Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sustainability, Volume 11, Issue 14 (July-2 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-172
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Naphthenic-Aromatic Content of the Base Binder on the Characteristics of Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Asphalt Mixtures
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3927; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143927 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (799 KB)
Abstract
The extent of rubber-bitumen interaction in crumb rubber modified (CRM) binders depends on the contact time of rubber-bitumen as well as the temperature and mixing energy. However, this can vary depending on the composition of the base binders as well as the characteristics [...] Read more.
The extent of rubber-bitumen interaction in crumb rubber modified (CRM) binders depends on the contact time of rubber-bitumen as well as the temperature and mixing energy. However, this can vary depending on the composition of the base binders as well as the characteristics of the rubber particles (composition, method of grinding, and size). The present study aims to determine the influence of the composition of the base binders and the type of rubber on the properties of the crumb-rubber modified (CRM) binders and the performance of the asphalt mixtures produced with them. To carry out this project, two different base binders were chosen with the same penetration grade but different naphthenic-aromatic content (56.7 versus 46.0%). Additionally, different types of ambient ground rubber powder were evaluated: two different sources (70% of truck tyres +30% of passenger car tyres and 100% of truck tyres) and two different maximum particle sizes (0.8 and 1.25 mm). According to the main results of this study, higher naphthenic-aromatic content of the base binder results in greater modification of the CRM binders. Likewise, asphalt mixtures made with CRM binders from base binder with higher naphthenic-aromatic content appear to offer better performance in terms of water resistance and fatigue life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
Open AccessArticle
Improving a Heating Supply Water Temperature Control for Radiant Floor Heating Systems in Korean High-Rise Residential Buildings
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3926; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143926 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (4049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of domestic apartment houses in South Korea that use district heating is steadily increasing. In addition, most Korean residential buildings use radiant floor heating systems. For such systems, the heating water temperature supplied by a heat exchanger in a mechanical room [...] Read more.
The number of domestic apartment houses in South Korea that use district heating is steadily increasing. In addition, most Korean residential buildings use radiant floor heating systems. For such systems, the heating water temperature supplied by a heat exchanger in a mechanical room serves as one of the critical control parameters for providing heat to individual residential apartments. Fixed temperature (FT) and outdoor temperature reset control (OTR) have conventionally been used to adjust the heating supply water temperature. However, both control methods have a major technical weakness; they do not reflect changes in residents’ heating use. To overcome this issue, this study proposes a new method for controlling the heating supply water temperature, called Residential Energy Demand (RED). To verify the proposed method, researchers conducted both simulation- and experiment-based tests. The RED control method achieved about 4% reduction in heating energy consumption compared to the conventional OTR control process. In addition, the RED control method increased the average indoor temperature by 0.17 °C during the heating period. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the proposed control method is capable of achieving energy savings and a warmer thermal indoor environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Does Land Tenure Systems Affect Sustainable Agricultural Development?
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3925; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143925 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current study aims to investigate the agricultural investment differences among three kinds of land lease agreements and their effect on farmers’ decisions regarding sustainable growth in terms of soil conservation and wheat productivity, using cross-sectional data from rural households in Punjab, Pakistan. [...] Read more.
The current study aims to investigate the agricultural investment differences among three kinds of land lease agreements and their effect on farmers’ decisions regarding sustainable growth in terms of soil conservation and wheat productivity, using cross-sectional data from rural households in Punjab, Pakistan. The “multivariate Tobit model” was used for the empirical analysis because it considers the possible substitution of investment choices and the tenancy status’ endogeneity. Compared to agricultural lands on lease contracts, landowners involved in agribusiness are more likely to invest in measures to improve soil and increase productivity. Moreover, the present study has also identified that the yield per hectare is much higher for landowners than sharecroppers, and thus, the Marshall’s assumption of low efficiency of tenants under sharecroppers is supported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Land Tenure Systems on Land Use Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mapping Obesogenic Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana: Correlations and Contradictions
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3924; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143924 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (30798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, urbanisation and food systems change contribute to rapid dietary transitions promoting obesity. It is unclear to what extent these changes are mediated by neighbourhood food environments or other factors. This paper correlates neighbourhood food provision with household consumption and poverty [...] Read more.
In sub-Saharan Africa, urbanisation and food systems change contribute to rapid dietary transitions promoting obesity. It is unclear to what extent these changes are mediated by neighbourhood food environments or other factors. This paper correlates neighbourhood food provision with household consumption and poverty in Khayelitsha, South Africa and Ahodwo, Ghana. Georeferenced survey data of food consumption and provision were classified by obesity risk and protection. Outlets were mapped, and density and distribution correlated with risk classes. In Khayelitsha, 71% of households exceeded dietary obesity risk thresholds while 16% consumed protective diets. Obesogenic profiles were less (26%) and protective more prevalent (23%) in Ahodwo despite greater income poverty in Khayelitsha. Here, income-deprived households consumed significantly (p < 0.005) less obesogenic and protective diets. Small informal food outlets dominated numerically but supermarkets were key household food sources in Khayelitsha. Although density of food provision in Ahodwo was higher (76/km2), Khayelitsha outlets (61/km2) provided greater access to obesogenic (57% Khayelitsha; 39% Ahodwo) and protective (43% Khayelitsha; 16% Ahodwo) foods. Consumption and provision profiles correlate more strongly in Ahodwo than Khayelitsha (rKhayelitsha = 0.624; rAhodwo = 0.862). Higher obesogenic food consumption in Khayelitsha suggests that risky food environments and poverty together promote obesogenic diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Food Deserts: Perspectives from the Global South)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Aerobic Treatment of Waste Process Solutions from the Semiconductor Industry: From Lab to Pilot Scale
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3923; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143923 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (2436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is widely used as a solvent in the semiconductor industry. After the photo-impression process, it is necessary to remove the photoresist (PR) layer from the surface of the circuits; for this purpose, a TMAH solution is usually used. [...] Read more.
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is widely used as a solvent in the semiconductor industry. After the photo-impression process, it is necessary to remove the photoresist (PR) layer from the surface of the circuits; for this purpose, a TMAH solution is usually used. This chemical compound is highly toxic and corrosive and cannot be discharged into the environment. This study was carried out in collaboration with LFoundry (SMIC group), in order to prove the feasibility of biodegradation under aerobic conditions, using microorganisms coming from the LFoundry’s wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at different operating conditions. The feed composition was modified in order to add a small but increasing amount of TMAH and PR. The aim was to verify if the increase of TMAH concentration was harmful to bacteria. The feed stream, containing TMAH and PR, was the only carbon source for the metabolism of the aerobic microorganisms. The results of this study demonstrated an effective biological degradation of TMAH and showed a total removal efficiency of more than 99.3%, with a final concentration of 7 mg/L. Moreover, the kinetic parameters of the Monod model were also calculated. The results obtained from the experimental campaign were used to design a pilot plant that will treat around 25 L/h of waste TMAH/PR solution. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Agglomeration, Structural Embeddedness, and Enterprises’ Innovation Performance: An Empirical Study of Wuhan Biopharmaceutical Industrial Cluster Network
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3922; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143922 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (939 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Industry cluster’s agglomeration effects facilitate higher productivity for enterprises located in the industry cluster. This paper examines the agglomeration effects of industry cluster on firm’s innovation performance through studying the network embeddedness of the biopharmaceutical companies using cross-sectional data from 2011 to 2015. [...] Read more.
Industry cluster’s agglomeration effects facilitate higher productivity for enterprises located in the industry cluster. This paper examines the agglomeration effects of industry cluster on firm’s innovation performance through studying the network embeddedness of the biopharmaceutical companies using cross-sectional data from 2011 to 2015. Measuring the technological cooperation network with text analysis of the interfirm agreement among core enterprises, we found that betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient have statistically significant and positive effects on enterprise’s ability for technological innovation, while the influence from the constraint of structural holes is negative. Our results suggest that government should allow the leading enterprises to establish professional technology cooperation platforms and provide additional support to promote cooperation among firms. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Do CSR Ratings Converge in China? A Comparison Between RKS and Hexun Scores
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3921; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143921 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rankings (RKS) and Hexun are the two most widely used corporate social responsibility (CSR) ratings in research on CSR in China’s capital market. These scores are used as a proxy for CSR performance and disclosure quality. However, research is lacking on the validity [...] Read more.
Rankings (RKS) and Hexun are the two most widely used corporate social responsibility (CSR) ratings in research on CSR in China’s capital market. These scores are used as a proxy for CSR performance and disclosure quality. However, research is lacking on the validity of measuring CSR performance and disclosure quality, as well as the convergent validity between these scores. In this paper, a comparative and quantitative analysis was performed for the period 2010–2017, and the following results were obtained: (1) Based on a comparison of the rating methods, information sources, and other factors, RKS is more suitable for measuring the CSR disclosure quality, while Hexun is more suitable for measuring the CSR performance; (2) based on a Spearman correlation analysis, the convergent validity between these two scores is very low, particularly after 2013; and (3) the sub-indicator weights of the RKS system always maintain a high stability, whereas those of the Hexun system suffer from severe fluctuations starting in 2013. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Complex Network Method in Criticality Evaluation of Air Quality Standards
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143920 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, poor air quality has brought serious threats to public health and sustainable development. The air quality standard is an effective prerequisite to ensure the quality of the air. The citation relationships between air quality standards at a certain time point, [...] Read more.
In recent years, poor air quality has brought serious threats to public health and sustainable development. The air quality standard is an effective prerequisite to ensure the quality of the air. The citation relationships between air quality standards at a certain time point, which reflect technological development and knowledge transition, form a complex network. In this study, an integrated multi-criteria decision making method is proposed to measure the criticality of standards based on a dynamic citation network model. In particular, the Entropy Weight (EW) method is used to set the weights of each node measurement to avoid subjectiveness, while the TOPSIS method is employed to measure the criticality for each air quality standard. A case study based on the data of 444 of China’s national air quality standards reveals that the complex network method facilitates the identification of critical standards effectively. In addition, we found that there exist some structural problems in China’s air quality standard system: the connectivity between standards is insufficient; critical standards are lacking; and the critical standards change over time following the issue of national policies. Finally, policy suggestions are recommended on strengthening inter-standard citation, attaching importance to the revision of critical standards, and the dynamics of critical standards. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Methodology for Energy Optimization in Wastewater Treatment Plants. Phase I: Control of the Best Operating Conditions
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3919; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143919 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (7382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most purification systems work correctly from the point of view of water quality; purification, like any industrial process, must also be carried out efficiently with a minimization of costs. The overall project examined the potential benefits of using a recommended methodology for process [...] Read more.
Most purification systems work correctly from the point of view of water quality; purification, like any industrial process, must also be carried out efficiently with a minimization of costs. The overall project examined the potential benefits of using a recommended methodology for process evaluation and energy optimization in the aeration stage of activated sludge in the biological reactor at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which accounts for more than 44% of total operating costs. This energy control methodology encompasses the process, the installation and the control system. These three phases are examined in separate articles to make it easier to guide the user in the arduous task of optimizing energy efficiency of the WWTP from start to finish. This article focuses on Phase I of the methodology, the stage in charge of selecting the correct variables to control the best process conditions in the activated sludge system of the WWTP. Operating conditions that are a function of the recommended sludge age are influenced by exogenous factors such as temperature. The implementation of a real-time control system of the selected process variables, adapted to the needs, achieves reductions in the overall energy consumption of the installation, in this phase alone, of more than 15%, by reducing the oxygen requirements of the system and the recirculation ratios. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Can Short-Term Citizen Science Training Increase Knowledge, Improve Attitudes, and Change Behavior to Protect Land Crabs?
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3918; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143918 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (2366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Citizen science projects are considered popular and efficient approaches to scientific research and conservation of sustainability. In addition, much research suggests that citizen science can improve participants’ environmental and scientific literacy when they participate in surveys over a period of time. However, considerable [...] Read more.
Citizen science projects are considered popular and efficient approaches to scientific research and conservation of sustainability. In addition, much research suggests that citizen science can improve participants’ environmental and scientific literacy when they participate in surveys over a period of time. However, considerable research indicates that people in short-term training programs do not change their environmental literacy significantly. Nevertheless, studies have stated that these results might result from inappropriate evaluation methods. In this study, we used personal meaning mapping (PMM) to evaluate participants’ knowledge, attitude, and behavior intention in relation to land crab protection. This method merges quantitative and qualitative dimensions, used in scientific knowledge research, which we extend to evaluate attitude and behavior intention. As a result, even with short-term training, we observe that participants’ knowledge, attitude, and behavior intention significantly improves. Although some individuals exhibit no change in certain respects, we use PMM to understand the causes in detail. Taiwan is an island, famous for its fertile landscapes and biodiversity, and we anticipate finding efficient means to improve public environmental literacy. According to our research, public engagement in citizen science projects is an excellent approach to environmental education and conservation for sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Education and Approaches)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Multifunctional Benefits of Green Infrastructure in Community Development: An Analytical Review Based on 447 Cases
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3917; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143917 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article describes the relationship between the design features of green infrastructure and the benefits of multifunctionality. To do so, it examines the descriptive linkages between 12 design features and nine benefits using 447 project case studies from the American Society of Landscape [...] Read more.
This article describes the relationship between the design features of green infrastructure and the benefits of multifunctionality. To do so, it examines the descriptive linkages between 12 design features and nine benefits using 447 project case studies from the American Society of Landscape Architects. Multiple benefits of green infrastructure were found in 65% of the projects, regardless of the number of applied design features. The major green infrastructure design features with multiple benefits were: bioretention areas, permeable pavements, grassed swales, rainwater harvesting, rain gardens, and curb cuts. The major benefits of applied design features were: enhanced economic capacity, educational opportunities, improvements to the built environment, and enhanced environmental soundness. The findings show that the multiple benefits of green infrastructure’s multifunctionality can be inferred in many current cases. Knowing the relationship between design features and their benefits for green infrastructure would facilitate selecting optimal design features to achieve specific goals and planning outcomes. For communities that require a range of complex benefits, a multifunctionality-based green infrastructure will advance highly acceptable climate change adaptation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metropolitan Green Infrastructure and Sustainable Urban Growth)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Studenica Marble: Significance, Use, Conservation
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3916; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143916 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (8369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studenica marble is the stone used in creating the mediaeval Serbian cultural heritage. This is a historical overview of the importance and use of stone from prehistoric times to the Middle Ages, when the most imposing religious architectural structures were built. The significance [...] Read more.
