Next Article in Journal
The Comovement of Exchange Rates and Stock Markets in Central and Eastern Europe
Previous Article in Journal
Perceived Quality in Sports Centers in Southern Spain: A Case Study
Open AccessArticle

Grouping of Water Supply-and-Demand Structure in the Yellow River Basin of China: Focusing on Balance between Groundwater and Surface-water

1
Centre for Social and Environmental Systems Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)/Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, NIES 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba-City, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
2
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-City, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
3
School of Data Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 236-0027, Japan
4
The Institute of Science and Technology for Development of Shandong, Jinan 250000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3984; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143984
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
The research purpose of this study was to uncover the grouping of the water supply-and-demand structure in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) of China, focusing on the balance between groundwater and surface-water. Comparing the structure of water usage and the structure of groundwater usage estimated by previous studies in each region, 35 municipalities were selected and they were classified into 12 catchments in focusing on the geographical location and the similarity of the shape of the structure of water supply-and-demand. In the upper reaches, surface-water is mainly used and the share of agricultural usage is small, therefore, seasonal variability of groundwater usage is small. On the other hand, in the middle and the lower reaches, the share of groundwater is large and the share of agricultural usage is large, therefore, seasonal variability of groundwater usage is large. Especially, these characteristics are obvious in the Loess Plateau. In addition, surface-water is mainly used again in the lowermost reaches. The results qualitatively identify the spatial pattern of the classification of water supply-and-demand structure and investigate the geographical heterogeneity within each catchment. Performing a GIS (Geographic Information System) -based estimation is meaningful for grasping the geospatial pattern of water supply-and-demand structure and for providing an area-by-area report of the situation of the water resource usage. It is hoped that this study serves as an academic reference for optimizing the water resource management and for providing some policy recommendations on resource’s sustainability by using a GIS-based approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; surface-water; water supply-and-demand structure; Yellow River Basin groundwater; surface-water; water supply-and-demand structure; Yellow River Basin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ichinose, T.; Liu, K.; Onishi, A.; Shi, F. Grouping of Water Supply-and-Demand Structure in the Yellow River Basin of China: Focusing on Balance between Groundwater and Surface-water. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3984.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop