Special Issue "Education for Sustainability in Physical Education"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Education and Approaches".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Amador Jesús Lara Sánchez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Didactics of Musical, Plastic and Corporal Expression, University of Jaen, Jaen, 23071, Spain
Interests: Alternative sports; Active transport; Healthy lifestyle
Dr. Ramón Chacón Cuberos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Education (Didactics of Corporal Expression), University of Almería, Almería, 04120, Spain
Interests: Physical education; Health; Sport and environment; Psychosocial factors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The benefits of physical activity and sport in health are evident, as well as their role in the prevention of several pathologies and cognitive and social problems. Physical education represents one of the basic tools to initiate, from an early age, healthy habits that contribute to physical and mental well-being. Likewise, this educational area has various resources that support an active lifestyle, developing knowledge of the body and its possibilities, generating adaptive behaviors and expanding responsible attitudes toward the environment and the resources it uses.

This Special Issue aims to explore the current state of this outlook, delving into the current causes linked to unhealthy habits and bad practices in sports in different contexts. It will explore the relationships between psychosocial factors and the association with different aspects related to physical activity and sport. Furthermore, this issue is open to reviews, and descriptive or experimental studies that contribute new knowledge to this area, as well as new methodological proposals related to physical education in different educational stages, such as alternative sports and responsible physical activity practice. This Special Issue will focus on this topic and its solutions, what our current state of knowledge is and future directions for promoting responsible physical education with healthy development and social practices and a knowledge of the environment and its resources from childhood.

Dr. Amador Jesús Lara Sánchez
Dr. Ramón Chacón Cuberos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Physical education
  • Sustainability
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Active transport
  • Psychosocial factors in physical activity
  • Alternative sports
  • Sport and environment

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison between Different Prescription Methods for Aerobic Training in Young Adults
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6420; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226420 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation are used to determine the intensity of aerobic exercise. This study aims to compare heart rate values relative to the percentages of 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%, a comparison calculated through the reserve heart rate (HRR) and reserve [...] Read more.
Anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation are used to determine the intensity of aerobic exercise. This study aims to compare heart rate values relative to the percentages of 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%, a comparison calculated through the reserve heart rate (HRR) and reserve oxygen consumption (VO2R) equations corresponding to the oxygen consumption obtained by the direct method. The sample was composed of 11 men and 10 women: mean age, 21.4 ± 2.8 years. Volunteers performed a maximal treadmill test in which oxygen uptake was measured using the VO2000® metabolic analyzer. The mean body fat percentage was 15.68 ± 8.02% corresponding to a lean body mass of 54.8 ± 13.0 kg and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 56.0 ± 8.4 mL/Kg·min−1. The measured intensities (50%, 60%, 70% and 80% of VO2max) presented significant differences (p < 0.05) for each reference value. Mean values calculated by the HRR equation demonstrated a tendency to underestimate the intensities, while the values calculated by the VO2R equation showed a tendency to overestimate the intensities. As the main conclusion, it is pointed out that both methods were effective for determining the intensity of aerobic training. However, they presented significant differences, and the equations should be adjusted to increase precision. Thus, the use of HRR is recommended for the determination of training intensities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
Somatotype, BMI, and Sexual Dimorphism in Adolescent School Sports Players in Peru
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6224; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226224 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
Introduction and objectives (1): It is currently important to be able to establish logical plans for physical work and/or nutrition aimed at achieving optimal levels of performance and wellbeing. To achieve this, it is crucial to understand anthropometric data and how they relate [...] Read more.
Introduction and objectives (1): It is currently important to be able to establish logical plans for physical work and/or nutrition aimed at achieving optimal levels of performance and wellbeing. To achieve this, it is crucial to understand anthropometric data and how they relate to body type and, above all, how they associate with parameters linked to health. The present study, therefore, proposed to examine intersexual morphological differences and to determine the existing relationship between somatotype and BMI in a sample of school sports players from Huacho (Peru). Material and methods (2): A descriptive, comparative, correlational, and transversal study was delivered within a sample of 294 students (165 males and 129 females). Participants were aged between 12–16 years and regularly participated in team sports at competitive school level. All participants took part in the anthropometric examination in order to determine their somatotype and body mass index (BMI). Results (3): Significant differences were found to exist between the sexes in practically all of the anthropometric measures. The data demonstrated a high index of overweight and obesity. Further, the zones of occupation of the somatochart for both populations showed a displacement towards endomorphism, and that the level of typological similarity between populations was 30.54%. Conclusions (4): Results indicate a serious need for training so that adolescent students acquire healthy habits and lifestyles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Testosterone and Cortisol Responses to HIIT and Continuous Aerobic Exercise in Active Young Men
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216069 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
It is well known that physical exercise modifies plasma levels of testosterone and cortisol. However, the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma hormone levels is controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of HIIT exercise or [...] Read more.
