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Remote Sens., Volume 16, Issue 4 (February-2 2024) – 127 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Storms with huge waves pose threats to the coastal communities of the Great Lake region. Numerical wave models, such as WAVEWATCHIII, are commonly used to predict wave height in the Great Lakes and determine the threats thereof. Thus, the reliability of the wave mode needs to be verified using wave observations, for instance, using buoys. However, buoys are retrieved from the lakes before they are frozen, leaving a gap in the Great Lakes’ winter observations. To fill this data gap, we focused on the ATL13 product of Satellite ICESat-2. We evaluated its data quality by comparing it with buoy wave observations in the Great Lakes. Then, we evaluated the model quality of NOAA's Great Lakes Waves Forecast System version 2.0, by comparing its retrospective forecast simulations for significant wave height with ICESat data and data from an experimentally deployed drifting Spotter buoy. View this paper
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23 pages, 18943 KiB  
Article
An Approach to Large-Scale Cement Plant Detection Using Multisource Remote Sensing Imagery
by Tianzhu Li, Caihong Ma, Yongze Lv, Ruilin Liao, Jin Yang and Jianbo Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040729 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
The cement industry, as one of the primary contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions, accounts for 7% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. There is an urgent need to establish a rapid method for detecting cement plants to facilitate effective monitoring. In this [...] Read more.
The cement industry, as one of the primary contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions, accounts for 7% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. There is an urgent need to establish a rapid method for detecting cement plants to facilitate effective monitoring. In this study, a comprehensive method based on YOLOv5-IEG and the Thermal Signature Detection module using Google Earth optical imagery and SDGSAT-1 thermal infrared imagery was proposed to detect large-scale cement plant information, including geographic location and operational status. The improved algorithm demonstrated an increase of 4.8% in accuracy and a 7.7% improvement in [email protected]:95. In a specific empirical investigation in China, we successfully detected 781 large-scale cement plants with an accuracy of 90.8%. Specifically, of the 55 cement plants in Shandong Province, we identified 46 as operational and nine as non-operational. The successful application of advanced models and remote sensing technology in efficiently and accurately tracking the operational status of cement plants provides crucial support for environmental protection and sustainable development. Full article
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13 pages, 3033 KiB  
Technical Note
Use of Images Obtained by Remotely Piloted Aircraft and Random Forest for the Detection of Leaf Miner (Leucoptera coffeella) in Newly Planted Coffee Trees
by Luana Mendes dos Santos, Gabriel Araújo e Silva Ferraz, Nicole Lopes Bento, Diego Bedin Marin, Giuseppe Rossi, Gianluca Bambi and Leonardo Conti
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040728 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee beans in the world. Given this relevance, it is important to monitor the crop to prevent attacks by pests. This study aimed to detect leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeella) infestation in a newly [...] Read more.
Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee beans in the world. Given this relevance, it is important to monitor the crop to prevent attacks by pests. This study aimed to detect leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeella) infestation in a newly planted crop based on vegetation indices (VI) derived from aerial images obtained by a multispectral camera embedded in a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) using random forest (RF). The study was conducted on the Cafua farm in the municipality of Lavras in southern Minas Gerais. The images were collected using a multispectral camera attached to a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). Collections were carried out on 30 July 2019 (infested crop) and 16 December 2019 (post chemical control). The RF package in R software was used to classify the infested and healthy plants. The t test revealed significant differences in band means between healthy and infested plants, favouring higher means in healthy plants. VI also exhibited significant differences, with EXR being higher in infested plants and GNDVI, GOSAVI, GRRI, MPRI, NDI, NDRE, NDVI and SAVI showing higher averages in healthy plants, indicating distinct spectral responses and light absorption patterns between the two states of the plant. Due to the spectral differences between the classes, it was possible to classify the infested and healthy plants, and the RF algorithm performed very well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Disease Detection Using Remote Sensing Image Analysis II)
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13 pages, 3568 KiB  
Technical Note
Analysis of the Ranging Capability of a Space Debris Laser Ranging System Based on the Maximum Detection Distance Model
by Mingliang Zhang, Guanyu Wen, Cunbo Fan, Bowen Guan, Qingli Song, Chengzhi Liu and Shuang Wang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040727 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Based on the radar equation and system noise characteristics, the maximum detection range model of a space debris laser ranging system at a 1064 nm wavelength is established, taking into account the factors of atmospheric transmission and sky background radiance. Through theoretical analysis [...] Read more.
Based on the radar equation and system noise characteristics, the maximum detection range model of a space debris laser ranging system at a 1064 nm wavelength is established, taking into account the factors of atmospheric transmission and sky background radiance. Through theoretical analysis and simulation experiments, the influencing factors of atmospheric transmission and sky background radiance are studied, and the influencing factors are normalized into the maximum detection range model by polynomial fitting. The results indicate that a high atmospheric transmission comes from a high altitude and low target zenith angle; a low sky background radiance comes from a small target zenith angle and low solar altitude angle, while the angular distance has no obvious influence on the sky background radiance. The experimental results indicate that the comprehensive accuracy of the maximum detection range model of the system is 86%, and the effectiveness of the model is verified by using a 1064 nm wavelength laser ranging for the debris target with a distance of 700–1100 km and a cross section area of 4–10 m2. The model can be used to evaluate the ability of the space debris laser ranging system at a 1064 nm wavelength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space-Geodetic Techniques II)
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20 pages, 11542 KiB  
Article
Detection Method and Application of Nuclear-Shaped Anomaly Areas in Spatial Electric Field Power Spectrum Images
by Xingsu Li, Zhong Li, Jianping Huang, Xuming Yang, Wenjing Li, Yumeng Huo, Junjie Song and Ruiqi Yang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040726 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 465
Abstract
It is found that there are some anomalous high-energy nuclear-shaped regions in the VLF frequency band of the space electric field. To detect and statistically analyze these nuclear-shaped anomaly areas, this paper proposes a nuclear-shaped anomaly area detection method based on the electric [...] Read more.
It is found that there are some anomalous high-energy nuclear-shaped regions in the VLF frequency band of the space electric field. To detect and statistically analyze these nuclear-shaped anomaly areas, this paper proposes a nuclear-shaped anomaly area detection method based on the electric field power spectrum image data of the China Seismo Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES-01). First, the logarithm of VLF frequency band data was calculated and rotated counterclockwise to create power spectrum images and label them to form a sample image dataset; then, images were enhanced (which involved resizing, scaling, rotation, gaussian denoising, etc.) to solve the problems of the model overfitting and sample imbalance. Finally, the U-net network model based on the ResNet50 encoder was trained to obtain the optimal kernel anomaly detection model ResNet50_Unet. Comparative experiments with various semantic segmentation algorithms show that the ResNet50_Unet model has the best performance. Applying this model to detect the electric field power spectrum images from November 2021 to February 2022, a total of 101 nuclear-shaped anomaly areas were found, distributed between 45° and 70° of the north–south latitude. This model can quickly detect nuclear-shaped anomaly regions from massive data, providing reference significance for the detection of other types of ionospheric spatial disturbances. At the same time, it has important scientific significance and practical value for understanding the ionosphere and space communication. Full article
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19 pages, 35735 KiB  
Article
Glacial Lake Changes and Risk Assessment in Rongxer Watershed of China–Nepal Economic Corridor
by Sihui Zhang, Yong Nie and Huayu Zhang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040725 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are one of the most severe disasters in alpine regions, releasing a large amount of water and sediment that can cause fatalities and economic loss as well as substantial damage to downstream infrastructures. The risk of GLOFs in [...] Read more.
Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are one of the most severe disasters in alpine regions, releasing a large amount of water and sediment that can cause fatalities and economic loss as well as substantial damage to downstream infrastructures. The risk of GLOFs in the Himalayas is exacerbated by glacier retreat caused by global warming. Critical economic corridors, such as the Rongxer Watershed, are threatened by GLOFs, but the lack of risk assessment specific to the watershed hinders hazard prevention. In this study, we propose a novel model to evaluate the risk of GLOF using a combination of remote sensing observations, GIS, and hydrological models and apply this model to the GLOF risk assessment in the Rongxer Watershed. The results show that (1) the area of glacial lakes in the Rongxer Watershed increased by 31.19% from 11.35 km2 in 1990 to 14.89 km2 in 2020, and (2) 18 lakes were identified as potentially dangerous glacial lakes (PDGLs) that need to be assessed for the GLOF risk, and two of them were categorized as very high risk (Niangzongmajue and Tsho Rolpa). The proposed model was robust in a GLOF risk evaluation by historical GLOFs in the Himalayas. The glacial lake data and GLOF risk assessment model of this study have the potential to be widely used in research on the relationships between glacial lakes and climate change, as well as in disaster mitigation of GLOFs. Full article
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22 pages, 3618 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Detection and Multi-Object Tracking Pipeline for Satellite Video Analysis of Maritime and Aerial Objects
by Zhijuan Su, Gang Wan, Wenhua Zhang, Ningbo Guo, Yitian Wu, Jia Liu, Dianwei Cong, Yutong Jia and Zhanji Wei
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040724 - 19 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
Optical remote sensing videos, as a new source of remote sensing data that has emerged in recent years, have significant potential in remote sensing applications, especially national defense. In this paper, a tracking pipeline named TDNet (tracking while detecting based on a neural [...] Read more.
Optical remote sensing videos, as a new source of remote sensing data that has emerged in recent years, have significant potential in remote sensing applications, especially national defense. In this paper, a tracking pipeline named TDNet (tracking while detecting based on a neural network) is proposed for optical remote sensing videos based on a correlation filter and deep neural networks. The pipeline is used to simultaneously track ships and planes in videos. There are many target tracking methods for general video data, but they suffer some difficulties in remote sensing videos with low resolution and those influenced by weather conditions. The tracked targets are usually misty. Therefore, in TDNet, we propose a new multi-target tracking method called MT-KCF and a detecting-assisted tracking (i.e., DAT) module to improve tracking accuracy and precision. Meanwhile, we also design a new target recognition (i.e., NTR) module to recognise newly emerged targets. In order to verify the performance of TDNet, we compare our method with several state-of-the-art tracking methods on optical video remote sensing data sets acquired from the Jilin No. 1 satellite. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and the state-of-the-art performance of the proposed method. The proposed method can achieve more than 90% performance in terms of precision for single-target tracking tasks and more than 85% performance in terms of MOTA for multi-object tracking tasks. Full article
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17 pages, 16639 KiB  
Article
A Bidirectional Scoring Strategy-Based Transformation Matrix Estimation of Dynamic Factors in Environmental Sensing
by Bo Wang, Xina Cheng, Jialiang Wang and Licheng Jiao
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040723 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is the technological basis of environmental sensing, and it has been widely applied to autonomous navigation. In combination with deep learning methods, dynamic SLAM algorithms have emerged to provide a certain stability and accuracy in dynamic scenes. However, [...] Read more.
Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is the technological basis of environmental sensing, and it has been widely applied to autonomous navigation. In combination with deep learning methods, dynamic SLAM algorithms have emerged to provide a certain stability and accuracy in dynamic scenes. However, the robustness and accuracy of existing dynamic SLAM algorithms are relatively low in dynamic scenes, and their performance is affected by potential dynamic objects and fast-moving dynamic objects. To solve the positioning interference caused by these dynamic objects, this study proposes a geometric constraint algorithm that utilizes a bidirectional scoring strategy for the estimation of a transformation matrix. First, a geometric constraint function is defined according to the Euclidean distance between corresponding feature points and the average distance of the corresponding edges. This function serves as the basis for determining abnormal scores for feature points. By utilizing these abnormal score values, the system can identify and eliminate highly dynamic feature points. Then, a transformation matrix estimation based on the filtered feature points is adopted to remove more outliers, and a function for evaluating the similarity of key points in two images is optimized during this process. Experiments were performed based on the TUM dynamic target dataset and Bonn RGB-D dynamic dataset, and the results showed that the added dynamic detection method effectively improved the performance compared to state of the art in highly dynamic scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering Remote Sensing)
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17 pages, 6742 KiB  
Article
Research on Methods to Improve Length of Day Precision by Combining with Effective Angular Momentum
by Xishun Li, Xuhai Yang, Renyin Ye, Xuan Cheng and Shougang Zhang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040722 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Due to the high correlation between Effective Angular Momentum (EAM) and Length of Day (LOD) data, and the wide application of LOD prediction, this study proposes to combine EAM data with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) LOD data to obtain a more accurate [...] Read more.
