids (EAAs) are nutritional substrates that promote body protein synthesis; thus we hypothesised that their supplementation may improve circulating albumin (Alb) and haemoglobin (Hb) in rehabilitative elderly patients following hip fractures (HF). Out of the 145 HF patients originally enrolled in our study, 112 completed the protocol. These subjects were divided into two randomised groups, each containing 56 patients. For a period of two months, one group (age 81.4 ± 8.1 years; male/female 27/29) received a placebo, and the other (age 83.1 ± 7.5 years; male/female 25/31) received 4 + 4 g/day oral EAAs. At admission, the prevalence of both hypoAlb (<3.5 g/dL) and hypoHb (<13 g/dL male, <12 g/dL female) was similar in the placebo group (64.3% hypoAlb, 66% hypoHb) and the treated group of patients (73.2% hypoAlb, 67.8% hypoHb). At discharge, however, the prevalence of hypoAlb had reduced more in EAAs than in placebo subjects (31.7% in EAAs vs. 77.8% in placebo; p < 0.001). There was a 34.2% reduction of anaemia in hypoHb in EAA subjects and 18.9% in placebo subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Oral supplementation of EAAs improves hypoAlb and, to a lesser extent, Hb in elderly rehabilitative subjects with hip fractures. Anaemia was reduced in more than one third of patients, which, despite not being statistically significant, may be clinically relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Lack of Association between Serum Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin D Levels with Different Types of Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060636
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1397 | PDF Full-text (2921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although vitamins play a major role in health, and their deficiency may be linked to symptoms of optic-nerve dysfunction, the association between serum vitamin levels and glaucoma in humans remains controversial. In this study, articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE [...] Read more.
Although vitamins play a major role in health, and their deficiency may be linked to symptoms of optic-nerve dysfunction, the association between serum vitamin levels and glaucoma in humans remains controversial. In this study, articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched up to 25March 2017. Nine studies on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), four studies on normal tension glaucoma (NTG), and six studies on exfoliative glaucoma (EXG) were retrieved. The combined results showed no differences in the levels of serum vitamin B6 between POAG (p = 0.406) and EXG (p = 0.139) patients and controls. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 2.792 ng/mL (−3.793 to 9.377) and 1.342 ng/mL (−3.120 to 0.436), respectively. There was no difference between POAG (p = 0.952), NTG (p = 0.757), or EXG (p = 0.064) patients and controls in terms of serum vitamin B12. The WMDs with 95% CIs were 0.933 pg/mL (−31.116 to 29.249), 6.652 pg/mL (−35.473 to 48.777), and 49.946 pg/mL (−102.892 to 3.001), respectively. The serum vitamin D levels exhibited no differences (p = 0.064) between POAG patients and controls; the WMD with 95% CI was 2.488 ng/mL (−5.120 to 0.145). In conclusion, there was no association found between serum vitamin B6, vitamin B12, or vitamin D levels and the different types of glaucoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modulatory Effects of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) on Adipogenesis
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060635
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1555 | PDF Full-text (3907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a plant originated in Brazil that presents a beneficial effect on body weight control and metabolic alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on genes and miRNAs related to adipogenesis in [...] Read more.
Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a plant originated in Brazil that presents a beneficial effect on body weight control and metabolic alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on genes and miRNAs related to adipogenesis in 3T3L1 cells. The anti-adipogenic effect of guarana was evaluated by Oil Red-O staining. Gene and miRNA expression levels were determined by real time PCR. The Cebpα and β-catenin nuclear translocation were evaluated using immunocytochemistry. Our data indicated that the triglyceride-reducing effect of guarana was dose-dependent from 100 to 300 µg/mL (−12%, −20%, −24% and −40%, respectively, p < 0.0001). An up-regulation of the anti-adipogenic genes Wnt10b, Wnt3a, Wnt1, Gata3 and Dlk1 and a down-regulation of pro-adipogenic genes Cebpα, Pparγ and Creb1 were also observed. Furthermore, guarana repressed mmu-miR-27b-3p, mmu-miR-34b-5p and mmu-miR-760-5p, that contributed for up-regulation of their molecular targets Wnt3a, Wnt1 and Wnt10b. Additionally, cells treated with guarana presented an increase on β-catenin nuclear translocation (p < 0.0018). In summary, our data indicate that guarana has an anti-adipogenic potential due to its ability to modulate miRNAs and genes related to this process. Together our data demonstrate the important role of guarana as a putative therapeutic agent. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Toxic AGE (TAGE) Theory for the Pathophysiology of the Onset/Progression of NAFLD and ALD
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060634
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2093 | PDF Full-text (1134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA), while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA) in the liver. GA and AA are known to react non-enzymatically with the ε- or α-amino groups of proteins, thereby generating advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, GA-AGEs, and AA-AGEs, respectively) in vivo. The interaction between GA-AGEs and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) alters intracellular signaling, gene expression, and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules and also elicits the production of reactive oxygen species by human hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, all of which may contribute to the pathological changes associated with chronic liver diseases. We herein discuss the pathophysiological roles of GA-AGEs and AA-AGEs (toxic AGEs, TAGE) and a related novel theory for preventing the onset/progression of NAFLD and ALD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060633
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2710 | PDF Full-text (2039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect [...] Read more.
Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PREVIEW: Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and around the World. Design, Methods, and Baseline Participant Description of an Adult Cohort Enrolled into a Three-Year Randomised Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060632
Received: 14 May 2017 / Revised: 4 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3262 | PDF Full-text (927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. [...] Read more.
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI) vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand). Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6) years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
An Increased Dietary Supply of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Early Weaning in Rodents Prevents Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060631
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1502 | PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid) metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and [...] Read more.
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid) metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD). Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA) or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN) day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat) until PN day 98. Body composition was monitored by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). In rats, glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT); in mice, the HOmeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. At autopsy on PN day 98, plasma lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured; organs and fat pads were collected and the adipocyte size distribution was analysed. Milk analysis in mice showed that the maternal MCT diet was not translated into milk, and pups were thus only exposed to high MCT levels from early weaning onward: PN day 16 until 42. Mice exposed to MCT showed 28% less fat accumulation vs. CTRL during WSD. The average adipocyte cell size, fasting plasma triglycerides (TG), and leptin levels were reduced in MCT mice. In rats, no effects were found on the adult body composition, but the adipocyte cell size distribution shifted towards smaller adipocytes. Particularly mice showed positive effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increased MCFA intake early-in-life protected against the detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Consumption of Dairy Products Is Associated with Reduced Risks of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women but not in Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060630
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1506 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. Data from 13,692 Korean adults aged ≥19 years from the KNHANES 2010–2013 were used. The study participants were divided into three [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. Data from 13,692 Korean adults aged ≥19 years from the KNHANES 2010–2013 were used. The study participants were divided into three groups according to the serving size of dairy products they consumed based on a single 24-h recall. About 58% of the Korean adults did not consume any dairy products in one day. In both the sexes, only those who adhered to the recommendation for dairy products (≥1 serving/day) achieved the daily requirement of calcium. Women who consumed ≥1 serving/day of dairy products had lower risks of obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66–0.89; p for trend < 0.01) and MetS (AOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56–0.80; p for trend < 0.01) than women who did not consume dairy products. However, these significant associations were not observed in men. In conclusion, consuming ≥ 1 serving/day of dairy products could be an easy and efficient strategy for meeting daily calcium requirement as well as lowering risks of obesity and MetS among Korean women. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bioavailability of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Added to a Variety of Sausages in Healthy Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060629
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1621 | PDF Full-text (1575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes) is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and [...] Read more.