It is well known that physical exercise modifies plasma levels of testosterone and cortisol. However, the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma hormone levels is controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of HIIT exercise or submaximal continuous aerobic exercise on circulating testosterone and cortisol levels in active male collegiate students. Methods: Thirteen moderately-active young adult males (20.2 (SD 2.1) years old) completed a HIIT (20 min of 15 s intervals of running at 110% of maximum oxygen consumption interspersed with 15 s of active rest at 40% of maximum oxygen consumption) and a continuous aerobic exercise (AEE) 20 min at 70–75% of maximum oxygen consumption. The mean total workload of both protocols was the same for each exercise session. Blood samples were collected pre-session (rest), immediately after the session (0 h), and 12 h post-session (12 h). Results: Both exercise protocols, similarly increased plasma levels of free testosterone immediately post-exertion (p < 0.05 AEE and p < 0.01 HIIT). No differences were observed between the conditions in the concentration of testosterone at 12 h. Cortisol level and Testosterone/Cortisol (T/C) ratio remained constant for all measurements, regardless of the type of exercise performed. Conclusion: The testosterone concentrations rose significantly post intervention in both HIIT and AEE condition, but 12 h post intervention there was no difference between conditions, decreasing to baseline (pre-intervention). The T/C ratio decreased significantly (below baseline) only in the HIIT condition 12 h post intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Self-Efficacy Towards Inclusion in In-Service Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison between Insular and Peninsular Regions in Spain
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5824; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205824 - 20 Oct 2019
Abstract
Physical education teachers play a significant role in educating students with special education needs, but they often feel frustrated and unprepared to achieve a successful inclusion process. The lack of inadequate training has proven to have an unfavorable effect on educators’ perceived competence, [...] Read more.
Physical education teachers play a significant role in educating students with special education needs, but they often feel frustrated and unprepared to achieve a successful inclusion process. The lack of inadequate training has proven to have an unfavorable effect on educators’ perceived competence, confidence, and attitudes when working in inclusive settings with children with disabilities. This study evaluates the effect of a training program implemented with in-service physical educators from two different regions in Spain, insular and peninsular, in order to improve their self-efficacy in including students with disabilities in physical education. A pre- vs. post-test intervention was conducted with two groups of 142 in-service physical educators with similar age and teaching experience. The intervention improved their perceived self-efficacy in including students with physical, visual, and intellectual disabilities in physical education (p < 0.01, effect sizes = large). The physical educators teaching in the insular region improved their self-efficacy to a higher extent. This study demonstrates the invariant effect of the training program in both regions, but the self-efficacy scores of the physical educators might be constrained by the contents regarding inclusion in their pre-service training, the education policies of the region where the teaching takes place or the geographical characteristics of their workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Relationship between Urban Residents’ Perception of Recreational Sports and Their Participation in Recreational Sports: Based on Gender Differences
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5466; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195466 - 02 Oct 2019
Abstract
Background: The health of urban residents plays an important role in increasing the well-being of citizens, and therefore promoting the sustainable development of cities. Studies in Western countries have provided some evidence of the relationship between the urban residents’ perception of the recreational [...] Read more.
Background: The health of urban residents plays an important role in increasing the well-being of citizens, and therefore promoting the sustainable development of cities. Studies in Western countries have provided some evidence of the relationship between the urban residents’ perception of the recreational sports (RS), including perception of industry, space, experience, type, and support affecting recreational behaviors. Yet, evidence in China is not sufficient and, particularly, gender difference has not been discussed anywhere. Objectives: The present study aimed to see urban residents’ perception of RS and its effect on recreational sport participation by the residents. Method: The study was conducted in three big cities (Hangzhou, Chengdu, and Shanghai) of China to test the association between the urban residents’ perception of RS and their RS participation, in which gender differences were discussed. After taking their consent, a total of 764 participants (397 male and 367 female) aged from 15 to 65 were approached between April and October, 2018. The participants were given a survey to assess their perception and behavior of RS. T-test and the structural equation modeling were used to analyze gender differences in association between perception and behavior of RS. Results: For females, industry perception (β = 0.17, p = 0.00), space perception (females: β = 0.16, p = 0.00), and support perception (females: β = 0.09, p = 0.03) had a significant positive effect on RS participation. For males, industry perception (males: β = 0.13, p = 0.01) and type perception (males: β = 0.23, p = 0.00) showed a significant positive impact on participation of RS. However, space perception of males (β = −0.12; p = 0.01) and type perception of females (β = −0.11; p = 0.01) are negatively associated with their RS participation. The perception of experience was the most important factor influencing RS behaviors. Significant gender differences have appeared in all five different perception factors. The industry perception has significant and positive effects on both males and females’ RS participation. The type perception has significant positive effects on the male but negative on the female RS, while the space perception is just the opposite. The support perception has significant positive effects on the female RS practice but the influence is not obvious in the case of males. Conclusion: By adopting some measures, perception of RS may improve urban residents’ participation in RS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Risk of Dependence on Sport in Relation to Body Dissatisfaction and Motivation
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5299; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195299 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of dependency on physical exercise in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. Two hundred and twenty-five triathletes, swimmers, cyclists, and athletics competitors aged 18 to 63 years old took [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of dependency on physical exercise in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. Two hundred and twenty-five triathletes, swimmers, cyclists, and athletics competitors aged 18 to 63 years old took part in the study, of which 145 were men (M = 35.57 ± 10.46 years) and 80 were women (M = 32.83 ± 10.31 years). The EDS-R (Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised) was used to study dependency on exercising, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to study body dissatisfaction, the Behaviour Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3) was used to determine the participants’ motivation and the BIAQ was used to analyse conducts of avoidance to body image. The obtained results show that 8.5% of the subjects have a risk of dependency on exercise and 18.2% tend to have corporal dissatisfaction, without meaningful differences in the kind of sport they practiced. However, there were important differences concerning the dependency on physical exercise (15% vs. 4.8%) and body dissatisfaction (31.1% vs. 11%) in relation to sex, with the higher percentages referring to women. Introjected regulation and the conduct of food restriction were predictor variables of the dependency on exercise and corporal dissatisfaction. Also, the number and duration of sessions; the age of the participants; the integrated, introjected, and external regulations surrounding social activities; and eating restraints could all predict dependence on physical exercise (DPE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
Back Pain and Knowledge of Back Care Related to Physical Activity in 12 to 17 Year Old Adolescents from the Region of Murcia (Spain): ISQUIOS Programme
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5249; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195249 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
Knowledge on back care is important to prevent back problems. The purpose of this study was to a) describe back pain and knowledge on back care related to physical activity in adolescents and b) determine the association between these two factors. This was [...] Read more.
Knowledge on back care is important to prevent back problems. The purpose of this study was to a) describe back pain and knowledge on back care related to physical activity in adolescents and b) determine the association between these two factors. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 276 students (aged from 12 to 17 years old), from three Spanish public secondary schools, had to complete a survey about back pain and another one about their knowledge on back care related to physical activity. The results showed a mean score of 2.54 ± 1.85 (out of 10), and 90.58% of students failed the knowledge test. Those who suffered from back pain in the week before scored higher (2.91 ± 1.66) than non-sufferers (2.42 ± 1.90), with statistically significant differences (Z = −2.109; p = 0.035; r = 0.127), although with no academically relevant differences. Finally, despite the relationship between a higher mean score in the knowledge test and back pain within the previous week, it has been found that there was not a significant association because most of the students got very low scores in the knowledge test. It also shows an important lack of knowledge about physical activity for back care in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptation and Validation of the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) in Physical Education Classes and Analysis of Its Role as Mediator between Teacher and Anxiety
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5081; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185081 - 17 Sep 2019
Abstract
Physical education (PE) classes are one of the primary means of adopting healthy lifestyles and contribute greatly to personal well-being. However, it is necessary that students pay attention and do not enter a mind-wandering state as this can be negative for the purposes [...] Read more.
Physical education (PE) classes are one of the primary means of adopting healthy lifestyles and contribute greatly to personal well-being. However, it is necessary that students pay attention and do not enter a mind-wandering state as this can be negative for the purposes of PE classes. Therefore, we adapted and validated the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) to the Spanish PE context and analyzed the influence of the teacher on this new variable. Two independent samples of high school students between the ages of 13 and 19 participated in the study. In order to assess the psychometric properties of the MWQ, various analyses were carried out. The results of the confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) provided support for the structure of the questionnaire. The structure of the model was gender-invariant. The Cronbach alpha value was higher than 0.70 and showed an adequate level of temporal stability. In addition, we present a second study in which high school students between the ages of 13 and 19 participated, and which are independent of the first study. The analyses in this study were mainly based on structural equation modelling, and demonstrated the teacher’s influence on mind-wandering and showed that mind-wandering acted as a predictor of anxiety in high school students. The results of this study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the MWQ in the Spanish PE context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of the Scale of Emotional States in the Physical Education Context
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5006; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185006 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to validate an instrument of student emotional experiences in the Spanish Physical Education context. The sample of participants consisted of 864 secondary education students from various educational institutions of Spain who ranged in age from 13 [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to validate an instrument of student emotional experiences in the Spanish Physical Education context. The sample of participants consisted of 864 secondary education students from various educational institutions of Spain who ranged in age from 13 to 19 years. To assess the psychometric properties of the Scale of Emotions in Physical Education (SEPE), various types of analyses were conducted. The factor structure of the SEPE was examined through confirmatory factorial analysis in relation to two models. In the first model, it was proposed that the eight first order factors, which represented the eight emotional states, would be correlated amongst each other. In the second model, an eight-factor model with two higher order factors was proposed, with these higher order factors representing distinct sets of positive and negative emotions. The results provide support the presence of an eight-factor second order model which consisted of sets of four positive emotions and four negative emotions. These results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEPE within the Spanish Physical Education context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Strength and Endurance Values in Schoolchildren Aged 7 to 10 Years in Tolú, Colombia