Due to the high correlation between Effective Angular Momentum (EAM) and Length of Day (LOD) data, and the wide application of LOD prediction, this study proposes to combine EAM data with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) LOD data to obtain a more accurate LOD series and attempt to provide a reasonable formal error for the EAM dataset. Firstly, tidal corrections are applied to the LOD data. A first-order difference method is proposed to identify outliers in GNSS LODR (tidal corrected LOD) data, and the EAM data are converted into LODR data using the Liouville equation. Then, the residual term and the fitted term are obtained by least squares fitting. Finally, the fitted residual terms of GNSS LODR and EAM LODR are combined by using the Kalman combination method. In this study, EAM data from the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) (2019–2022), as well as LOD data from Wuhan University (WHU) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), are used for the Kalman combination algorithm experiment. In the Kalman combination, we consider weighted combination based on formal error. However, none of the computing centers provide an uncertainty estimation for the EAM dataset. Therefore, we simulate the combination experiment of LOD and EAM with formal error ranging from 0 to 100 us. The experiment shows that using reasonable formal error for the EAM dataset can improve the accuracy of LOD. Finally, when the formal error of EAM is 2–5 times that of the GNSS LOD formal error, i.e., the EAM formal error is between 10 and 30 us, the accuracy of the combined LOD can be improved by 10–20%. Full article
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20 pages, 12768 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Graph Structure Representation for Unsupervised Heterogeneous Change Detection
by Yuqi Tang, Xin Yang, Te Han, Fangyan Zhang, Bin Zou and Huihui Feng
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040721 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Heterogeneous change detection (CD) is widely applied in various fields such as urban planning, environmental monitoring, and disaster management. It enhances the accuracy and comprehensiveness of surface change monitoring by integrating multi-sensor remote sensing data. Scholars have proposed many graph-based methods to address [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous change detection (CD) is widely applied in various fields such as urban planning, environmental monitoring, and disaster management. It enhances the accuracy and comprehensiveness of surface change monitoring by integrating multi-sensor remote sensing data. Scholars have proposed many graph-based methods to address the issue of incomparable heterogeneous images caused by imaging differences. However, these methods often overlook the influence of changes in vertex status on the graph structure, which limits their ability to represent image structural features. To tackle this problem, this paper presents an unsupervised heterogeneous CD method based on enhanced graph structure representation (EGSR). This method enhances the representation capacity of the graph structure for image structural features by measuring the unchanged probabilities of vertices, thereby making it easier to detect changes in heterogeneous images. Firstly, we construct the graph structure using image superpixels and measure the structural graph differences of heterogeneous images in the same image domain. Then, we calculate the unchanged probability of each vertex in the structural graph and reconstruct the graph structure using this probability. To accurately represent the graph structure, we adopt an iterative framework for enhancing the representation of the graph structure. Finally, at the end of the iteration, the final change map (CM) is obtained by binary segmentation of the graph vertices based on their unchanged probabilities. The effectiveness of this method is validated through experiments on four sets of heterogeneous image datasets and two sets of homogeneous image datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Change Detection Research in Remote Sensing II)
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22 pages, 30157 KiB  
Article
DaliWS: A High-Resolution Dataset with Precise Annotations for Water Segmentation in Synthetic Aperture Radar Images
by Shanshan Zhang, Weibin Li, Rongfang Wang, Chenbin Liang, Xihui Feng and Yanhua Hu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040720 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
The frequent occurrence of global flood disasters leads to millions of people falling into poverty each year, which poses immense pressure on governments and hinders social development. Therefore, providing more data support for flood disaster detection is of paramount importance. To facilitate the [...] Read more.
The frequent occurrence of global flood disasters leads to millions of people falling into poverty each year, which poses immense pressure on governments and hinders social development. Therefore, providing more data support for flood disaster detection is of paramount importance. To facilitate the development of water body detection algorithms, we create the DaliWS dataset for water segmentation, which contains abundant pixel-level annotations, and consists of high spatial resolution SAR images collected from the GaoFen-3 (GF-3) satellite. For comprehensive analysis, extensive experiments are conducted on the DaliWS dataset to explore the performance of the state-of-the-art segmentation models, including FCN, SegNeXt, U-Net, and DeeplabV3+, and investigate the impact of different polarization modes on water segmentation. Additionally, to probe the generalization of our dataset, we further evaluate the models trained with the DaliWS dataset, on publicly available water segmentation datasets. Through detailed analysis of the experimental results, we establish a valuable benchmark and provide usage guidelines for future researchers working with the DaliWS dataset. The experimental results demonstrate the F1 scores of FCN, SegNeXt, U-Net, and DeeplabV3+ on the dual-polarization data of DaliWS dataset reach to 90.361%, 90.192%, 92.110%, and 91.199%, respectively, and these four models trained using the DaliWS dataset exhibit excellent generalization performance on the public dataset, which further confirms the research value of our dataset. Full article
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19 pages, 2894 KiB  
Article
The Retrieval Relationship between Lightning and Maximum Proxy Reflectivity Based on Random Forest
by Junhong Yin, Liqing Tian, Kuo Zhou, Weiguang Zhang and Lingkun Ran
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040719 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Using the SWAN (Severe Weather Automatic Nowcasting) maximum reflectivity mosaic product and the lightning positioning observations (LPOs) from the ADTD (Advanced Direction and Time of Arrival Detection) system obtained during the 2018–2020 warm season (May to September), adding multi-characteristic LPO parameters in addition [...] Read more.
Using the SWAN (Severe Weather Automatic Nowcasting) maximum reflectivity mosaic product and the lightning positioning observations (LPOs) from the ADTD (Advanced Direction and Time of Arrival Detection) system obtained during the 2018–2020 warm season (May to September), adding multi-characteristic LPO parameters in addition to lightning density, the retrieval relationship between lightning and maximum proxy reflectivity, deemed FRST, is constructed by using random forest. The FRST is compared with two empirical relationships from the GSI (Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation) assimilation system, and the results show that the FRST retrieved result better reflects the frequency distribution structure and peak interval of maximum reflectivity. The correlation coefficient between the FRST retrieved result and the observed maximum reflectivity is 0.7037, which is 3.38 (3.12) times greater than that of empirical GSI relationships. The root mean square error and the mean absolute error are 50.85% (28.05%) and 57.15% (35.19%) lower than those for the empirical GSI relationships, respectively. The equitable threat score (ETS) and bias score (BIAS) for FRST are better than those of the empirical GSI relationships in all three maximum reflectivity intervals. Full article
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25 pages, 15166 KiB  
Article
Target Detection Adapting to Spectral Variability in Multi-Temporal Hyperspectral Images Using Implicit Contrastive Learning
by Xiaodian Zhang, Kun Gao, Junwei Wang, Pengyu Wang, Zibo Hu, Zhijia Yang, Xiaobin Zhao and Wei Li
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040718 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Hyperspectral target detection (HTD) is a crucial aspect of remote sensing applications, aiming to identify targets in hyperspectral images (HSIs) based on their known prior spectral signatures. However, the spectral variability resulting from various imaging conditions in multi-temporal hyperspectral images poses a challenge [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral target detection (HTD) is a crucial aspect of remote sensing applications, aiming to identify targets in hyperspectral images (HSIs) based on their known prior spectral signatures. However, the spectral variability resulting from various imaging conditions in multi-temporal hyperspectral images poses a challenge to both classical and deep learning (DL) methods. To overcome the limitations imposed by spectral variability, an implicit contrastive learning-based target detector (ICLTD) is proposed to exploit in-scene spectra in an unsupervised way. First, only prior spectra are utilized for explicit supervision, while an implicit contrastive learning module (ICLM) is designed to normalize the feature distributions of prior and in-scene spectra. This paper theoretically demonstrates that the ICLM can transfer the gradients from prior spectral features to those of in-scene spectra based on their feature similarities and differences. Because of transferred gradient signals, the ICLTD is regularized to extract similar representations for the prior and in-scene target spectra, while augmenting feature differences between the target and background spectra. Additionally, a local spectral similarity constraint (LSSC) is proposed to enhance the capability of scene adaptation by leveraging the spectral similarities among in-scene targets. To validate the performance of the ICLTD under spectral variability, multi-temporal HSIs captured under various imaging conditions are collected to generate prior spectra and in-scene spectra. Comparative evaluations against several DL detectors and classical methods reveal the superior performance of the ICLTD in achieving a balance between target detectability and background suppressibility under spectral variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section AI Remote Sensing)
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41 pages, 14531 KiB  
Article
A Novel Fully Convolutional Auto-Encoder Based on Dual Clustering and Latent Feature Adversarial Consistency for Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection
by Rui Zhao, Zhiwei Yang, Xiangchao Meng and Feng Shao
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040717 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 750
Abstract
With the development of artificial intelligence, the ability to capture the background characteristics of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) has improved, showing promising performance in hyperspectral anomaly detection (HAD) tasks. However, existing methods proposed in recent years still suffer from certain limitations: (1) Constraints are [...] Read more.