Studenica marble is the stone used in creating the mediaeval Serbian cultural heritage. This is a historical overview of the importance and use of stone from prehistoric times to the Middle Ages, when the most imposing religious architectural structures were built. The significance of Studenica marble is particularly manifested in the Virgin’s Church at the Studenica Monastery. For its marble façades and artistic architectural elements, among other things, the church was inscribed in the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List in 1986. Through centuries, the Virgin’s Church suffered multiple destructions. In order to restore the marble façades properly and its architectural elements, the marble deposits where the stone was once quarried had to be located anew. When the stone material characterisation had been performed, the right stone was selected for the complex conservation works on the churches in Studenica and Sopocani. A practical implementation of the research results raised the awareness of the marble deposits in the Studenica vicinity, being also part of the national heritage. The Studenica Monastery Cultural Landscape Management Plan envisions preservation of the deposits and their sustainable use for restoration purposes in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Stone and Architectural Heritage)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
How Does Paired Assistance to Disaster-Affected Areas (PADAA) Contribute to Economic Sustainability? A Qualitative Analysis of Wenchuan County
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3915; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143915
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (2129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a high risk of an economic downturn after the end of reconstruction efforts following natural hazards. High levels of external assistance can sometimes weaken local autonomy and self-sufficiency, creating the pre-conditions for a “forgotten phase”. However, through the three-year Paired Assistance [...] Read more.
There is a high risk of an economic downturn after the end of reconstruction efforts following natural hazards. High levels of external assistance can sometimes weaken local autonomy and self-sufficiency, creating the pre-conditions for a “forgotten phase”. However, through the three-year Paired Assistance to Disaster-Affected Areas project (PADAA), the economy of Wenchuan County in China recovered to its pre-earthquake levels within two years and has shown clear signs of economic sustainability. Through a qualitative research approach based on the analysis of expert interviews, secondary data, and relevant documentation, this study discusses the phases of the reconstruction process following the Wenchuan earthquake, and the factors behind the success of the PADAA process in enabling economic sustainability. Some of the identified factors include: (1) the reshaping of local livelihoods and economic structure through a large number of investments in public infrastructure; (2) knowledge acquisition, self-adjustment, and the ability to meet the needs of a new economy and social development through institutional reform and openness; (3) increasing amounts of attracted investments and the development of sustainable industrial structures through the improvement of the local government’s economic governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Government Responses to Catalyse Sustainable Urban Development)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Examining the Role of Population Age Structure upon Residential Electricity Demand: A Case from Korea
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143914
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, we empirically investigate the impact of the population age structure on electricity demand. Our study is motivated by suggestions from existing literature that demographic factors can play an important role in energy demand. Using Korean regional level panel data for [...] Read more.
In this article, we empirically investigate the impact of the population age structure on electricity demand. Our study is motivated by suggestions from existing literature that demographic factors can play an important role in energy demand. Using Korean regional level panel data for 2000 to 2016, we estimate the long-run elasticities through employing cointegration regression and the short-run marginal effects by developing a panel error correction model. It is worth investigating the Korean case, since Korea is aging faster than any other advanced economy, and at the same time is one of the heaviest energy users in the world. To our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing how the population age structure affects residential electricity demand, based on regional data in Korea. Our analysis presents the following results. First, an increase in the youth population raises the residential electricity demand in the short- and long-run. Second, an increase in the population of people aged 65 and over also increases this electricity demand in the short- and long-run. Third, among the group of people aged 65 and over, we further investigate the impact of an older population group, aged 80 and over, but separately, on their residential electricity demand. However, in general there is no strong relationship in the short- and long-run. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Risk Assessment for Social Practices in Small Vegetable farms in Poland as a Tool for the Optimization of Quality Management Systems
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3913; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143913
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Globalization of the food market is associated with the possibility of selling products into newer markets. However, it is also associated with the necessity to ensure proper quality products. Quality defined by the ISO 9001:2015 standard consists of factors that are part of [...] Read more.
Globalization of the food market is associated with the possibility of selling products into newer markets. However, it is also associated with the necessity to ensure proper quality products. Quality defined by the ISO 9001:2015 standard consists of factors that are part of customers’ expectations concerning the safety of products and the technology of their manufacture. Currently, consumers are looking for products with defined and reproducible sensory properties, in which the content of harmful substances is below the critical values specified by legislation. This is observable particularly in developed countries. The second quality factor is the use of a production technology where negative environmental impacts are reduced. Recently, issues associated with protecting workers’ rights and social needs have also become very important. In successive versions of quality management systems, such as GLOBAL G.A.P. or SAI Platform, social issues are becoming more and more important. The aim of this study was to assess the role of risk analysis for social practices in small farms in building a quality management system. Surveys were conducted in 2018. The surveys covered 62 vegetables or fruit farms with a cultivated area of up to 20 ha. Their lack of staff was due to the character of production. Where mechanic production is possible in small farms, family members can secure workforce demand. To achieve the research objective, a risk analysis was carried out for the implementation of social practices according to the guidelines of the ISO 31000:2018 standard. The criteria and inventory of identified risks were carried out, based on the guidelines of GLOBAL G.A.P. Risk Assessments on Social Practice (GRASP). Based on the identified risks, the areas relating to social practices, which require improvement in order to satisfy compliance with the GLOBAL G.A.P. standard, were indicated. The results of the conducted research pointed to a high risk of good social practices not being carried out and not meeting compliance with the requirements of the GLOBAL G.A.P. standard. The most important identified problems are associated with the deficiency of competent workers as well as the lack of facilities where workers can rest, eat and drink. A considerable problem is the conformity of employment contracts with local legislation and ensuring that work time and rest time are consistent with the law. In conditions of small farms in Poland, the problem with ensuring compliance with the standard in question is often the small number of workers. Creating an organized quality management system in the area of social practices is difficult in these cases, and sometimes even impossible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Production in Food and Agriculture Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
Human-Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) Co-Existence in Jhalana Forest Reserve, India
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3912; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143912
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intensity and frequency of human-animal conflicts has escalated in recent decades due to the exponential increase in the human population over the past century and the subsequent encroachment of human activities on wilderness areas. Jhalana Forest Reserve (JFR) presents the characteristics of [...] Read more.