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4433; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164433 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
The objective of this study was to describe the state of strength and endurance in schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years old from the city of Santiago de Tolú, Colombia, and to relate such values to their weights, heights, and body mass index [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to describe the state of strength and endurance in schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years old from the city of Santiago de Tolú, Colombia, and to relate such values to their weights, heights, and body mass index (BMI) values. This was a descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional research study, whose quantitative statistical analysis was compared with studies conducted in Colombia and other countries. Strength was measured by the summation of the segmental dynamometry of the upper and lower limbs, and endurance was measured with a 5 min continuous run test. This is the first investigation to characterize variables related to physical education and sport in schoolchildren from Tolú. The information collected on the evaluated population may aid in its sustainable human development, since significant differences in height, weight, BMI, strength, and endurance were identified with respect to other national and international populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
Motivation, Anxiety, and Emotional Intelligence Are Associated with the Practice of Contact and Non-Contact Sports: An Explanatory Model
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4256; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164256 - 07 Aug 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: Several studies have shown that high anxiety impairs sport performance, making it important to develop strategies which improve the emotional self-regulation of athletes. The present study analyzed the relationship between emotional intelligence, motivational climate in sport, and anxiety according to participation [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several studies have shown that high anxiety impairs sport performance, making it important to develop strategies which improve the emotional self-regulation of athletes. The present study analyzed the relationship between emotional intelligence, motivational climate in sport, and anxiety according to participation in contact or non-contact sports, using multi-group structural equation modeling; (2) Methods: This research was conducted with a sample of 371 semi-professional athletes from Spain. The main variables were emotional intelligence, motivational climate in sport, and anxiety. A multi-group path analysis was developed and demonstrated acceptable fit (χ2 = 418.60; df = 46; p < 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.959; Normalized Fit Index (NFI) = 0.955; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.959; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.063); (3) Results: A negative association was identified between task-oriented climate and ego-oriented climate. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between task-oriented climate and emotional intelligence, which was strongest in individuals participating in non-contact sports. The relationship between ego-oriented climate and emotional intelligence was less evident. Furthermore, both state anxiety and trait anxiety were negatively correlated with emotional intelligence; (4) Conclusions: The key conclusion from the present research is that task-oriented motivational climates positively influence levels of emotional intelligence and anxiety, especially in contact sports. It is important to encourage the development of self-determined motivational climates in order to avoid emotional states which can hinder performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Health-Related Fitness and Physical Activity during Weekdays: Do Fit Students Exercise More after School?
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4127; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154127 - 31 Jul 2019
Abstract
Physically active students are more likely to be fit and learn better in school than sedentary ones. For school-aged children, it is unclear whether physical fitness level is an important determinant for student’s activity afterschool. This study examined the association between health-related physical [...] Read more.
Physically active students are more likely to be fit and learn better in school than sedentary ones. For school-aged children, it is unclear whether physical fitness level is an important determinant for student’s activity afterschool. This study examined the association between health-related physical fitness test performance and afterschool physical activity during weekdays. Participants (n = 97, 11–13 years old) completed health-related fitness tests. They wore Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for five consecutive days, recording physical activity participation during after school hours. Descriptive statistics for both afterschool physical activity and health-related fitness were summarized. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between variables. Participants spent most of their afterschool hours participating in sedentary behaviors (274.27 ± 66.89 min) and light physical activity (73.68 ± 51.66 min), and only 11.35 ± 16.92 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), accumulating approximately 2058.52 ± 1690.56 steps each day afterschool. The regression model explained 22.8% of the variance in afterschool MVPA, and Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) scores were the only statistically significant predictor (β = 0.47, p < 0.01). Fit students do tend to exercise more after school. Promoting physical fitness in school is an important factor for students’ afterschool physical activity participation during weekdays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
The Association between Violent Behavior, Academic Performance, and Physical Activity According to Gender in Scholars
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4071; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154071 - 28 Jul 2019
Abstract
Background: Aggressive behaviors have increased in a worrying way all over the world, and this has been one more reason to be able to investigate what happens in schools. Its presence has been increasing in recent decades and, therefore, this issue has been [...] Read more.
Background: Aggressive behaviors have increased in a worrying way all over the world, and this has been one more reason to be able to investigate what happens in schools. Its presence has been increasing in recent decades and, therefore, this issue has been approached from different points of view of society. The aim of this study was to analyze and establish the indices of aggressive behaviors and their possible association with gender, academic achievement, and the Physical Activity (PA) in schoolchildren aged 10–12 in Granada (Spain). Methods: Its design is descriptive and cross-sectional, the sample is 320 students, an ad-hoc questionnaire was used to establish socio-demographic variables, violent behavior (measured with the scale of violent behaviors), gender, academic performance, and PA. Results: The results showed that schoolchildren with higher levels of violent behaviors have been in the reactive and relational reactive manifest dimension, males are more assiduous to practice PA than females, and these were characterized by greater manifest and relational aggressiveness. However, they present higher average values in violent behaviors than they do if academic performance is taken into account. Conclusions: The main recommendation is the need to study, in greater depth, the active sports population in order to try to know the cause of these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
Perceived Quality in Sports Centers in Southern Spain: A Case Study
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143983 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of satisfaction in three municipal sports centers in the city of Malaga and to learn and analyze the characteristics of users older than 40 years of age in these centers. A total of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of satisfaction in three municipal sports centers in the city of Malaga and to learn and analyze the characteristics of users older than 40 years of age in these centers. A total of 303 persons (123 men and 180 women) from three sports centers in the city of Malaga participated in this study (M = 58.14, SD = 7.16 years). The Evaluation of Perceived Quality in Sports Services test (CECASDEP) was used, and the results demonstrated that the different dimensions studied—sports center, activity space, locker rooms, program of activities, and trainer—were very positively correlated. The level of customer loyalty increased with user satisfaction and perceived quality of services as well as the age of the person. Users were also found to be more motivated to take part in physical activities due to greater satisfaction. The highest scores were given to the trainers, who played a key role in all three sports centers. In conclusion, we gathered important insights into perceived quality in different sports centers. This information can be used by sports managers to strengthen dimensions with lower scores and improve those with higher scores. In addition, the study confirms that the level of customer loyalty is related to the perceived quality scores. Therefore, the use of measuring instruments is recommended to optimize the quality of sports services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Public Playgrounds to Motor, Social, and Creative Development and Obesity Reduction in Children
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3787; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143787 - 10 Jul 2019
Abstract
The objective of this work was to examine the perceptions of adults responsible for the care of children in their leisure time about the contribution of public playgrounds to motor, social, and creative development and obesity reduction in children, analyzing these perceptions according [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to examine the perceptions of adults responsible for the care of children in their leisure time about the contribution of public playgrounds to motor, social, and creative development and obesity reduction in children, analyzing these perceptions according to sex, age, educational level, and level of involvement in the child’s education of the participants. The sample consisted of 1019 adults responsible for the care of children in their leisure time in Albacete (Spain). A validated questionnaire was the instrument used to assess perceptions of participants on the influence of the public playgrounds in motor, social, and creative development and obesity reduction of children. The instrument was validated on a first sample of convenience and had good reliability (α = 0.997) and construct validity (CFI = 0.997). The results showed that most participants agreed with the positive contribution of public playgrounds to social skills (78.8%), motor skills (53.7%), creativity (52.2%), and obesity reduction (48.8%) in children. Women, those between 30 and 49 years, those with a higher educational level and those with a higher level of involvement in the child’s education had more positive perceptions regarding the impact of public playgrounds to motor, social, and creative development and obesity reduction in children. These results should be taken in consideration to foster the use of public playgrounds in all sectors of population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Motivational Climate, Emotional Intelligence, and Healthy Habits in Physical Education Teachers of the Future Using Structural Equations
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3740; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133740 - 09 Jul 2019
Abstract
This study developed a Structural Equation Model (SEM) in order to identify the associations between motivational climate, emotional intelligence, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD), Physical Activity (PA), and some health indicators in a sample of future teachers. A non-experimental and cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
This study developed a Structural Equation Model (SEM) in order to identify the associations between motivational climate, emotional intelligence, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD), Physical Activity (PA), and some health indicators in a sample of future teachers. A non-experimental and cross-sectional study was carried in 775 university students (22.22 ± 3.76), using as main scales the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2), Emotional Intelligence Inventory adapted for the sport context, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A), Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED), 20 meter Shuttle Run Test (20mSRT), and percentage of lean and fat mass as calculated by the Tanita TBF300®® (Tanita-Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) electronic scale. The results showed a positive association between emotional intelligence and task climate, whereas the relationship with an ego climate was low. Ego-oriented climate was positively related to MD and high levels of PA. Emotional intelligence was directly related to higher levels of PA and the level of adherence to MD. PA was negatively associated with fat mass and positively with lean mass and VO2MAX. Task-oriented motivational climate showed a positive relation with the emotional intelligence of young people. Ego-oriented motivational climates were related to higher rates of physical-sport engagement and better diet quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
A Socioeducational Intervention about Parental Attitudes in Grassroots Football and Its Effects
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3500; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133500 - 26 Jun 2019
Abstract
Despite the importance and usefulness of previous observational methodology investigations’ outcomes, there is no evidence about the creation or evaluation of a socioeducational intervention for parents in sport. Therefore, researchers do not have the possibility to apply a socioeducational intervention to their parental [...] Read more.
Despite the importance and usefulness of previous observational methodology investigations’ outcomes, there is no evidence about the creation or evaluation of a socioeducational intervention for parents in sport. Therefore, researchers do not have the possibility to apply a socioeducational intervention to their parental observations. This investigation was focused on the effects of the application of a socioeducational intervention with parents of 12 football teams in the U-15 years category in the Balearic Islands (Spain) during the 2016–17 season. Furthermore, six teams formed the control group (CG) and six constituted the experimental group (EG). This research was divided into three phases: (1) pre-test, (2) socioeducational intervention, and (3) post-test. The 12 matches recorded during the first phase and the 12 matches recorded during the third phase were observed and coded by trained observers using LINCE and POISE (parents’ observation instrument at sport events). Results showed a decrease in negative comments and an increase in positive comments during the matches, confirming the socioeducational intervention performed with that aim. This study suggests that the present socioeducational intervention demonstrates improvements on parental attitudes in grassroot football and, due to this reason, we encourage authors to use it and provide feedback. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Education Teachers and Their ICT Training Applied to Students with Disabilities. The Case of Spain
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2559; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092559 - 03 May 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: The introduction of Information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the area of Physical Education is a very recent phenomenon, and its implementation is a challenge for teachers in Spain. It implies pedagogic innovation for the improvement of the teaching and learning [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The introduction of Information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the area of Physical Education is a very recent phenomenon, and its implementation is a challenge for teachers in Spain. It implies pedagogic innovation for the improvement of the teaching and learning processes, especially for people with a disability (functional diversity). The aim of this study was to identify the degree of technological knowledge (ICT) of the physical education teachers for students with disabilities. (2) Methods: A sample of 341 Physical Education teachers from Spain volunteered for this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire named “DIFOTICyD”, created “ad hoc” was used as the data-gathering instrument. (3) Results: the results revealed the low training of the participants with respect to the use of the ICTs in the field of disability. The degree of training of the teachers was determined by the personal (gender, age), professional (teaching experience) and educational (training received) outcomes. (4) Conclusions: the findings of the study point to the need for didactic training that can be used to train the Physical Education teachers to use ICTs in order to facilitate the learning and educational innovation of students with disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Body Mass Index on Affective Development in Physical Education
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092459 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to show the results and the transcendental conclusions about various kinds of emotions—positive or pleasant and negative or unpleasant—and their intensity as far as they are felt by students of the fifth and sixth grade of Primary [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to show the results and the transcendental conclusions about various kinds of emotions—positive or pleasant and negative or unpleasant—and their intensity as far as they are felt by students of the fifth and sixth grade of Primary Education in the area of Physical Education, comparing the emotional states according to gender and their body-mass index (BMI). The implication is to provide a new, emotional approach, which up to now has been insufficiently dealt with in educational research. The sample was composed of 786 students of the fifth and sixth grade of Primary Education from five localities in the province of Albacete (Spain). In order to assess affectivity, the version of PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988) was used, validated in Spanish by Sandín (2003) for use with children and teenagers (PANASN). The results showed that the scores were higher in the positive emotions than in the negative ones. In addition, the results showed significant differences among boys and girls in the Physical Education class, especially in the variables which contribute the most to the factor of positive emotions. In relation to the analysis about the differences according to the students’ BMI, it is noteworthy that in the dimension of positive emotions, all the highest average scorings are found in the students without obesity/overweight problems. With respect to the dimension of negative emotions, all the highest average scorings were found in the students with obesity/overweight problems. The results showed significant differences according to BMI among students with obesity/overweight problems and students without obesity/overweight problems in positive emotions. There were no significant differences in negative emotions. Boys as much as girls without obesity/overweight problems show more positive emotions than boys and girls with obesity/overweight problems. Intervention programmes are required, and they should include enjoyment as an essential condition for practicing sport, encouraging the development of positive affects, and diminishing the negative affects in boys and girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Team Cohesion and Sustained Collaboration Skills with the Sport Education Model
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082348 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Physical education is crucial to the development of physical and social abilities. Team cohesion, nurtured in physical education, influences team performance and provides skills that students may translate into future social arenas. However, whether teaching strategy in physical education affects the development of [...] Read more.
