Special Issue "Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Peter Pribis E-Mail
College of Education, Department of Individual, Family & Community Education, Nutrition & Dietetics Program, University of New Mexico, 157 Hokona Zuni MSC05, 3042, Albuquerque, NM 87131-001, USA
Phone: 505 277 9612
Fax: 505 277 6381
Interests: mega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition; vegetarian nutrition; lifestyles medicine; prevention and intervention of obesity; lifestyle treatment of type-2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, effect of tree nuts on mood and cognition, plant based nutrition
Guest Editor
Dr. Hana Kahleova Website E-Mail
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, 5100 Wisconsin Ave, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20016, USA
Interests: diabetes, metabolism, plant-based nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are experiencing a worldwide epidemic of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health problem. Approximately seven million people develop diabetes in both developed and developing countries every year, with the most dramatic increases occurring in Type 2 Diabetes.  Especially alarming is the rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in obese children before puberty. However, clinical research has clearly demonstrated that the prevention and reversal of diabetes is achievable, economical, powerful, and confirmed.

In this Special Issue we welcome original research and literature reviews regarding the impact of nutrition and diet factors on the development, treatment, prevention, and reversal of Type 2 Diabetes. The focus of the research should be on whole foods, broad dietary and lifestyle strategies, dietary patterns, intensive personalized treatments, nutritional prevention programs, and food policies that can be used to delay or prevent Type 2 Diabetes.

Dr. Peter Pribis
Dr. Hana Kahleova
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Nutrition
  • Diet factors
  • Prevention
  • Reversal
  • Lifestyle treatment
  • Glycemic load
  • Dietary patterns

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Butyrate Reduces HFD-Induced Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Metabolic Risk Factors in Obese LDLr-/-.Leiden Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070714 - 07 Jul 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Adipose tissue (AT) has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue (AT) has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver function, and to increase the risk of T2DM. In this study, we examined the impact of intervention with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate following a high-fat diet (HFD) on AT function and other metabolic risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM in mice during mid- and late life. In both mid- and late adulthood, butyrate reduced HFD-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and elevations in leptin levels, which were associated with body weight, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels. HFD feeding stimulated macrophage accumulation primarily in epididymal AT in both mid- and late life adult mice, which correlated with liver inflammation in late adulthood. In late-adult mice, butyrate diminished increased insulin levels, which were related to adipocyte size and macrophage content in epididymal AT. These results suggest that dietary butyrate supplementation is able to counteract HFD-induced detrimental changes in AT function and metabolic outcomes in late life. These changes underlie the obesity-induced elevated risk of T2DM, and therefore it is suggested that butyrate has potential to attenuate risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Assessment of Pharmacological and Nutritional Cardiovascular Risk Management: Blood Pressure Control in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente (DIALECT)
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070709 - 06 Jul 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Cardiovascular risk management is an integral part of treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and requires pharmacological as well as nutritional management. We hypothesize that a systematic assessment of both pharmacological and nutritional management can identify targets for the improvement of treatment [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular risk management is an integral part of treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and requires pharmacological as well as nutritional management. We hypothesize that a systematic assessment of both pharmacological and nutritional management can identify targets for the improvement of treatment quality. Therefore, we analysed blood pressure (BP) management in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente (DIALECT). DIALECT is an observational cohort from routine diabetes care, performed at the ZGT Hospital (Almelo and Hengelo, The Netherlands). BP was measured for 15 minutes with one minute intervals. Sodium and potassium intake was derived from 24-hour urinary excretion. We determined the adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological guidelines in patients with BP on target (BP-OT) and BP not on target (BP-NOT). In total, 450 patients were included from August 2009 until January 2016. The mean age was 63 ± 9 years, and the majority was male (58%). In total, 53% had BP-OT. In those with BP-NOT, pharmacological management was suboptimal (zero to two antihypertensive drugs) in 62% of patients, and nutritional guideline adherence was suboptimal in 100% of patients (only 8% had a sodium intake on target, 66% had a potassium intake on target, 3% had a sodium-to-potassium ratio on target, and body mass index was <30 kg/m2 in 35%). These data show pharmacological undertreatment and a low adherence to nutritional guidelines. Uncontrolled BP is common in T2DM, and our data show a window of opportunity for improving BP control, especially in nutritional management. To improve treatment quality, we advocate to incorporate the integrated monitoring of nutritional management in quality improvement cycles in routine care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Glucose and Lipid Dysmetabolism in a Rat Model of Prediabetes Induced by a High-Sucrose Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060638 - 21 Jun 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose [...] Read more.
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)—received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)—received vehicle (water). Body weight, food, and beverage consumption were monitored and glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Serum and liver triglyceride concentrations, as well as the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis were assessed. The insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were also measured in freshly isolated adipocytes. Even in the absence of obesity, this rat model already presented the main features of prediabetes, with fasting normoglycemia but reduced glucose tolerance, postprandial hyperglycemia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, as well as decreased insulin sensitivity (resistance) and hypertriglyceridemia. In addition, impaired hepatic function, including altered gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways, as well as increased expression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase in the liver, were observed, suggesting that liver glucose and lipid dysmetabolism may play a major role at this stage of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
PREVIEW: Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and around the World. Design, Methods, and Baseline Participant Description of an Adult Cohort Enrolled into a Three-Year Randomised Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060632 - 20 Jun 2017
Cited by 15
Abstract
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. [...] Read more.
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI) vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand). Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6) years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060591 - 10 Jun 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55) and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55) were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI) (both N = 253), and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249). Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046) and an increased HSI (p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060573 - 03 Jun 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the [...] Read more.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG) or a placebo (PG) daily. Baseline and 24-week anthropometric and biochemical measurements included glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile; n-3 PUFA intake was calculated in g/day. Results: Waist circumference and blood glucose showed significant reductions in the FOG group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Hb1Ac (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004), leptin (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000) decreased significantly in both groups after 24 weeks (FOG and PG respectively). Serum resistin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p = 0.001), insulin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p < 0.000), and HOMA-IR (FOG p = 0.000 and PG p < 0.000) increased significantly in both groups. FOG had an overall improvement in the lipid profile with a significant decrease in triacylgycerols (p = 0.002) and atherogenic index (p = 0.031); in contrast, the PG group had increased total cholesterol (p < 0.000), non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.000), and atherogenic index (p = 0.017). Conclusions: We found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on waist circumference, glucose, Hb1Ac, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lipid profile, without significant changes in adiponectin, and increases in resistin, insulin, and HOMA-IR in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Leucine Supplementation Differently Modulates Branched-Chain Amino Acid Catabolism, Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Profiles at the Different Stage of Insulin Resistance in Rats on High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060565 - 02 Jun 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The available findings concerning the association between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)—particularly leucine—and insulin resistance are conflicting. BCAAs have been proposed to elicit different or even opposite effects, depending on the prevalence of catabolic and anabolic states. We tested the hypothesis that leucine supplementation [...] Read more.
The available findings concerning the association between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)—particularly leucine—and insulin resistance are conflicting. BCAAs have been proposed to elicit different or even opposite effects, depending on the prevalence of catabolic and anabolic states. We tested the hypothesis that leucine supplementation may exert different effects at different stages of insulin resistance, to provide mechanistic insights into the role of leucine in the progression of insulin resistance. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal chow diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 1.5% leucine, or HFD with a 20% calorie restriction for 24 or 32 weeks. Leucine supplementation led to abnormal catabolism of BCAA and the incompletely oxidized lipid species that contributed to mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle in HFD-fed rats in the early stage of insulin resistance (24 weeks). However, leucine supplementation induced no remarkable alternations in BCAA catabolism, but did enhance mitochondrial biogenesis with a concomitant improvement in lipid oxidation and mitochondrial function during the hyperglycaemia stage (32 weeks). These findings suggest that leucine trigger different effects on metabolic signatures at different stages of insulin resistance, and the overall metabolic status of the organisms should be carefully considered to potentiate the benefits of leucine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Intake of Grape Powder Prevents the Progression of Kidney Disease in Obese Type 2 Diabetic ZSF1 Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040345 - 31 Mar 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Individuals living with metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as diabetes and obesity are at high risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study investigated the beneficial effect of whole grape powder (WGP) diet on MetS-associated CKD. Obese diabetic ZSF1 rats, a kidney disease [...] Read more.
Individuals living with metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as diabetes and obesity are at high risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study investigated the beneficial effect of whole grape powder (WGP) diet on MetS-associated CKD. Obese diabetic ZSF1 rats, a kidney disease model with MetS, were fed WGP (5%, w/w) diet for six months. Kidney disease was determined using blood and urine chemical analyses, and histology. When compared to Vehicle controls, WGP intake did not change the rat bodyweight, but lowered their kidney, liver and spleen weight, which were in parallel with the lower serum glucose and the higher albumin or albumin/globin ratio. More importantly, WGP intake improved the renal function as urination and proteinuria decreased, or it prevented kidney tissue damage in these diabetic rats. The renal protection of WGP diet was associated with up-regulation of antioxidants (Dhcr24, Gstk1, Prdx2, Sod2, Gpx1 and Gpx4) and downregulation of Txnip (for ROS production) in the kidneys. Furthermore, addition of grape extract reduced H2O2-induced cell death of cultured podocytes. In conclusion, daily intake of WGP reduces the progression of kidney disease in obese diabetic rats, suggesting a protective function of antioxidant-rich grape diet against CKD in the setting of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030307 - 20 Mar 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Emerging evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the association between vitamin D and the risk of diabetic retinopathy. We conducted a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Medline, and EMBASE updated in September 2016 with the following keywords: “vitamin D” or “cholecalciferol” or “25-hydroxyvitamin D” or “25(OH)D” in combination with “diabetic retinopathy” or “DR”. Fifteen observational studies involving 17,664 subjects were included. In this meta-analysis, type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of DR (odds ratio (OR) = 2.03, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.07, 3.86), and an obvious decrease of 1.7 ng/mL (95% CI: −2.72, −0.66) in serum vitamin D was demonstrated in the patients with diabetic retinopathy. Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In conclusion, the evidence from this meta-analysis indicates an association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Multifunctional Bread Rich in Beta Glucans and Low in Starch Improves Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030297 - 17 Mar 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Design: Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed ‘functional’ bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100 [...] Read more.
Design: Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed ‘functional’ bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100 g), with a beta glucan/starch ratio of (7.6:100, g/g), in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Clinical and metabolic data from two groups of age-, sex- and glycated hemoglobin-matched diabetic subjects, taking either the functional bread or regular white bread, over a roughly six-month observation period, were retrieved. Results: Bread intake did not change during the trial. The functional bread reduced glycated hemoglobin by ~0.5% (absolute units) vs. pre-treatment values (p = 0.028), and by ~0.6% vs. the control group (p = 0.027). Post-prandial and mean plasma glucose was decreased in the treatment group too. Body weight, blood pressure and plasma lipids did not change. The acceptance of the functional bread was good in the majority of subjects, except for taste. Conclusions: A starch-restricted, fiber-rich functional bread, with an increased beta glucan/starch ratio, improved long term metabolic control, and may be indicated in the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030296 - 17 Mar 2017
Cited by 15
Abstract
Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey [...] Read more.
Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013). Associations were examined in adults aged 20–79 years using linear mixed models. Mean SMCs and percentile distributions for 11 sex-age groups between 3 and 79 years (n = 5561) are reported. SMCs were normally distributed and differences (p < 0.05) among sex and age groups were small. Between 9.5% and 16.6% of adult sex-age groups had a SMC below the lower cut-off of a population-based reference interval (0.75–0.955 mmol·L−1) established in the United States population as part of the NHANES I conducted in 1971–1974. Having diabetes was associated with 0.04 to 0.07 mmol·L−1 lower SMC compared to not having diabetes in the various models. Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, serum glucose and insulin concentrations, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were negatively associated with SMC. This is the first study to report SMCs in a nationally representative sample of the Canadian population. A substantial proportion of Canadians are hypomagnesaemic in relation to a population-based reference interval, and SMC was negatively associated with diabetes and indices of glycemic control and insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal Low-Protein Diet Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Hepatic MicroRNAs Expression in the Early Life of Offspring †
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030205 - 27 Feb 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic [...] Read more.
Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from maternal low-protein diet (LPD) is associated with perturbed miRNAs expression in offspring as early as the weaning age. We examined the metabolic effects on the C57BL/6J mice male offspring at weaning from dams fed with LPD or normal chow diet (NCD) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Maternal LPD feeding impaired metabolic health in offspring. Microarray profiling indicated that mmu-miR-615, mmu-miR-124, mmu-miR-376b, and mmu-let-7e were significantly downregulated, while, mmu-miR-708 and mmu-miR-879 were upregulated in LPD offspring. Bioinformatic analysis showed target genes were mapped to inflammatory-related pathways. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were higher and interleukin 6 (IL-6) had a tendency to be elevated in the LPD group. Finally, both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in the LPD group. Our findings provide novel evidence that maternal LPD can regulate miRNAs expression, which may be associated with chronic inflammation status and metabolic health in offspring as early as the weaning age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010009 - 19 Jan 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis was used to derive nutrient patterns of 2010 participants stratified by urban/rural status and gender. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients, computed from the quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ). Three nutrient patterns per stratum, which accounted for 73% of the variation of the selected nutrients, were identified. Multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education attained, alcohol intake, seasonality and total energy intake were computed. Starch, dietary fibre and B vitamins driven nutrient pattern was significantly associated with fasting glucose (β = −0.236 (−0.458; −0.014); p = 0.037) and glycated haemoglobin levels (β = −0.175 (−0.303; −0.047); p = 0.007) in rural women. Thiamine, zinc and plant protein driven nutrient pattern was associated with significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin and fasting glucose ((β = −0.288 (−0.543; −0.033); p = 0.027) and (β = −0.382 (−0.752; −0.012); p = 0.043), respectively) in rural men. Our results indicate that plant driven nutrient patterns are associated with low fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glucose Homeostasis and the Expression of Genes Related to Glucose Metabolism
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120772 - 13 Dec 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on the expression of genes associated with glucose metabolism in humans, in order to explain the unclear relationship between selenium and the risk of diabetes. For gene expression analysis we [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on the expression of genes associated with glucose metabolism in humans, in order to explain the unclear relationship between selenium and the risk of diabetes. For gene expression analysis we used archival samples of cDNA from 76 non-diabetic subjects supplemented with selenium in the previous study. The supplementation period was six weeks and the daily dose of selenium was 200 µg (as selenium yeast). Blood for mRNA isolation was collected at four time points: before supplementation, after two and four weeks of supplementation, and after four weeks of washout. The analysis included 15 genes encoding selected proteins involved in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. In addition, HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose were measured at three and four time points, respectively. Selenium supplementation was associated with a significantly decreased level of HbA1c but not fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and significant down-regulation of seven genes: INSR, ADIPOR1, LDHA, PDHA, PDHB, MYC, and HIF1AN. These results suggest that selenium may affect glycemic control at different levels of regulation, linked to insulin signaling, glycolysis, and pyruvate metabolism. Further research is needed to investigate mechanisms of such transcriptional regulation and its potential implication in direct metabolic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110739 - 19 Nov 2016
Cited by 23
Abstract
The epidemiological evidence for a dose-response relationship between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is sparse. The aim of the study was to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of T2D and evaluate [...] Read more.