With the development of artificial intelligence, the ability to capture the background characteristics of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) has improved, showing promising performance in hyperspectral anomaly detection (HAD) tasks. However, existing methods proposed in recent years still suffer from certain limitations: (1) Constraints are lacking in the deep feature learning process in terms of the issue of the absence of prior background and anomaly information. (2) Hyperspectral anomaly detectors with traditional self-supervised deep learning methods fail to ensure prioritized reconstruction of the background. (3) The architecture of fully connected deep networks in hyperspectral anomaly detectors leads to low utilization of spatial information and the destruction of the original spatial relationship in hyperspectral imagery and disregards the spectral correlation between adjacent pixels. (4) Hypotheses or assumptions for background and anomaly distributions restrict the performance of many hyperspectral anomaly detectors because the distributions of background land covers are usually complex and not assumable in real-world hyperspectral imagery. In consideration of the above problems, in this paper, we propose a novel fully convolutional auto-encoder based on dual clustering and latent feature adversarial consistency (FCAE-DCAC) for HAD, which is carried out with self-supervised learning-based processing. Firstly, density-based spatial clustering of applications with a noise algorithm and connected component analysis are utilized for successive spectral and spatial clustering to obtain more precise prior background and anomaly information, which facilitates the separation between background and anomaly samples during the training of our method. Subsequently, a novel fully convolutional auto-encoder (FCAE) integrated with a spatial–spectral joint attention (SSJA) mechanism is proposed to enhance the utilization of spatial information and augment feature expression. In addition, a latent feature adversarial consistency network with the ability to learn actual background distribution in hyperspectral imagery is proposed to achieve pure background reconstruction. Finally, a triplet loss is introduced to enhance the separability between background and anomaly, and the reconstruction residual serves as the anomaly detection result. We evaluate the proposed method based on seven groups of real-world hyperspectral datasets, and the experimental results confirm the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed method versus nine state-of-the-art methods. Full article
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19 pages, 5776 KiB  
Article
Lightweight Multilevel Feature-Fusion Network for Built-Up Area Mapping from Gaofen-2 Satellite Images
by Yixiang Chen, Feifei Peng, Shuai Yao and Yuxin Xie
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040716 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 570
Abstract
The timely, accurate acquisition of geographic spatial information such as the location, scope, and distribution of built-up areas is of great importance for urban planning, management, and decision-making. Due to the diversity of target features and the complexity of spatial layouts, the large-scale [...] Read more.
The timely, accurate acquisition of geographic spatial information such as the location, scope, and distribution of built-up areas is of great importance for urban planning, management, and decision-making. Due to the diversity of target features and the complexity of spatial layouts, the large-scale mapping of urban built-up areas using high-resolution (HR) satellite imagery still faces considerable challenges. To address this issue, this study adopted a block-based processing strategy and constructed a lightweight multilevel feature-fusion (FF) convolutional neural network for the feature representation and discrimination of built-up areas in HR images. The proposed network consists of three feature extraction modules composed of lightweight convolutions to extract features at different levels, which are further fused sequentially through two attention-based FF modules. Furthermore, to improve the problem of incorrect discrimination and severe jagged boundaries caused by block-based processing, a majority voting method based on a grid offset is adopted to achieve a refined extraction of built-up areas. The effectiveness of this method is evaluated using Gaofen-2 satellite image data covering Shenzhen, China. Compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting built-up areas, the proposed method achieves a higher detection accuracy and preserves better shape integrity and boundary smoothness in the extracted results. Full article
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32 pages, 9326 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning Approach to Improve Spatial Resolution of GOES-17 Wildfire Boundaries Using VIIRS Satellite Data
by Mukul Badhan, Kasra Shamsaei, Hamed Ebrahimian, George Bebis, Neil P. Lareau and Eric Rowell
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040715 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
The rising severity and frequency of wildfires in recent years in the United States have raised numerous concerns regarding the improvement in wildfire emergency response management and decision-making systems, which require operational high temporal and spatial resolution monitoring capabilities. Satellites are one of [...] Read more.
The rising severity and frequency of wildfires in recent years in the United States have raised numerous concerns regarding the improvement in wildfire emergency response management and decision-making systems, which require operational high temporal and spatial resolution monitoring capabilities. Satellites are one of the tools that can be used for wildfire monitoring. However, none of the currently available satellite systems provide both high temporal and spatial resolution. For example, GOES-17 geostationary satellite fire products have high temporal (1–5 min) but low spatial resolution (≥2 km), and VIIRS polar orbiter satellite fire products have low temporal (~12 h) but high spatial resolution (375 m). This work aims to leverage currently available satellite data sources, such as GOES and VIIRS, along with deep learning (DL) advances to achieve an operational high-resolution, both spatially and temporarily, wildfire monitoring tool. Specifically, this study considers the problem of increasing the spatial resolution of high temporal but low spatial resolution GOES-17 data products using low temporal but high spatial resolution VIIRS data products. The main idea is using an Autoencoder DL model to learn how to map GOES-17 geostationary low spatial resolution satellite images to VIIRS polar orbiter high spatial resolution satellite images. In this context, several loss functions and DL architectures are implemented and tested to predict both the fire area and the corresponding brightness temperature. These models are trained and tested on wildfire sites from 2019 to 2021 in the western U.S. The results indicate that DL models can improve the spatial resolution of GOES-17 images, leading to images that mimic the spatial resolution of VIIRS images. Combined with GOES-17 higher temporal resolution, the DL model can provide high-resolution near-real-time wildfire monitoring capability as well as semi-continuous wildfire progression maps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing Technology for Forest Fire)
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30 pages, 4902 KiB  
Article
Examining the Effects of Soil and Water Conservation Measures on Patterns and Magnitudes of Vegetation Cover Change in a Subtropical Region Using Time Series Landsat Imagery
by Xiaoyu Sun, Guiying Li, Qinquan Wu, Dengqiu Li and Dengsheng Lu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040714 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Soil and water erosion has long been regarded as a serious environmental problem in the world. Thus, research on reducing soil erosion has received continuous attention. Different conservation measures such as restoring low-function forests, closing hillsides for afforestation, planting trees and grass, and [...] Read more.