Physical education is crucial to the development of physical and social abilities. Team cohesion, nurtured in physical education, influences team performance and provides skills that students may translate into future social arenas. However, whether teaching strategy in physical education affects the development of team cohesion remains uncertain. The sport education model (SEM) enhances sport skills, rule knowledge, sport etiquette, and affective development through games and competition. The SEM has replaced many conventional physical education curricula in advanced countries. Therefore, this quasi-experimental pretest–post-test study investigated the effects of the SEM on team cohesion. Undergraduate volunteers from a Taiwanese university were divided into experimental and control groups for a 10-week basketball course taught using the SEM or direct instruction, respectively. Pretest and post-test questionnaires utilized a team cohesion scale, with subscales measuring teamwork, team adaptation, and interpersonal interaction. Experimental group (Mpre = 3.35 ± 0.42, Mpost = 3.98 ± 0.50) scores for overall team cohesion and the three subscales were significantly improved after the course; no significant improvement was noticed in the control group (Mpre = 3.23 ± 0.58, Mpost = 3.57 ± 0.57). Furthermore, all post-test scores for the experimental group (M = 3.98 ± 0.50) were higher than those for the control group (M = 3.57 ± 0.57). Therefore, the SEM is a feasible model for improving team cohesion and thus related social skills students may sustain into adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Learning Effects of Merging TPSR Respectively with Sport Education and Traditional Teaching Model in High School Physical Education Classes
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072057 - 07 Apr 2019
Abstract
The purposes of the study were to examine the students’ learning effects of different physical education curriculum model, which merged Teaching Personal and Responsibility (TPSR), respectively, with the Sport Education Model (SEM) and Traditional Teaching Model (TTM) for better learning effects in high [...] Read more.
The purposes of the study were to examine the students’ learning effects of different physical education curriculum model, which merged Teaching Personal and Responsibility (TPSR), respectively, with the Sport Education Model (SEM) and Traditional Teaching Model (TTM) for better learning effects in high school physical education classes. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group (TPSR-SEM; 75 students, Mage = 16.78 ± 0.54 years) and a control group (TPSR-SEM; 58 students, Mage = 16.82 ± 0.57 years). Experimental and control group sessions spanned 32 lessons over 16 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used for statistical analysis. The findings of research showed that the TPSR-SEM experimental group could improve more learning effects than the TPSR-TTM control group in the dependent variables, including sport self-efficacy, sport passion, responsibility, and game performance. We concluded that TPSR-SEM group could improve more learning effects than the TPSR-TTM group in the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains for physical education courses. It is worthy to develop TPSR-SEM in the physical education curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
Emotional Intelligence and the Practice of Organized Physical-Sport Activity in Children
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061615 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Aim: Taking into account Bar-On’s postulations about social-emotional intelligence, the aim of the current work is to find out the differences in the five dimensions of this intelligence between children that practice organized sport and those children that do not practice it at [...] Read more.
Aim: Taking into account Bar-On’s postulations about social-emotional intelligence, the aim of the current work is to find out the differences in the five dimensions of this intelligence between children that practice organized sport and those children that do not practice it at the elementary school level. Method: A randomly selected sample of 940 children from elementary schools, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years old, attending different schools from the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain), was used. Results: The results showed that children who practiced organized sport had better abilities at the intrapersonal and interpersonal level, better adaptability and mood states, and greater emotional intelligence than those who did not. The findings regarding gender and age indicated greater values in girls of emotional intelligence, highlighting the interpersonal dimension, as well as mood state scores, whereas younger children showed greater intrapersonal intelligence and less stress management. Moreover, children who practiced for three or more hours per day had a greater ability to cope with stress than those children who practiced for fewer hours a day. Conclusions: To conclude, it is important to promote federative sport practice in elementary education in order to ensure that children learn to better regulate and manage their emotions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Combined Training on Physical Fitness and Anthropometric Measures among Boys Aged 8 to 12 Years in the Physical Education Setting
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051219 - 26 Feb 2019
Abstract
Some studies have shown that resistance training combined with plyometric training is more time-efficient and effective for fitness development. The degree and frequency of combined training might influence the benefit of training to maintain time. To better understand this phenomenon of the degree [...] Read more.
Some studies have shown that resistance training combined with plyometric training is more time-efficient and effective for fitness development. The degree and frequency of combined training might influence the benefit of training to maintain time. To better understand this phenomenon of the degree and frequency of combined training in pre- and early pubertal boys, we have provided a more specific recommendation for physical education teachers thus that they are able to prescribe an exercise plan for their students in the physical education setting. We aimed to investigate the effects of combined training followed by 12 weeks of a reduced/detraining period on physical fitness and anthropometric features in 8 to 12-year old boys. Forty-six healthy boys were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (EG, n = 31) or a control group (CG, n = 15). Besides regular physical education classes (PE), participants in the EG performed a combined training program (resistance and plyometric training) twice weekly for 12 weeks. In the CG, participants only underwent PE classes twice per week. Then, the trained boys were randomly assigned to either a reduced training group (RTG, n = 14) or a training cessation group (TCG, n = 17). The RTG continued a reduced combined training program once a week with PE for additional 12 weeks. In the TCG, participants only kept their PE classes twice a week for 12 weeks. We assessed physical fitness performances (biceps curl, leg power, and running speed) and anthropometric features at baseline, after 12 weeks of combined training, and after 12 weeks of reduced training/detraining. We observed a significantly greater decrease in biceps girth in the EG (p = 0.049, d = 0.636), as compared to the CG. With regard to the physical fitness measures after the 12-week combined training, the EG showed significantly greater increase on biceps curl (p = 0.005, d = 0.92) and standing long jump (p = 0.015, d = 0.8) in comparison with the CG, whereas a significantly greater improvement on 30 m sprint speed (p = 0.031, d = 0.707) was observed in the EG, as compared to the CG. With regard to detraining and reduced training, results indicated a significantly greater increase on this outcome in the RTG (p = 0.038, d = 0.938), as compared to the TCG. Resistance training combined with plyometric training can be a safe and effective way to enhance the selected aspects of physical fitness, as well as reduce muscular girth in boys aged between 8 and 12 years. The frequency of one session per week in the combined training seems to provide an additional benefit to prevent leg power of lower limb from rapid deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Mode of Commuting TO and FROM School: A Similar or Different Pattern?