The epidemiological evidence for a dose-response relationship between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is sparse. The aim of the study was to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of T2D and evaluate the dose-response relationship. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that reported dietary magnesium intake and risk of incident T2D. We identified relevant studies by searching major scientific literature databases and grey literature resources from their inception to February 2016. We included cohort studies that provided risk ratios, i.e., relative risks (RRs), odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs), for T2D. Linear dose-response relationships were assessed using random-effects meta-regression. Potential nonlinear associations were evaluated using restricted cubic splines. A total of 25 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies comprised 637,922 individuals including 26,828 with a T2D diagnosis. Compared with the lowest magnesium consumption group in the population, the risk of T2D was reduced by 17% across all the studies; 19% in women and 16% in men. A statistically significant linear dose-response relationship was found between incremental magnesium intake and T2D risk. After adjusting for age and body mass index, the risk of T2D incidence was reduced by 8%–13% for per 100 mg/day increment in dietary magnesium intake. There was no evidence to support a nonlinear dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and T2D risk. The combined data supports a role for magnesium in reducing risk of T2D, with a statistically significant linear dose-response pattern within the reference dose range of dietary intake among Asian and US populations. The evidence from Europe and black people is limited and more prospective studies are needed for the two subgroups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nuts and Dried Fruits: An Update of Their Beneficial Effects on Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070673 - 28 Jun 2017
Cited by 18
Abstract
Nuts and dried fruit are essential foods in the Mediterranean diet. Their frequent consumption has been associated with the prevention and/or the management of such metabolic conditions as type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Several previous reviews of epidemiological studies [...] Read more.
Nuts and dried fruit are essential foods in the Mediterranean diet. Their frequent consumption has been associated with the prevention and/or the management of such metabolic conditions as type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Several previous reviews of epidemiological studies and clinical trials have evaluated the associations of nuts and/or dried fruit with various metabolic disorders. However, no reviews have focused on the mechanisms underlying the role of nuts and/or dried fruit in insulin resistance and T2D. This review aims to report nut and dried-fruit nutritional interventions in animals and humans, and to focus on mechanisms that could play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050517 - 19 May 2017
Cited by 20
Abstract
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, [...] Read more.
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030236 - 05 Mar 2017
Cited by 15
Abstract
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition [...] Read more.
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessBrief Report
“A Vegetarian vs. Conventional Hypocaloric Diet: The Effect on Physical Fitness in Response to Aerobic Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.” A Parallel Randomized Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110671 - 26 Oct 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
It has been shown that it is possible to modify macronutrient oxidation, physical fitness and resting energy expenditure (REE) by changes in diet composition. Furthermore, mitochondrial oxidation can be significantly increased by a diet with a low glycemic index. The purpose of our [...] Read more.
It has been shown that it is possible to modify macronutrient oxidation, physical fitness and resting energy expenditure (REE) by changes in diet composition. Furthermore, mitochondrial oxidation can be significantly increased by a diet with a low glycemic index. The purpose of our trial was to compare the effects of a vegetarian (V) and conventional diet (C) with the same caloric restriction (−500 kcal/day) on physical fitness and REE after 12 weeks of diet plus aerobic exercise in 74 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). An open, parallel, randomized study design was used. All meals were provided for the whole study duration. An individualized exercise program was prescribed to the participants and was conducted under supervision. Physical fitness was measured by spiroergometry and indirect calorimetry was performed at the start and after 12 weeks Repeated-measures ANOVA (Analysis of variance) models with between-subject (group) and within-subject (time) factors and interactions were used for evaluation of the relationships between continuous variables and factors. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) increased by 12% in vegetarian group (V) (F = 13.1, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.171), whereas no significant change was observed in C (F = 0.7, p = 0.667; group × time F = 9.3, p = 0.004, partial η2 = 0.209). Maximal performance (Watt max) increased by 21% in V (F = 8.3, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.192), whereas it did not change in C (F = 1.0, p = 0.334; group × time F = 4.2, p = 0.048, partial η2 = 0.116). Our results indicate that V leads more effectively to improvement in physical fitness than C after aerobic exercise program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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