A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes) is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index <5%. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a variety of sausages enriched with approximately 250 mg EPA and DHA per 80 g (n = 22) daily for 8 weeks, or matching placebo sausages (n = 22). All sausages contained approximately 250 mg ALA/80 g. In the verum group, the mean Omega-3 Index increased from 4.18 ± 0.54 to 5.72 ± 0.66% (p < 0.001), while it remained unchanged in the placebo group. While ALA levels increased only in the placebo group, DPA levels increased in both groups. Inter-individual variability in the response was large. The mean increase of the Omega-3 Index per intake of EPA and DHA we observed was higher than for other sources previously studied, indicating superior bioavailability. As increasing production of EPA and DHA is difficult, improvements of bioavailability can facilitate reaching the target range for the Omega-3 Index (8–11%). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Warnings and Moderate Drinking Patterns among Italian University Students: An Exploratory Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060628
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1463 | PDF Full-text (1264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The introduction of health warnings on labels to correct externalities associated with alcohol consumption is heavily debated and has been explored from different perspectives. The current paper aims to analyse the interest and attitudes of Italian university students regarding health warnings on alcoholic [...] Read more.
The introduction of health warnings on labels to correct externalities associated with alcohol consumption is heavily debated and has been explored from different perspectives. The current paper aims to analyse the interest and attitudes of Italian university students regarding health warnings on alcoholic beverages and to verify the existence of segments that differ in terms of attitudes towards such warnings. Our results show that young consumers consider health warnings quite important, although the degree of perceived utility differs in relation to the type of warning. Cluster analysis shows the existence of three groups of young consumers with different degrees of attention and perceived utility of warnings on alcoholic beverages, but also in relation to drinking behaviour and awareness of social and health risks related to alcohol consumption. In brief, Italian young adults with moderate consumption behaviour view label warnings positively, while this attitude is weaker among younger adults and those with riskier consumption behaviours. Our findings, albeit limited and based on stated and not revealed data, support the need for appropriate tools to improve the availability of information among young adults on the risks of excessive alcohol consumption and increased awareness of the importance of moderate drinking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060627
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1894 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study [...] Read more.
Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany) nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day) was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day) (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016). Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006). Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement of CD36 in Modulating the Decrease of NPY and AgRP Induced by Acute Palmitic Acid Stimulation in N1E-115 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060626
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Central nervous system (CNS) fatty acid sensing plays an important role in the regulation of food intake, and palmitic acid (PA) is the most important long chain fatty acid (LCFA) in the mammalian diet. To explore the effect of PA on central neuropeptide [...] Read more.
Central nervous system (CNS) fatty acid sensing plays an important role in the regulation of food intake, and palmitic acid (PA) is the most important long chain fatty acid (LCFA) in the mammalian diet. To explore the effect of PA on central neuropeptide expression and the role of the cluster of the differentiation of 36 (CD36) in the process, N1E-115 cells were cultured with PA in the presence or absence of sulfosuccinimidyl-oleate (SSO), a CD36 inhibitor. Results showed that 10 μmol/L PA significantly reduced NPY and AgRP mRNA expression after 20 min of exposure, while the expression of CD36 was upregulated. The presence of SSO significantly attenuated the decrease of NPY and AgRP expression that was induced by PA alone, although no notable effect on PA- induced CD36 gene expression was observed. In conclusion, our study suggests the involvement of CD36 in the PA-induced decrease of NPY and AgRP in N1E-115 cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Role of Nigella sativa and Its Constituent Thymoquinone on Chemotherapy-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Evidences from Experimental Animal Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060625
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1666 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Most chemotherapeutic drugs are known to cause nephrotoxicity. Therefore, new strategies have been considered to prevent chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. It is of note that Nigella sativa (NS), or its isolated compound Thymoquinone (TQ), has a potential role in combating chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. AIM: To [...] Read more.
Background: Most chemotherapeutic drugs are known to cause nephrotoxicity. Therefore, new strategies have been considered to prevent chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. It is of note that Nigella sativa (NS), or its isolated compound Thymoquinone (TQ), has a potential role in combating chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. AIM: To analyze and report the outcome of experimental animal studies on the protective effects of NS/TQ on chemotherapy-associated kidney complications. Design: Standard systematic review and narrative synthesis. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE databases were searched for relevant articles published up to March 2017. Additionally, a manual search was performed. Criteria for a study’s inclusion were: conducted in animals, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, containing data on nephroprotective effects of NS/TQ compared to a placebo or other substance. All strains and genders were included. Results: The database search yielded 71 studies, of which 12 (cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity 8; methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity 1; doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity 2; ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity 1) were included in this review. Conclusions: Experimental animal studies showed the protective effect of NS, or TQ, on chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. These effects are caused by decreasing lipid peroxidation and increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissue of chemotherapy-treated animals. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Zinc in Infection and Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060624
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated [...] Read more.
Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on IGF-1 and Calcitriol: A Randomized-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060623
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1480 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests a possible interaction between vitamin D and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We aimed to investigate effects of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 (primary outcome) and calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations (secondary outcome). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence suggests a possible interaction between vitamin D and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We aimed to investigate effects of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 (primary outcome) and calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations (secondary outcome). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial—a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) conducted from 2011 to 2014 at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Two-hundred subjects with arterial hypertension and 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/mL were randomized to either receive 2800 IU of vitamin D daily or placebo for eight weeks. A total of 175 participants (mean ± standard deviation age, 60 ± 11 years; 49% women) with available IGF-1 concentrations were included in the present analysis. At baseline, IGF-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with 1,25(OH)2D (r = 0.21; p = 0.005) but not with 25(OH)D (r = −0.008; p = 0.91). In the RCT, vitamin D had no significant effect on IGF-1 (mean treatment effect 3.1; 95% confidence interval −5.6 to 11.9 ng/mL; p = 0.48), but it increased 1,25(OH)2D concentrations (mean treatment effect 9.2; 95% confidence interval 4.4 to 13.9 pg/mL; p ≤ 0.001). In this RCT, in hypertensive patients with low 25(OH)D concentrations, there was no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 concentrations. However, we observed a cross-sectional correlation between 1,25(OH)2D and IGF-1 and an increase of 1,25(OH)2D after vitamin D supplementation. Full article
Open AccessReview
Dietary Management of Skin Health: The Role of Genistein
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060622
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
In women, aging and declining estrogen levels are associated with several cutaneous changes, many of which can be reversed or improved by estrogen supplementation. Two estrogen receptors—α and β—have been cloned and found in various tissue types. Epidermal thinning, declining dermal collagen content, [...] Read more.
In women, aging and declining estrogen levels are associated with several cutaneous changes, many of which can be reversed or improved by estrogen supplementation. Two estrogen receptors—α and β—have been cloned and found in various tissue types. Epidermal thinning, declining dermal collagen content, diminished skin moisture, decreased laxity, and impaired wound healing have been reported in postmenopausal women. Experimental and clinical studies in postmenopausal conditions indicate that estrogen deprivation is associated with dryness, atrophy, fine wrinkling, and poor wound healing. The isoflavone genistein binds to estrogen receptor β and has been reported to improve skin changes. This review article will focus on the effects of genistein on skin health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Dexamethasone Exposure Down-Regulates Hepatic TFR1 and Reduces Liver Iron Concentration in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060617
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Exposure to stress is known to cause hepatic iron dysregulation, but the relationship between prolonged stress and liver iron metabolism is not yet fully understood. Thirty 13-week-old female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, as follows: the control group (saline-injection) and [...] Read more.
Exposure to stress is known to cause hepatic iron dysregulation, but the relationship between prolonged stress and liver iron metabolism is not yet fully understood. Thirty 13-week-old female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, as follows: the control group (saline-injection) and the dexamethasone group (Dexamethasone (Dex)-injection 0.1 mg/kg/day). After the 21-day stress trial, the results showed that chronic Dex administration not only impaired serum corticosterone (p = 0.00) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p = 0.01) levels, but also decreased white blood cell counts (p = 0.00), and reduced blood lymphocyte counts (p = 0.00). The daily Dex-injection also significantly reduced body weight (p < 0.01) by inhibiting food intake. Consecutive Dex administration resulted in decreased iron intake (p = 0.00), enhanced serum iron levels (p = 0.01), and increased the serum souble transferrin receptor (sTfR) content (p = 0.00) in rats. Meanwhile, long-term Dex exposure down-regulated duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB) (p = 0.00) and the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) (p = 0.04) protein expression, but up-regulated ferroportin (FPN) protein expression (p = 0.04). Chronic Dex administration reduced liver iron concentration (p = 0.02) in rats. Hepatic transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) expression was lowered at the protein level (p = 0.03), yet with uncoupled mRNA abundance in Dex-treated rats. Enhanced iron-regulatory protein (IRP)/iron-responsive element (IRE) binding activity was observed, but did not line up with lowered hepatic TFR1 protein expression. This study indicates that long-term Dex exposure reduces liver iron content, which is closely associated with down-regulated hepatic TFR1 protein expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Emerging Disparities in Dietary Sodium Intake from Snacking in the US Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060610
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. Objective: To examine [...] Read more.