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041026 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Aims: The aims of this study were: a) to analyse the association between the mode of commuting to go and come back from school and b) to analyse the association between the usual mode of commuting and weekly counts of school trips by [...] Read more.
Aims: The aims of this study were: a) to analyse the association between the mode of commuting to go and come back from school and b) to analyse the association between the usual mode of commuting and weekly counts of school trips by mode of commuting to and from school. Methods: A total of 5960 students (7–20 year old) participated in the study fulfilling the Mode and Frequency of Commuting to and from School Questionnaire. This is a self-reported questionnaire that included questions about personal data and the usual and weekly mode of commuting to go and come back from school. Results: There were differences between the modes of commuting to and from school in commuting by car and on foot in children and adolescents and by bus only in adolescents (all p ≤ 0.001). Reporting a usual mode of commuting indicated 7.7 travels/week (the maximum number of journeys is 10) using that same mode. Conclusion: Our results show the importance of assessing the mode of commuting in both directions and only one recall period (i.e., usual or the weekly mode of commuting). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Motivational Climate towards the Practice of Physical Activity, Self-Concept, and Healthy Factors in the School Environment
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040999 - 15 Feb 2019
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to define and contrast an explanatory model relating the motivational climate, body mass index, and adherence to a Mediterranean diet with the self-concept of school children. A further objective was to analyze the existing relationships between [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to define and contrast an explanatory model relating the motivational climate, body mass index, and adherence to a Mediterranean diet with the self-concept of school children. A further objective was to analyze the existing relationships between the variables included in the developed model according to sex, using a multi-group structural equation analysis. In the study, a total of 734 school children, of both sexes, reported their perceived motivational climate towards sport, body mass index, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and self-concept. These children were aged between 10 and 12 years old and attended public school in the province of Granada (Spain). The multi-group structural equation model developed demonstrated an excellent fit to the empirical data (χ2 = 228.179; DF = 40; p < 0.001; CFI = 0.965; NFI = 0.958; IFI = 0.968; RMSEA = 0.048). The findings identified a direct negative relationship between the ego climate and the task climate. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between the task climate and body mass index, and a direct relationship was found between the ego climate and body mass index. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet adherence was directly related to the task climate and negatively related to the ego climate. The main conclusions of the present study highlight the positive effects of a task-oriented motivational climate and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, with regards to body mass index. Furthermore, a task-oriented motivational climate and a lower body mass index are related to a more positive self-concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Evaluation of Extracurricular Sports Activities as an Educational Element for Sustainable Development in Educational Institutions
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123474 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Education that instills healthy habits has acquired much attention in recent years due to concerns related to obesity and the sedentary lifestyle of the scholastic population. Extracurricular sports activities can contribute to the creation of healthy habits and can promote active lifestyles. These [...] Read more.
Education that instills healthy habits has acquired much attention in recent years due to concerns related to obesity and the sedentary lifestyle of the scholastic population. Extracurricular sports activities can contribute to the creation of healthy habits and can promote active lifestyles. These positive habits provide social benefits and are a facilitator of sustainable development. Thisstudy had two objectives: To assess the quality and value of extracurricular sports activities offered by schools, as well as the satisfaction of the participants and their future intentions to participate; and to assess the relationship between these constructs, with the aim of identifying factors that encourage schoolchildren to be active. Information was gathered from 1080 children in secondary education in Spain (n = 1080) (65.90% boys, 13.76 ± 1.39 years). The instruments used were the Scale of Perception of Sports Organizations (EPOD2) and a future intentions scale. The evaluation of satisfaction, quality, and value, as well as the intentions expressed by the young athletes to continue participating in extracurricular sports activities were positive, with average values close to the maximum. The best-rated quality variables were human resources. A significant association was identified between communication and loyalty, and response capacity and sports spaces. Likewise, perceived satisfaction and value were related to loyalty and price. In short, student perceptions establish a clear relationship between evaluations of activities and the intention to continue practicing sports in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for Sustainability in Physical Education)
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