The intensity and frequency of human-animal conflicts has escalated in recent decades due to the exponential increase in the human population over the past century and the subsequent encroachment of human activities on wilderness areas. Jhalana Forest Reserve (JFR) presents the characteristics of island biogeography in the heart of Jaipur, which is a city of 3.1 million people. The leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is the top predator in this newly declared sanctuary of 29 km². We surveyed people in the 18 villages that engulf this sanctuary. We questioned the villagers’ (n = 480) perceptions about conservation. As much as 93% (round figure) of the population has encountered leopards, and 83% were fully aware of its role in the ecosystem. In addition, 100% stressed the necessity of conservation to save the forests and 91% supported the efforts to a wall in the reserve in order to prevent human encroachment. Most of the population is Jains and Gujars, which are communities that believe in non-violence. We conclude that the villagers support conservation efforts. The authorities that manage JFR view the villagers favorably and, as stakeholders, are the basis for continued human-leopard coexistence. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multiplex Relations between States: Coevolution of Trade Agreements and Political Alliances
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143911
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nature of interdependence between states encourages them to establish cooperation in different fields, leading to multiple relations. The policy alignments of states on trade and political relations can be regarded as the most critical agenda in a globalized world. Accounting for the [...] Read more.
The nature of interdependence between states encourages them to establish cooperation in different fields, leading to multiple relations. The policy alignments of states on trade and political relations can be regarded as the most critical agenda in a globalized world. Accounting for the linkages between economic and political issues, this study focuses on the two relational ties, (i) free trade agreements (FTAs) as economic cooperation and (ii) political alliances (PAs) as political cooperation. In addition, it evaluates the coevolution of FTAs and PAs by employing a multiplex stochastic actor-oriented model with longitudinal data of 160 countries during the period from 1990 to 2012. The results show that the presence of a PA inspires the formation of an FTA, but present no clear evidence that the presence of an FTA promotes the formation of a PA. Our analysis also shows that a state prefers to form both FTAs and PAs with trade hub partners that have more FTAs but prefers to form only PAs with political hub partners that have more PAs. This study argues that such asymmetric effects between FTAs and PAs emphasizes the preferences of states for liberalizing trade and connecting with partners that have many FTAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preferential Trade Agreements and Global Value Chains)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Empirical Evaluation of Vocation to Solidarity Economy Using Composite Indicators
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3910; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143910
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many scholars today are deepening economic issues by looking at new paradigms based on the relationship between communities and the resources of the territory. The proposals are different, mainly focusing on economic theories such as solidarity economy, a mix of theories and practices [...] Read more.
Many scholars today are deepening economic issues by looking at new paradigms based on the relationship between communities and the resources of the territory. The proposals are different, mainly focusing on economic theories such as solidarity economy, a mix of theories and practices based on equity, sustainability, democracy, and reciprocity. The growing legislation on solidarity economy implies to develop tools to support Administrations and Communities throughout the process of effective realization. The aim of this study is to propose a methodology for evaluating the Vocation to Solidarity Economy (VSE) by means of a composite indicator (VSE index) and apply it to the territory of Friuli Venezia Giulia Region in the northeast of Italy. A series of basic factors concerning social, economic, and environmental aspects was defined by multidisciplinary experts and used for VSE index calculations. The spatialization of VSE index allows the assessment of the vocation of territories in supporting the paths to become Communities of Solidarity Economy as defined by a recent regional law. As results of subsequent VSE spatialization we obtain the maps which highlight different characteristics within the Region (i.e. urban/rural relations) helping local administrations to improve current policies towards sustainability. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Universiti Putra Malaysia and Its Potential for Green Energy Production
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3909; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143909
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The global waste generation keeps increasing over the years and it requires innovative solutions to minimize its impacts on environmental quality and public health. A strategic plan must be ascertained to overcome the future challenges of Municipal solid waste (MSW) locally and globally. [...] Read more.
The global waste generation keeps increasing over the years and it requires innovative solutions to minimize its impacts on environmental quality and public health. A strategic plan must be ascertained to overcome the future challenges of Municipal solid waste (MSW) locally and globally. Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) coined an initiative to demonstrate a showcase pilot plant for green energy production from MSW. The data was obtained from the survey and actual sampling within the UPM compound shows that UPM has generated 5.0–7.0 t/d of MSW generated consist of 30–35% organic fraction. Restaurants are the main source of the organic fraction. Upon separation, the organic fractions were digested into biogas. At a maximum conversion of the organic fraction, 715 kWh of electricity might be generated from the 2.2 t/d of organic waste generated in UPM. In this study, organic components from UPM were proposed to be subsequently used as a substrate via anaerobic digestion to produce green energy in the form of electricity or flammable fuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Trends in Municipal Solid Waste Management)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Potential Indicators of Soil Health Degradation in Different Land Use-Based Ecosystems in the Shiwaliks of Northwestern India
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3908; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143908
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (2616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identifying the importance of soil biology in different land use systems is critical to assess the present conditions of declining soil (C) and global land degradation while regulating soil health and biogeochemical nutrient cycling. A study was undertaken in a mixed watershed comprising [...] Read more.