Background: The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. Objective: To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. Methods: We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2–18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014. Overall, patterns of snack food consumption, trends in sodium intake from snack food sources and trends in food and beverage sources of sodium from snack foods across race-ethnic, age, gender, body mass index, household education and income groups were examined. Results: In all socio-demographic subgroups there was a significant increase in both per capita sodium intake, and the proportion of sodium intake derived from snacks from 1977–1978 to 2011–2014 (p < 0.01). Those with the lowest household education, Non-Hispanic Black race-ethnicity, and the lowest income had the largest increase in sodium intake from snacks. While in 1977–1978 Non-Hispanic Blacks had a lower sodium intake from snacks compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (p < 0.01), in 2011–2014 they had a significantly higher intake. Conclusions: Important disparities are emerging in dietary sodium intake from snack sources in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Our findings have implications for future policy interventions targeting specific US population subgroups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lipid Accumulation in HepG2 Cells Is Attenuated by Strawberry Extract through AMPK Activation
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060621
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on [...] Read more.
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on lipid metabolism by modulating several downstream-signaling components. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of a methanolic strawberry extract on AMPK and its possible repercussion on lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). For such purpose, the lipid profile and the expression of proteins metabolically related to AMPK were determined on cells lysates. The results demonstrated that strawberry methanolic extract decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (up to 0.50-, 0.30-, and 0.40-fold, respectively) while it stimulated the p-AMPK/AMPK expression (up to 3.06-fold), compared to the control. AMPK stimulation led to the phosphorylation and consequent inactivation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the major regulators of fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Strawberry treatment also entailed a 4.34-, 2.37-, and 2.47-fold overexpression of LDL receptor, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), respectively, compared to control. The observed results were counteracted by treatment with compound C, an AMPK pharmacological inhibitor, confirming that multiple effects of strawberries on lipid metabolism are mediated by the activation of this protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Virtual Touch Quantification in Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse for Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss in Chronic Liver Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060620
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Background and aims: We sought to clarify the relationship between virtual touch quantification (VTQ) in acoustic radiation force impulse and skeletal muscle mass as assessed by bio-electronic impedance analysis in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs, n = 468, 222 males and 246 [...] Read more.
Background and aims: We sought to clarify the relationship between virtual touch quantification (VTQ) in acoustic radiation force impulse and skeletal muscle mass as assessed by bio-electronic impedance analysis in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs, n = 468, 222 males and 246 females, median age = 62 years). Patients and methods: Decreased skeletal muscle index (D-SMI) was defined as skeletal muscle index (SMI) <7.0 kg/m2 for males and as SMI <5.7 kg/m2 for females, according to the recommendations in current Japanese guidelines. We examined the correlation between SMI and VTQ levels and investigated factors linked to D-SMI in the univariate and multivariate analyses. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) for the presence of D-SMI was also calculated. Results: In patients with D-SMI, the median VTQ level was 1.64 meters/second (m/s) (range, 0.93–4.32 m/s), while in patients without D-SMI, the median VTQ level was 1.11 m/s (range, 0.67–4.09 m/s) (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, higher VTQ was found to be an independent predictor linked to the presence of D-SMI (p < 0.0001). In receiver operating characteristic analysis, body mass index had the highest AUROC (0.805), followed by age (0.721) and VTQ (0.706). Conclusion: VTQ levels can be useful for predicting D-SMI in patients with CLDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060619
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group (n = [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group (n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Rachel Brown and Sheila Skeaff. Nutrition Society of New Zealand Annual Conference Held in Christchurch, New Zealand, 8–9 December 2016. Nutrients 2017, 9, 348
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060618
Received: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
We would like to submit the following as a correction to our recently published Special Issue on the annual conference and scientific meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand, 2016 [1]. [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle
Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for Osteoporosis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060616
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1670 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cause-effect relationship between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and osteoporosis has not been established in the general population. Thus, the current longitudinal study determined the role of IDA as a risk factor for osteoporosis by analyzing a large nationwide population-based sample. In a [...] Read more.