Soil and water erosion has long been regarded as a serious environmental problem in the world. Thus, research on reducing soil erosion has received continuous attention. Different conservation measures such as restoring low-function forests, closing hillsides for afforestation, planting trees and grass, and constructing terraces on slope land have been implemented for controlling soil erosion problems and promoting vegetation cover change. One important task is to understand the effects of different conservation measures on reducing water and soil erosion problems. However, directly conducting the evaluation of soil erosion reduction is difficult. One solution is to evaluate the patterns and magnitudes of vegetation cover change due to implementing these measures. Therefore, this research selected Changting County, Fujian Province as a case study to examine the effects of implementing conservation measures on vegetation cover change based on time series Landsat images and field survey data. Landsat images between 1986 and 2021 were used to produce time series vegetation cover data using the Google Earth Engine. Sentinel-2 images acquired in 2021 and Landsat images in 2010 were separately used to develop land cover maps using the random forest method. The spatial distribution of different conservation measures was linked to annual vegetation cover and land cover change data to examine the effects on the change in vegetation cover. The results showed a significant reduction in bare lands and increase in pine forests. The vegetation coverage increased from 42% in 1986 to 79% in 2021 in the conservation region compared with an increase from 73% to 87% in the non-conservation region during the same period. Of the different conservation measures, the change magnitude was 0.44 for restoring low-function forests and closing hillsides for afforestation and 0.65 for multiple control measures. This research provides new insights in terms of understanding the effects of taking proper measures for reducing soil and water erosion problems and provides scientific results for decisionmaking for soil erosion controls. The strategy and method used in this research are valuable for other regions in understanding the roles of different conservation measures on vegetation cover change and soil erosion reduction through employing remote sensing technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Methods and Applications in Remote Sensing of Tropical Forests)
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20 pages, 14402 KiB  
Article
Refined Coseismic Slip Model and Surface Deformation of the 2021 Maduo Earthquake: Implications for Sensitivity of Rupture Behaviors to Geometric Complexity
by Xiaoli Liu, Debeier Deng, Zhige Jia, Jing Liu-Zeng, Xinyu Mo, Yu Huang, Qiaozhe Ruan and Juntao Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040713 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Geometric complexities of a fault system have a significant impact on the rupture behavior of the fault. The 2021 Mw7.4 Maduo earthquake occurred on a multi-segmented complex sinistral fault in the interior of the Bayan-Har block in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Here, we [...] Read more.
Geometric complexities of a fault system have a significant impact on the rupture behavior of the fault. The 2021 Mw7.4 Maduo earthquake occurred on a multi-segmented complex sinistral fault in the interior of the Bayan-Har block in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Here, we integrate centimeter-resolution surface rupture zones and Sentinel-2 optical displacement fields to accurately determine the geometric parameters of the causative fault in detail. An adaptive quadtree down-sampling method for interferograms was employed to enhance the reliability of the coseismic slip model inversion for interferograms. The optimal coseismic slip model indicated a complex non-planar structure with varying strike and dip angles. The largest slip of ~6 m, at a depth of ~7 km, occurred near a 6 km-wide stepover (a geometric complexity area) to the east of the epicenter, which occurred at the transition zone from sub-shear to super-shear rupture suggested by seismological studies. Optical and SAR displacement fields consistently indicated the local minimization of effective normal stress on releasing stepovers, which facilitated rupture through them. Moreover, connecting intermediate structures contributes to maintaining the rupture propagation through wide stepovers and may even facilitate the transition from subshear to supershear. Our study provides more evidence of the reactivation of a branched fault at the western end during the mainshock, which was previously under-appreciated. Furthermore, we found that a strong asymmetry in slip depth, stress drop, and rupture velocity east and west of the epicenter was coupled with variations in geometric and structural characteristics of fault segments along the strike. Our findings highlight the sensitivity of rupture behaviors to small-scale details of fault geometry. Full article
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24 pages, 14907 KiB  
Article
Multisource High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Vegetation Extraction with Comprehensive Multifeature Perception
by Yan Li, Songhan Min, Binbin Song, Hui Yang, Biao Wang and Yongchuang Wu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040712 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 557
Abstract
High-resolution remote sensing image-based vegetation monitoring is a hot topic in remote sensing technology and applications. However, when facing large-scale monitoring across different sensors in broad areas, the current methods suffer from fragmentation and weak generalization capabilities. To address this issue, this paper [...] Read more.
High-resolution remote sensing image-based vegetation monitoring is a hot topic in remote sensing technology and applications. However, when facing large-scale monitoring across different sensors in broad areas, the current methods suffer from fragmentation and weak generalization capabilities. To address this issue, this paper proposes a multisource high-resolution remote sensing image-based vegetation extraction method that considers the comprehensive perception of multiple features. First, this method utilizes a random forest model to perform feature selection for the vegetation index, selecting an index that enhances the otherness between vegetation and other land features. Based on this, a multifeature synthesis perception convolutional network (MSCIN) is constructed, which enhances the extraction of multiscale feature information, global information interaction, and feature cross-fusion. The MSCIN network simultaneously constructs dual-branch parallel networks for spectral features and vegetation index features, strengthening multiscale feature extraction while reducing the loss of detailed features by simplifying the dense connection module. Furthermore, to facilitate global information interaction between the original spectral information and vegetation index features, a dual-path multihead cross-attention fusion module is designed. This module enhances the differentiation of vegetation from other land features and improves the network’s generalization performance, enabling vegetation extraction from multisource high-resolution remote sensing data. To validate the effectiveness of this method, we randomly selected six test areas within Anhui Province and compared the results with three different data sources and other typical methods (NDVI, RFC, OCBDL, and HRNet). The results demonstrate that the MSCIN method proposed in this paper, under the premise of using only GF2 satellite images as samples, exhibits robust accuracy in extraction results across different sensors. It overcomes the rapid degradation of accuracy observed in other methods with various sensors and addresses issues such as internal fragmentation, false positives, and false negatives caused by sample generalization and image diversity. Full article
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29 pages, 42875 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Substantial Growth of Water Bodies during the Urbanization Process Using Landsat Imagery—A Case Study of the Lixiahe Region, China
by Haoran Jiang, Luyan Ji, Kai Yu and Yongchao Zhao
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040711 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 570
Abstract
In the process of urbanization, water bodies bear considerable anthropogenic pressure, resulting in a reduction of their surface area in most instances. Nevertheless, in contrast to many other regions, the Lixiahe region in Jiangsu Province, located in China’s eastern plain, has experienced a [...] Read more.
In the process of urbanization, water bodies bear considerable anthropogenic pressure, resulting in a reduction of their surface area in most instances. Nevertheless, in contrast to many other regions, the Lixiahe region in Jiangsu Province, located in China’s eastern plain, has experienced a continuous expansion of water bodies over the past few decades amid rapid urbanization. Using Landsat images spanning from 1975 to 2023, this study analyzed changes in water resources and the growth of impervious surfaces during urbanization. The findings revealed that the area of impervious surfaces in the region increased from 227.1 km2 in 1975 to 1883.1 km2 in 2023. Natural wetland suffered significant losses, declining from 507.2 km2 in 1975 to near disappearance by the year 2000, with no significant recovery observed thereafter. Simultaneously, the water area expanded from 459.3 km2 in 1975 to 2373.1 km2 in 2023, primarily propelled by the significant contribution of aquaculture ponds, accounting for 2175.0 km2 or 91.7% of the total water area. Driver analysis revealed that these changes were found to be influenced by factors such as population, economy, demand, and policies. However, alongside the economic development brought by urbanization, negative impacts such as lake shrinkage, eutrophication, and increased flood risks have emerged. The Lixiahe region, as a relatively underdeveloped part of Jiangsu Province, faces the challenge of striking a balance between economic growth and environmental conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Monitoring Using Satellite Remote Sensing)
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20 pages, 8369 KiB  
Article
Precise Drought Threshold Monitoring in Winter Wheat Using the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Method
by Hongjie Liu, Wenlong Song, Juan Lv, Rongjie Gui, Yangjun Shi, Yizhu Lu, Mengyi Li, Long Chen and Xiuhua Chen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040710 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Accurate monitoring of crop drought thresholds at different growth periods is crucial for drought monitoring. In this study, the canopy temperature (Tc) of winter wheat (‘Weilong 169’ variety) during the three main growth periods was extracted from high-resolution thermal and multispectral [...] Read more.