Identifying the importance of soil biology in different land use systems is critical to assess the present conditions of declining soil (C) and global land degradation while regulating soil health and biogeochemical nutrient cycling. A study was undertaken in a mixed watershed comprising of different land use systems (agricultural, grassland, agroforestry, and eroded); situated in the Shiwalik region in the foot hills of the lower Himalayas in India, a fragile ecosystem susceptible to land degradation. Soil samples from 0–15 and 15–30 cm depths were collected from these land use systems and analyzed for a suite of different soil health indicators, including physio-chemical soil properties, aggregate stability, soil microflora, and the enzymatic activities that are critical for nutrient cycling. Principal component analysis was used to group different land uses and understand their association with soil microflora, enzyme activities, and soil physio-chemical properties. We found that a greater number of soil microflora and enzymatic activities were associated with grassland and agroforestry land use systems. Aggregate-associated soil C correlated well with the soil microflora under different land use systems studied. The biplots revealed that the fungal:bacterial ratio (2 × 103–0.1 × 103) was a robust indicator of C accumulation and soil health, and was in greater association with the agroforestry land use system. Random forest, a non-parametric statistical test, on average explained that 68% to 92% of the variability in soil microbial population was due to land use and other soil health properties. Overall, the biological soil health indicators used in this study demonstrated the fact that land use management systems that employ constant crop cover with minimal disturbance have the potential to improve soil sustainability and ecological functioning. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Animal Ethics and Eating Animals: Consumer Segmentation Based on Domain-Specific Values
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3907; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143907
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For a sustainable diet, especially with regard to animal welfare, human health, and environmental issues, a significant reduction in the consumption of animal source foods is essential. The most frequently reported motivations for a meat-reduced or meat-free diet are ethical concerns about animal [...] Read more.
For a sustainable diet, especially with regard to animal welfare, human health, and environmental issues, a significant reduction in the consumption of animal source foods is essential. The most frequently reported motivations for a meat-reduced or meat-free diet are ethical concerns about animal welfare. This study realizes one of the first consumer segmentations in the context of the human–animal relationship based on domain-specific values; animal ethics. Such a consumer segmentation is relatively stable over time and encompasses the issue of the human–animal relationship in its entirety without limiting itself to a specific question. Based on a comprehensive consumer survey in Germany and by means of a three-step cluster analysis, five consumer segments characterized by different animal-ethical value profiles were defined. A subsequent analysis revealed a link between animal ethics and diet. As a key result, relationism as an animal-ethical position seems to play a key role in the choice of a sustainable diet. About a quarter of the population is characterized by a combination of animal welfare-oriented ethical positions with a clear rejection of relationism, i.e., they do not distinguish between farm animals and companion animals. This specific combination of animal-ethical values is associated with a significantly above-average proportion of flexitarians and vegetarians. Thus, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of existing animal-ethical values and their link to the choice of diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing of Sustainable Food and Drink)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Relationships between Oil Prices and Implied Volatilities: Providing More Valuable Information
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143906
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
Viewed by 40 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the linear/nonlinear long-run and short-run dynamic relationships between oil prices and two implied volatilities, oil price volatility index (OVX) and stock index options volatility index (VIX), representing panic gauges. The results show that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the linear/nonlinear long-run and short-run dynamic relationships between oil prices and two implied volatilities, oil price volatility index (OVX) and stock index options volatility index (VIX), representing panic gauges. The results show that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between oil prices and OVX (VIX) using the linear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL)-bounds test. Likewise, while using the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL)-bounds test, not only does a long-run equilibrium relationship exist, but also the rising OVX (VIX) has a greater negative influence on oil prices than the declining OVX (VIX), thus indicating that a long-run, asymmetric cointegration exists between the variables. Furthermore, OVX (VIX) oil prices have a linear Granger causality, while for the nonlinear Granger causality test, oil prices have a bidirectional relation with OVX (VIX). In addition, we find that once major international political and economic events occur, structural changes in oil prices change the behavior of oil prices, and thus panic indices, thereby switching from a linear relationship to a nonlinear one. The empirical results of this study provide market participants with more valuable information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Time Series Analyses in Business)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Promoting Owners’ BIM Adoption Behaviors to Achieve Sustainable Project Management
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3905; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143905
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
Viewed by 37 | PDF Full-text (818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although building information modeling (BIM) has a promising future in the architecture, engineering and construction industry, its wider adoption and implementation is desired. Grounded with a technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework and the theory of technology acceptance model (TAM), this study extracted “social influence”, “organizational [...] Read more.
Although building information modeling (BIM) has a promising future in the architecture, engineering and construction industry, its wider adoption and implementation is desired. Grounded with a technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework and the theory of technology acceptance model (TAM), this study extracted “social influence”, “organizational support”, “BIM technical features”, and “government BIM policies” as four key external antecedents—in reference to the particular BIM practices in China—and proposed a model to predict project owners’ BIM adoption behaviors. To test the proposed model, structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was applied for configuration analyses on a sample of 188 project owners from the Chinese construction industry. Results show that BIM technical features, and government BIM policies have positive effects on perceived usefulness, but social influence and organizational support have no significant influence on perceived usefulness. Furthermore, both social influence and BIM technical features have positive effects on perceived ease of use, while organizational support and government BIM policies have no significant influence on perceived ease of use. Attitude plays a significant intermediary role among perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and behavior intention. Additionally, attitude significantly affects behavior intention, and behavior intention can also affect BIM adoption behavior. This study is the first attempt to investigate project owners’ behaviors toward BIM adoption and the findings are expected to provide a better understanding of the essential elements of project owners’ BIM adoption behaviors and guide industry practitioners in developing proper strategies to achieve more effective BIM implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction Engineering and Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Optimisation Model to Consider the NIMBY Syndrome within the Landfill Siting Problem
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143904
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
Viewed by 54 | PDF Full-text (4183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a discrete optimisation model and a heuristic algorithm to solve the landfill siting problem over large areas. Besides waste transport costs and plant construction and maintenance costs, usually considered in such problems, the objective function includes economic compensation for residents [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a discrete optimisation model and a heuristic algorithm to solve the landfill siting problem over large areas. Besides waste transport costs and plant construction and maintenance costs, usually considered in such problems, the objective function includes economic compensation for residents in the areas affected by the landfill, to combat the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome or, at least, reduce its adverse effects. The proposed methodology is applied to a real-scale case study, the region of Campania, Italy, where waste management is a thorny problem. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm may be used to obtain a solution to the problem, albeit sub-optimal, with acceptable computing times, and the proposed model tends to locate landfills in sparsely populated sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Convention Tourism and Sustainability: Exploring Influencing Factors on Delegate Green Behavior That Reduce Environmental Impacts
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3903; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143903
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
Viewed by 67 | PDF Full-text (1457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the steady growth of the convention tourism industry, little is known about the stimulation of delegates’ green behaviors during their convention travel. This research sought to elucidate delegates’ green behavioral intentions by taking the role of green attitudes, social norms, eco-concern, personal [...] Read more.
Despite the steady growth of the convention tourism industry, little is known about the stimulation of delegates’ green behaviors during their convention travel. This research sought to elucidate delegates’ green behavioral intentions by taking the role of green attitudes, social norms, eco-concern, personal moral obligation, and green behaviors in daily life into account. A quantitative approach employing a survey methodology was utilized for the attainment of research goals. Our results revealed that green attitudes, social norms, eco-concern, and personal moral obligation were significant determinants of delegates’ green behavioral intentions. Among these determinants, eco-concern had a salient effect on delegates’ intention to practice conservation behaviors, whereas personal moral obligation had a prominent role in inducing their willingness to sacrifice. Moreover, our results uncovered that green behaviors in daily life were a moderator in maximizing the influence of green attitudes, eco-concern, and personal moral obligation on the intention to practice conservation behaviors and in maximizing the effect of social norms on the willingness to sacrifice. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Gratitude at Work Works! A Mix-Method Study on Different Dimensions of Gratitude, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3902; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143902
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
Viewed by 65 | PDF Full-text (619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gratitude may be defined as a personal positive tendency to recognize and respond with gratitude to positive experiences. It has been extensively described within personal relationship literature, showing its correlations with life satisfaction and decreased psychopathology. We propose here to consider gratitude as [...] Read more.
Gratitude may be defined as a personal positive tendency to recognize and respond with gratitude to positive experiences. It has been extensively described within personal relationship literature, showing its correlations with life satisfaction and decreased psychopathology. We propose here to consider gratitude as both a personal and an organizational value able to improve job performance and job satisfaction. The specific aim is twofold: to explore how public administration workers are used to express and perceive gratitude in the workplace, and to validate a serial mediation model, in which dispositional, collective, and relational gratitude are predictors of job satisfaction and job performance. We have designed a mix-method study, with a survey and a diary study, choosing to collect data also on a daily basis because we were interested in gratitude exchanges in work contexts using the event-sampling data method. Nine employees from several Italian public administrations completed a gratitude diary for ten working days in the initial qualitative part of the study. Afterwards, a sample of 96 Italian public administration employees filled in a questionnaire with measures related to job satisfaction, job performance, and three dimensions of gratitude: dispositional, collective, and relational. Results confirm that the three types of gratitude are predictors of job performance and job satisfaction and this relation has been tested in a serial mediation model. This investigation on gratitude has practical implications for the planning of training interventions framed in the positive psychology context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Trialogue on Built Heritage and Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3901; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143901
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
Viewed by 84 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study represents a trialogue by a town planner, an economist, and a political scientist on the concepts of built heritage and sustainable development in terms of some features in the relationship between sustainable development and economics, sustainable development, built heritage conservation and [...] Read more.