The cause-effect relationship between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and osteoporosis has not been established in the general population. Thus, the current longitudinal study determined the role of IDA as a risk factor for osteoporosis by analyzing a large nationwide population-based sample. In a sample of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals from the 1998–2012. Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, patients with IDA (case group (n = 35,751)) and individuals without IDA (control group (n = 178,755)) were compared. Patients who were <20 years of age and who had pre-existing osteoporosis prior to the diagnosis of IDA were excluded. Each patient with IDA was age- and gender-matched to five individuals without IDA. The diagnoses of IDA and osteoporosis (coded using ICD-9CM) were further confirmed with blood test results and X-ray bone densitometry to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses. Osteoporosis occurred more often among patients with IDA compared to individuals without IDA (2.27% vs. 1.32%, p < 0.001). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that the risk for osteoporosis was significantly higher in the case than the control group (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.61–1.88) and remained similar after adjustment for covariates (adjusted HR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.67–1.97). Compared with individuals without IDA, the risk for osteoporosis was even higher for patients with IDA who received intravenous ferrum therapy (adjusted HR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.85–2.63). In contrast, the risk for osteoporosis was reduced for patients with IDA who received a blood transfusion (adjusted HR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.20–1.80). As a predictor, prior IDA is a significant and independent risk factor for development of osteoporosis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microbiota and Probiotics in Health and HIV Infection
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060615
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2576 | PDF Full-text (617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration [...] Read more.
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. In patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including those who control their disease with antiretroviral drugs (ART), the gut microbiome is very different than the microbiome of those not infected with HIV. Recent data suggests that, for these patients, dysbiosis may lead to a breakdown in the gut’s immunologic activity, causing systemic bacteria diffusion and inflammation. Since in HIV-infected patients in this state, including those in ART therapy, the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders is frustrating, many studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition, and microbial translocation. This mini-review analyzed the use of probiotics to prevent and attenuate several gastrointestinal manifestations and to improve gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) immunity in HIV infection. Full article
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Intake of Marine-Derived Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients; Nutrients 2017, 9, 363
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060614
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Due to a mistake during the production process, there was a spelling error in one of the author names in the original published version [1]. [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle
Perceived Health and Nutrition Concerns as Predictors of Dietary Patterns among Polish Females Aged 13–21 Years (GEBaHealth Project)
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060613
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1206 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Health-related concerns can often be factors influencing health-related behaviours. It remains unclear whether a high level of concerns is associated with pro-healthy or unhealthy dietary behaviours and whether any associations between nutrition-related concerns and dietary behaviours exist in a population of girls and [...] Read more.
Health-related concerns can often be factors influencing health-related behaviours. It remains unclear whether a high level of concerns is associated with pro-healthy or unhealthy dietary behaviours and whether any associations between nutrition-related concerns and dietary behaviours exist in a population of girls and young women. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between perceived health and nutrition concerns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish young females. Data was collected in 2012 through a cross-sectional quantitative survey within the GEBaHealth (Girls Eating Behaviours and Health) project in a group of 1107 Polish girls aged 13–21 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Nutrition and health concerns were assessed separately by two indices: Health Concern Index (HCI) and Nutrition Concern Index (NCI); both based on the Health Concern Scale (HCS). The associations between perceived health and nutrition concerns and each dietary pattern were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Displaying a higher level of health concerns increased the chances of adherence to the upper tertile of ‘Fruit & vegetables’ pattern (adjusted odds ratio [adj. ORs]: 1.46, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.02–2.10). Displaying a lower level of health concerns increased the chances of the adherence to the upper tertiles of ‘Traditional Polish’, ‘Dairy & fats’, ‘Fruit and vegetables’ and ‘Fast food & sweets’ patterns (adj. ORs: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.31–2.67; 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18–2.34; 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11–2.22; 1.52, 95% CI: 1.08–2.13; respectively). No significant associations were found between levels of nutrition concerns and dietary patterns in the adjusted model. We found associations between self-perceived health concerns and dietary patterns in our study sample, suggesting health concerns can be an important predictor of dietary behaviours in girls and young women. To increase the effectiveness of healthy eating, an emphasis should be laid on health, reinforced with awareness of nutrition, when advising on food-related decisions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Know Your Noodles! Assessing Variations in Sodium Content of Instant Noodles across Countries
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060612
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Reducing salt intake is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Ultra-processed foods contribute ~80% of dietary salt in high income countries, and are becoming prominent in low-middle income countries. Instant noodle consumption is particularly high [...] Read more.