Accurate monitoring of crop drought thresholds at different growth periods is crucial for drought monitoring. In this study, the canopy temperature (Tc) of winter wheat (‘Weilong 169’ variety) during the three main growth periods was extracted from high-resolution thermal and multispectral images taken by a complete unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. Canopy-air temperature difference (ΔT) and statistic Crop Water Stress Index (CWSIsi) indicators were constructed based on Tc. Combined experiment data from the field and drought thresholds for the ΔT and CWSIsi indicators for different drought levels at three main growth periods were monitored. The results showed a strong correlation between the Tc extracted using the NDVI-OTSU method and ground-truth temperature, with an R2 value of 0.94. The CWSIsi was more stable than the ΔT index in monitoring the drought level affecting winter wheat. The threshold ranges of the CWSIsi for different drought levels of winter wheat at three main growth periods were as follows: the jointing–heading period, where the threshold ranges for normal, mild drought, moderate drought, and severe drought are <0.30, 0.30–0.42, 0.42–0.48, and >0.48, respectively; the heading–filling period, where the threshold ranges for normal, and mild, moderate, and severe drought are <0.33, 0.33–0.47, 0.44–0.53, and >0.53, respectively; and the filling–maturation period, where the threshold ranges for normal, mild drought, moderate drought, and severe drought are <0.41, 0.41–0.54, 0.54–0.59, and >0.59, respectively. The UAV thermal threshold method system can improve the accuracy of crop drought monitoring and has considerable potential in crop drought disaster identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrometeorological Modelling Based on Remotely Sensed Data)
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17 pages, 5412 KiB  
Article
Annual Daily Irradiance Analysis of Clusters in Mexico by Machine Learning Algorithms
by Jared D. Salinas-González, Alejandra García-Hernández, David Riveros-Rosas, Adriana E. González-Cabrera, Alejandro Mauricio-González, Carlos E. Galván-Tejada, Sodel Vázquez-Reyes and Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040709 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 499
Abstract
The assessment of solar resources involves the utilization of physical or satellite models for the determination of solar radiation on the Earth’s surface. However, a critical aspect of model validation necessitates comparisons against ground-truth measurements obtained from surface radiometers. Given the inherent challenges [...] Read more.
The assessment of solar resources involves the utilization of physical or satellite models for the determination of solar radiation on the Earth’s surface. However, a critical aspect of model validation necessitates comparisons against ground-truth measurements obtained from surface radiometers. Given the inherent challenges associated with establishing and maintaining solar radiation measurement networks—characterized by their expense, logistical complexities, limited station availability and the imperative consideration of climatic criteria for siting—countries endowed with substantial climatic diversity face difficulties in station placement. In this investigation, the measurements of annual solar irradiation, from meteorological stations of the National Weather Service in Mexico, were compared in different regions clustered by similarities in altitude, TL Linke, albedo and cloudiness index derived from satellite images; the main objective is to find the best ratio of annual solar irradiation in a set of clusters. Employing machine learning algorithms, this research endeavors to identify the most suitable model for predicting the ratio of annual solar irradiation and to determine the optimal number of clusters. The findings underscore the efficacy of the L-method as a robust technique for regionalization. Notably, the cloudiness index emerges as a pivotal feature, with the Random Forest algorithm yielding superior performance with a R2 score of 0.94, clustering Mexico into 17 regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Renewable Energy)
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38 pages, 19446 KiB  
Article
CoastalWQL: An Open-Source Tool for Drone-Based Mapping of Coastal Turbidity Using Push Broom Hyperspectral Imagery
by Hui Ying Pak, Hieu Trung Kieu, Weisi Lin, Eugene Khoo and Adrian Wing-Keung Law
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040708 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 742
Abstract
Uncrewed-Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and hyperspectral sensors are emerging as effective alternatives for monitoring water quality on-demand. However, image mosaicking for largely featureless coastal water surfaces or open seas has shown to be challenging. Another pertinent issue observed is the systematic image misalignment between [...] Read more.
Uncrewed-Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and hyperspectral sensors are emerging as effective alternatives for monitoring water quality on-demand. However, image mosaicking for largely featureless coastal water surfaces or open seas has shown to be challenging. Another pertinent issue observed is the systematic image misalignment between adjacent flight lines due to the time delay between the UAV-borne sensor and the GNSS system. To overcome these challenges, this study introduces a workflow that entails a GPS-based image mosaicking method for push-broom hyperspectral images, together with a correction method to address the aforementioned systematic image misalignment. An open-source toolkit, CoastalWQL, was developed to facilitate the workflow, which includes essential pre-processing procedures for improving the image mosaic’s quality, such as radiometric correction, de-striping, sun glint correction, and object masking classification. For validation, UAV-based push-broom hyperspectral imaging surveys were conducted to monitor coastal turbidity in Singapore, and the implementation of CoastalWQL’s pre-processing workflow was evaluated at each step via turbidity retrieval. Overall, the results confirm that the image mosaicking of the push-broom hyperspectral imagery over featureless water surface using CoastalWQL with time delay correction enabled better localisation of the turbidity plume. Radiometric correction and de-striping were also found to be the most important pre-processing procedures, which improved turbidity prediction by 46.5%. Full article
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26 pages, 5322 KiB  
Article
Quantifying Spatio-Temporal River Morphological Change and Its Consequences in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System Techniques
by Thi Huong Vu, Doan Van Binh, Huan Ngoc Tran, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Duong Du Bui and Jürgen Stamm
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040707 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 739
Abstract
The evolution of delta and riverbank erosion within the river basin can significantly impact the environment, ecosystems, and lives of those residing along rivers. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD), counted among the world’s largest deltas, has undergone significant morphological alterations via natural processes [...] Read more.