This study represents a trialogue by a town planner, an economist, and a political scientist on the concepts of built heritage and sustainable development in terms of some features in the relationship between sustainable development and economics, sustainable development, built heritage conservation and economics, built heritage conservation and politics, built heritage conservation and sustainable development, and the tension between built heritage conservation vs. conservation/sustainable development. From planning, economic, and political angles, the feasibility and limitations of heritage building conservation in relation to conservation and sustainable development are presented. Compared to ecological conservation, built heritage conservation can easily accommodate sustainable development, as it is certainly a physical dimension for managing cultural heritage conservation. Built heritage as “heritage buildings” can articulate with real estate development via proper conservation planning. Its historical aspect signifies the legitimacy of conservation, while its proprietary aspect renders it fit for betterment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Built Heritage and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
Congestion Control in Charging Stations Allocation with Q-Learning
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3900; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143900
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
Viewed by 133 | PDF Full-text (649 KB)
Abstract
Navigation systems can help in allocating public charging stations to electric vehicles (EVs) with the aim of minimizing EVs’ charging time by integrating sufficient data. However, the existing systems only consider their travel time and transform the allocation as a routing problem. In [...] Read more.
Navigation systems can help in allocating public charging stations to electric vehicles (EVs) with the aim of minimizing EVs’ charging time by integrating sufficient data. However, the existing systems only consider their travel time and transform the allocation as a routing problem. In this paper, we involve the queuing time in stations as one part of EVs’ charging time, and another part is the travel time on roads. Roads and stations are easily congested resources, and we constructed a joint-resource congestion game to describe the interaction between vehicles and resources. With a finite number of vehicles and resources, there exists a Nash equilibrium. To realize a self-adaptive allocation work, we applied the Q-learning algorithm on systems, defining sets of states and actions in our constructed environment. After being allocated one by one, vehicles concurrently requesting to be charged will be processed properly. We collected urban road network data from Chongqing city and conducted experiments. The results illustrate the proposed method can be used to solve the problem, and its convergence performance was better than the genetic algorithm. The road capacity and the number of EVs affected the initial of Q-value, and not the convergence trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation for Sustainable Cities)
Open AccessArticle
Cruise Flight Performance Optimization for Minimizing Green Direct Operating Cost
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3899; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143899
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
Viewed by 125 | PDF Full-text (3151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To cope with the environmental impact of aviation and pollution problems in the future, airlines need to assess environmental impacts and offer countermeasures in advance. In order to measure the influence of environment on the airlines’ operational costs, this paper establishes an aircraft [...] Read more.
To cope with the environmental impact of aviation and pollution problems in the future, airlines need to assess environmental impacts and offer countermeasures in advance. In order to measure the influence of environment on the airlines’ operational costs, this paper establishes an aircraft green direct operating cost (GDOC) model to quantify adverse environmental effects, such as air pollution and greenhouse effects, into the direct operating cost (DOC). Furthermore, fuel consumption, flight time, and distance in the cruising stage account for about 80% of the entire flight mission, and optimizing cruise flight performance can contribute greatly to reduce GDOC. Therefore, this paper sets up an optimal control model to minimize GDOC, establishes a discrete time dynamic system for optimizing the cruise altitude and speed profiles, and searches the optimal results by using dynamic programming. Besides, as meteorological conditions affect aircraft aerodynamics, fuel flow rate, contrail formation, and so on, this paper analyzes meteorological uncertainty by using historic meteorological data. Finally, a route is selected as an example, and the rationality of the optimal results is proven by comparing GDOC with DOC. The results and discussion of the numerical test also show that environmental effects on aircraft operation can be reduced significantly by adopting GDOC as the optimization objective, especially the contrail cost, and the step-climb cruise mode can further reduce GDOC effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Applying Liquid Swine Manure on Soil Quality and Yield Production in Tropical Soybean Crops (Paraná, Brazil)
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3898; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143898
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
Viewed by 136 | PDF Full-text (1573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brazil is one of the main producers of pork meat in the world. It is well-known that the agricultural sector is a key component of the economic development of this country, where super-intensive fields are only competitive in the globalized market. For the [...] Read more.
Brazil is one of the main producers of pork meat in the world. It is well-known that the agricultural sector is a key component of the economic development of this country, where super-intensive fields are only competitive in the globalized market. For the farmers, the application of swine manure to fertilize the soil can increase the yearly income, but it also may cause serious environmental problems related to soil health and soil quality. In this research, we assessed the effects of applying liquid swine manure in a tropical soybean (Glycine max) plantation to better understand when this technique stops being effective and starts causing a threat to soil health and quality. Therefore, we compared values of several soil properties and the soybean yield on treated fields at 10 random points belonging to 7 different plots that were treated with the liquid swine manure over a period ranging from 0 to 15 years. The results showed a positive linear trend in soybean production from 2.45 to 3.08 Mg ha−1 yr−1. This positive trend was also recorded for some key soil parameters such as porosity and exchangeable cations content (Ca, Mg, K, and Al). Additionally, positive effects were also found for organic matter content after 10 years of application. Our findings suggest that the use of liquid swine manure has a positive effect on soybean yield and improves soil quality, particularly on mixed farms where pigs are intensively raised nearby cultivated fields. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top