Reducing salt intake is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Ultra-processed foods contribute ~80% of dietary salt in high income countries, and are becoming prominent in low-middle income countries. Instant noodle consumption is particularly high in the Asia Pacific region. The aim of this study was to compare the sodium content of instant noodles sold worldwide to identify potential for reformulation. Analysis was undertaken for 765 instant noodle products from 10 countries using packaged food composition databases of ultra-processed foods compiled by the Global Food Monitoring Group (GFMG) and national shop survey data. Sodium levels were high and variable, within and between countries. Instant noodles in China had the highest mean sodium content (1944 mg/100 g; range: 397–3678/100 g) compared to New Zealand (798 mg/100 g; range: 249–2380 mg/100 g). Average pack size ranged from 57 g (Costa Rica) to 98 g (China). The average packet contributed 35% to 95% of the World Health Organization recommended daily salt intake of <5 g. Forty percent of products met the Pacific Island (PICs) regional sodium targets, 37% met the South Africa 2016 targets, and 72% met the UK 2017 targets. This study emphasises a need for stronger regulation and closer monitoring to drive rigorous reformulation of salt in ultra-processed foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Long-Term Consumption of Oats in Celiac Disease Patients Is Safe: A Large Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060611
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) can be diversified by non-contaminated oats, but there is a shortage of long-term studies concerning its safety. We compared long-term treatment outcomes and factors associated with the introduction of oats between celiac patients on a GFD with or [...] Read more.
A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) can be diversified by non-contaminated oats, but there is a shortage of long-term studies concerning its safety. We compared long-term treatment outcomes and factors associated with the introduction of oats between celiac patients on a GFD with or without oats. Eight hundred sixty-nine previously diagnosed celiac patients were interviewed. The validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires were used to assess symptoms and quality of life, serological tests were performed, and results of histology were confirmed from patient records. We found the median duration of GFD to be 10 years and 82% using oats. Factors predicting the consumption of oats were diagnosis after the year 2000, advice from a dietitian, detection by screening, and mild clinical presentation. Oat consumers and non-consumers did not differ in dietary adherence (96.5% vs. 97.4%, p = 0.746), the prevalence of symptoms (22.9% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.931), positivity for endomysial antibodies (8.8% vs. 6.0%, p = 0.237), histological recovery after one year (63.1% vs. 60.0%, p = 0.773), malignancy (4.8% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.420), osteoporosis/osteopenia (9.2% vs. 11.0%, p = 0.489), or fractures (26.9% vs. 27.9%, p = 0.791). The oat consumers had better SF-36 physical role limitations and general health scores. Based on our results, the long-term consumption of oats in celiac disease patients is safe and may improve quality of life. Full article
Open AccessReview
Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060609
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses [...] Read more.
Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses on protein hydrolysates as potential promoters of iron absorption. The ability of protein hydrolysates to chelate iron is thought to be a key attribute for the promotion of iron absorption. Iron-chelatable protein hydrolysates are categorized by their absorption forms: amino acids, di- and tri-peptides and polypeptides. Their structural characteristics, including their size and amino acid sequence, as well as the presence of special amino acids, influence their iron chelation abilities and bioavailabilities. Protein hydrolysates promote iron absorption by keeping iron soluble, reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron, and promoting transport across cell membranes into the gut. We also discuss the use and relative merits of protein hydrolysates as iron supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
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