The evolution of delta and riverbank erosion within the river basin can significantly impact the environment, ecosystems, and lives of those residing along rivers. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD), counted among the world’s largest deltas, has undergone significant morphological alterations via natural processes and human activities. This research aims to examine these morphological alterations and their impacts on local economic and social conditions in the VMD. This study utilized satellite data from 1988 to 2020, coupled with population density and land use/land cover (LULC) maps from 2002, 2008, and 2015. The findings reveal that the VMD experienced widespread erosion over the past three decades, covering an area of 66.8 km2 and affecting 48% of the riverbank length (682 km). In contrast to riverbanks, islets showed an accretion trend with an additional area of 13.3 km2, resulting in a decrease in river width over the years. Riverbank and islet erosion has had a profound impact on the LULC, population, and economy of the provinces along the VMD. From 2002 to 2020, eight different land use types were affected, with agricultural land being the most severely eroded, constituting over 86% of the total lost land area (3235.47 ha). The consequences of land loss due to erosion affected 31,273 people and resulted in substantial economic damages estimated at VND 19,409.90 billion (USD 799.50 million) across nine provinces along the VMD. Notably, even though built-up land represented a relatively small portion of the affected area (6.58%), it accounted for the majority of the economic damage at 70.6% (USD 564.45 million). This study underscores the crucial role of satellite imagery and GIS in monitoring long-term morphological changes and assessing their primary impacts. Such analysis is essential for formulating effective plans and strategies for the sustainable management of river environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
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22 pages, 6029 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Forest Residual Biomass for Bioelectricity Utilization towards Carbon Neutrality Based on Sentinel-2A Multi-Temporal Images: A Case Study of Aizu Region of Fukushima, Japan
by Tana Qian, Makoto Ooba, Minoru Fujii, Takanori Matsui, Chihiro Haga, Akiko Namba and Shogo Nakamura
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040706 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Forest biomass is expected to remain a key part of the national energy portfolio mix, yet residual forest biomass is currently underused. This study aimed to estimate the potential availability of waste woody biomass in the Aizu region and its energy potential for [...] Read more.
Forest biomass is expected to remain a key part of the national energy portfolio mix, yet residual forest biomass is currently underused. This study aimed to estimate the potential availability of waste woody biomass in the Aizu region and its energy potential for local bioelectricity generation as a sustainable strategy. The results showed that the available quantity of forest residual biomass for energy production was 191,065 tons, with an average of 1.385 t/ha in 2018, of which 72% (146,976 tons) was from logging residue for commercial purposes, and 28% (44,089 tons) was from thinning operations for forest management purposes. Forests within the biomass–collection radius of a local woody power plant can provide 45,925 tons of residual biomass, supplying bioelectricity at 1.6 times the plant’s capacity, which could avoid the amount of 65,246 tons of CO2 emission per year by replacing coal-fired power generation. The results highlight the bioelectricity potential and carbon-neutral capacity of residual biomass. This encourages government initiatives or policy inclinations to sustainably boost the production of bioenergy derived from residual biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Biomass/Carbon Monitoring towards Carbon Neutrality)
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24 pages, 6140 KiB  
Article
UAV-LiDAR Integration with Sentinel-2 Enhances Precision in AGB Estimation for Bamboo Forests
by Lingjun Zhang, Yinyin Zhao, Chao Chen, Xuejian Li, Fangjie Mao, Lujin Lv, Jiacong Yu, Meixuan Song, Lei Huang, Jinjin Chen, Zhaodong Zheng and Huaqiang Du
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040705 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Moso bamboo forests, recognized as a distinctive and significant forest resource in subtropical China, contribute substantially to efficient carbon sequestration. The accurate assessment of the aboveground biomass (AGB) in Moso bamboo forests is crucial for evaluating their impact on the carbon balance within [...] Read more.
Moso bamboo forests, recognized as a distinctive and significant forest resource in subtropical China, contribute substantially to efficient carbon sequestration. The accurate assessment of the aboveground biomass (AGB) in Moso bamboo forests is crucial for evaluating their impact on the carbon balance within forest ecosystems at a regional scale. In this study, we focused on the Moso bamboo forest located in Shanchuan Township, Zhejiang Province, China. The primary objective was to utilize various data sources, namely UAV-LiDAR (UL), Sentinel-2 (ST), and a combination of UAV-LiDAR with Sentinel-2 (UL + ST). Employing the Boruta algorithm, we carefully selected characterization variables for analysis. Our investigation delved into establishing correlations between UAV-LiDAR characterization parameters, Sentinel-2 feature parameters, and the aboveground biomass (AGB) of the Moso bamboo forest. Ground survey data on Moso bamboo forest biomass served as the basis for our analysis. To enhance the accuracy of AGB estimation in the Moso bamboo forest, we employed three distinct modeling techniques: multivariate linear regression (MLR), support vector regression (SVR), and random forest (RF). Through this approach, we aimed to compare the impact of different data sources and modeling methods on the precision of AGB estimation in the studied bamboo forest. This study revealed that (1) the point cloud intensity of UL, the variables of canopy cover (CC), gap fraction (GF), and leaf area index (LAI) reflect the structure of Moso bamboo forests, and the variables indicating the height of the forest stand (AIH1, AIHiq, and Hiq) had a significant effect on the AGB of Moso bamboo forests, significantly impact Moso bamboo forest AGB. Vegetation indices such as DVI and SAVI in ST also exert a considerable effect on Moso bamboo forest AGB. (2) AGB estimation models constructed based on UL consistently demonstrated higher accuracy compared with ST, achieving R2 values exceeding 0.7. Regardless of the model used, UL consistently delivered superior accuracy in Moso bamboo forest AGB estimation, with RF achieving the highest precision at R2 = 0.88. (3) Integration of ST with UL substantially improved the accuracy of AGB estimation for Moso bamboo forests across all three models. Specifically, using RF, the accuracy of AGB estimation increased by 97.7%, with R2 reaching 0.89 and RMSE reduced by 124.4%. As a result, the incorporation of LiDAR data, which reflects the stand structure, has proven to enhance the accuracy of aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation in Moso bamboo forests when combined with multispectral remote sensing data. This integration serves as an effective solution to address the limitations of single optical remote sensing methods, which often suffer from signal saturation, leading to lower accuracy in estimating Moso bamboo forest biomass. This approach offers a novel perspective and opens up new possibilities for improving the precision of Moso bamboo forest biomass estimation through the utilization of multiple remote sensing sources. Full article
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17 pages, 17331 KiB  
Article
ATLAS: Latest Advancements and First Observations
by João Pandeirada, Miguel Bergano, Paulo Marques, Bruno Coelho, Domingos Barbosa and Mário Figueiredo
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040704 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 771
Abstract
The increasing amount of space debris poses a significant threat to operational satellites and space-based services. This article updates the community on the current status of the development of ATLAS, a tracking radar that is part of the EUSST network and aims to [...] Read more.
The increasing amount of space debris poses a significant threat to operational satellites and space-based services. This article updates the community on the current status of the development of ATLAS, a tracking radar that is part of the EUSST network and aims to detect space objects in low Earth orbits. This article focuses on the latest activities performed: calibration of the pointing system and initial observations of space objects. The calibration procedure consisted of cross-scanning the Solar disk and yielded great results, obtaining an offset of 5.3° in azimuth and 0.10° in elevation. The first observation campaign resulted in 33 range detections of the International Space Station (ISS) with a probability of false alarm of 109. The observations were then used to readjust the radar equation to assess the real-world performance of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar for Space Observation: Systems, Methods and Applications)
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16 pages, 12435 KiB  
Technical Note
Comprehensive Evaluation of Near-Real-Time Satellite-Based Precipitation: PDIR-Now over Saudi Arabia
by Raied Saad Alharbi, Vu Dao, Claudia Jimenez Arellano and Phu Nguyen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040703 - 17 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
In the past decade, Saudi Arabia has witnessed a surge in flash floods, resulting in significant losses of lives and property. This raises a need for accurate near-real-time precipitation estimates. Satellite products offer precipitation data with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Among these, [...] Read more.
In the past decade, Saudi Arabia has witnessed a surge in flash floods, resulting in significant losses of lives and property. This raises a need for accurate near-real-time precipitation estimates. Satellite products offer precipitation data with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Among these, the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks–Dynamic Infrared Rain Rate near-real-time (PDIR-Now) stands out as a novel, global, and long-term resource. In this study, a rigorous comparative analysis was conducted from 2017 to 2022, contrasting PDIR-Now with rain gauge data. This analysis employs six metrics to assess the accuracy of PDIR-Now across various daily rainfall rates and four yearly extreme precipitation indices. The findings reveal that PDIR-Now slightly underestimates light precipitation but significantly underestimates heavy precipitation. Challenges arise in regions characterized by orographic rainfall patterns in the southwestern area of Saudi Arabia, emphasizing the importance of spatial resolution and topographical considerations. While PDIR-Now successfully captures annual maximum 1-day and 5-day precipitation measurements across rain gauge locations, it exhibits limitations in the length of wet and dry spells. This research highlights the potential of PDIR-Now as a valuable tool for precipitation estimation, offering valuable insights for hydrological, climatological, and water resource management studies. Full article
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22 pages, 10754 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Wetland Patterns and Key Driving Forces in China’s Drylands
by Xiaolan Wu, Hui Zhao, Meihong Wang, Quanzhi Yuan, Zhaojie Chen, Shizhong Jiang and Wei Deng
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040702 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Wetlands within dryland regions are highly sensitive to climate change and human activities. Based on three types of land use data sources from satellite images and a spatial data analysis, the spatiotemporal characteristics of wetland evolution in China’s drylands and their relationship with [...] Read more.
Wetlands within dryland regions are highly sensitive to climate change and human activities. Based on three types of land use data sources from satellite images and a spatial data analysis, the spatiotemporal characteristics of wetland evolution in China’s drylands and their relationship with human interference and climate change from 1990 to 2020 were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1) The wetlands within China’s drylands expanded, including rivers, lakes, and artificial wetlands, apart from marshes, which shrunk. Meanwhile, wetland fragmentation increased, with rivers being particularly severely fragmented. (2) Temperature and precipitation showed an increasing trend from 1990 to 2020 in China’s drylands. Lakes and rivers expanded with regional differences due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and rising temperature. (3) Human activities, more than climate change, became the key driving factor for the changes in wetland patterns in China’s drylands. The increased areas of farmland and grassland along with increased levels of drainage and irrigation activities led to the shrinkage of marshes and the fragmentation of rivers. The increase in the number of artificial reservoirs was the main reason for the expansion of artificial wetlands. This study clarifies the specific driving factors of different types of wetlands within China’s drylands, which is of great use for better protecting wetlands and the gradual restoration of degraded wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applications in Monitoring of Protected Areas II)
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20 pages, 12932 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Maize Yield Simulations in Regional China Using Machine Learning and Multi-Data Resources
by Yangfeng Zou, Giri Raj Kattel and Lijuan Miao
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040701 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
Improved agricultural production systems, together with increased grain yield, are essential to feed the growing global population in the 21st century. Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) have been extensively used to assess crop production and yield simulation on a large geographical scale. However, [...] Read more.
Improved agricultural production systems, together with increased grain yield, are essential to feed the growing global population in the 21st century. Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) have been extensively used to assess crop production and yield simulation on a large geographical scale. However, GGCMs are less effective when they are used on a finer scale, significantly limiting the precision in capturing the yearly maize yield. To address this issue, we propose a relatively more advanced approach that downsizes GGCMs by combining machine learning and crop modeling to enhance the accuracy of maize yield simulations on a regional scale. In this study, we combined the random forest algorithm with multiple data sources, trained the algorithm on low-resolution maize yield simulations from GGCMs, and applied it to a finer spatial resolution on a regional scale in China. We evaluated the performance of the eight GGCMs by utilizing a total of 1046 county-level maize yield data available over a 30-year period (1980–2010). Our findings reveal that the downscaled models created for maize yield simulations exhibited a remarkable level of accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.9, MAE < 0.5 t/ha, RMSE < 0.75 t/ha). The original GGCMs performed poorly in simulating county-level maize yields in China, and the improved GGCMs in our study captured an additional 17% variability in the county-level maize yields in China. Additionally, by optimizing nitrogen management strategies, we identified an average maize yield gap at the county level in China ranging from 0.47 to 1.82 t/ha, with the south maize region exhibiting the highest yield gap. Our study demonstrates the high effectiveness of machine learning methods for the spatial downscaling of crop models, significantly improving GGCMs’ performance in county-level maize yield simulations. Full article
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20 pages, 10265 KiB  
Article
Sea Ice Extent Retrieval Using CSCAT 12.5 km Sampling Data
by Liling Liu, Xiaolong Dong, Liqing Yang, Wenming Lin and Shuyan Lang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(4), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16040700 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Polar sea ice extent exhibits a highly dynamic nature. This paper investigates the sea ice extent retrieval on a fine (6.25 km) grid based on the 12.5 km sampling data from the China France Ocean Satellite Scatterometer (CSCAT), which is generated by an [...] Read more.
Polar sea ice extent exhibits a highly dynamic nature. This paper investigates the sea ice extent retrieval on a fine (6.25 km) grid based on the 12.5 km sampling data from the China France Ocean Satellite Scatterometer (CSCAT), which is generated by an adapted Bayesian sea ice detection algorithm. The CSCAT 12.5 km sampling data are analyzed, a corresponding sea ice GMF model is established, and the important calculation procedures and parameter settings of the adapted Bayesian algorithm for CSCAT 12.5 km sampling data are elaborated on. The evolution of the sea ice edge and extent based on CSCAT 12.5 km sampling data from 2020 to 2022 is introduced and quantitatively compared with sea ice extent products of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Advanced Scatterometer onboard MetOp-C (ASCAT-C). The results suggest the sea ice extent of CSCAT 12.5 km sampling data has good consistency with AMSR2 at 15% sea ice concentration. The sea ice edge accuracy between them is about 7 km and 10 km for the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and their sea ice extent difference is 0.25 million km2 in 2020 and 0.5 million km2 in 2021 and 2022. Compared to ASCAT-C 12.5 km sampling data, the sea ice edge Euclidean distance (ED) of CSCAT 12.5 km data is 14 km (2020 and 2021) and 12.5 km (2022) for the Arctic region and 14 km for the Antarctic region. The sea ice extent difference between them is small except for January to May 2020 and 2021 for the Arctic region. There are significant deviations in the sea ice extents of CSCAT 12.5 km and 25 km sampling data, and their sea ice extent difference is 0.3–1.0 million km2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Remote Sensing)
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