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Pharmaceutics, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 70 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A C12-cationic lipid that incorporates a lysine-derived moiety (LYCl) is combined with a fusogenic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Therapeutic Effects in a Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rat Model by Nose-To-Brain Delivery of Anti-TNF-Alpha siRNA with Cell-Penetrating Peptide-Modified Polymer Micelles. Pharmaceutics, 2019, 11(9), 478
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120689 - 17 Dec 2019
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The appropriate information for the reprint used with permission from [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Resveratrol Nanosuspension Using the Antisolvent Precipitation Method without Solvent Removal, Based on a Quality by Design (QbD) Approach
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120688 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 349
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a resveratrol nanosuspension with enhanced oral bioavailability, based on an understanding of the formulation and process parameters of nanosuspensions and using a quality by design (QbD) approach. Particularly, the antisolvent method, which requires no solvent [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to develop a resveratrol nanosuspension with enhanced oral bioavailability, based on an understanding of the formulation and process parameters of nanosuspensions and using a quality by design (QbD) approach. Particularly, the antisolvent method, which requires no solvent removal and no heating, is newly applied to prepare resveratrol nanosuspension. To ensure the quality of the resveratrol nanosuspensions, a quality target product profile (QTPP) was defined. The particle size (z-average, d90), zeta potential, and drug content parameters affecting the QTPP were selected as critical quality attributes (CQAs). The optimum composition obtained using a 3-factor, 3-level Box–Behnken design was as follows: polyvinylpyrrolidone vinyl acetate (10 mg/mL), polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (5 mg/mL), sodium lauryl sulfate (1 mg/mL), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE, 5% v/v) at a resveratrol concentration of 5 mg/mL. The initial particle size (z-average) was 46.3 nm and the zeta potential was −38.02 mV. The robustness of the antisolvent process using the optimized composition conditions was ensured by a full factorial design. The dissolution rate of the optimized resveratrol nanosuspension was significantly greater than that of the resveratrol raw material. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC0–12h) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) respectively, than those of the resveratrol raw material. Therefore, the prepara values of the resveratrol nanosuspension were approximately 1.6- and 5.7-fold higher,tion of a resveratrol nanosuspension using the QbD approach may be an effective strategy for the development of a new dosage form of resveratrol, with enhanced oral bioavailability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Inhalable Theranostic System for Local Tuberculosis Treatment Containing an Isoniazid Loaded Metal Organic Framework Fe-MIL-101-NH2—From Raw MOF to Drug Delivery System
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120687 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 382
Abstract
The theranostic approach to local tuberculosis treatment allows drug delivery and imaging of the lungs for a better control and personalization of antibiotic therapy. Metal-organic framework (MOF) Fe-MIL-101-NH2 nanoparticles were loaded with isoniazid. To optimize their functionality a 23 factorial design of [...] Read more.
The theranostic approach to local tuberculosis treatment allows drug delivery and imaging of the lungs for a better control and personalization of antibiotic therapy. Metal-organic framework (MOF) Fe-MIL-101-NH2 nanoparticles were loaded with isoniazid. To optimize their functionality a 23 factorial design of spray-drying with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and leucine was employed. Powder aerodynamic properties were assessed using a twin stage impinger based on the dose emitted and the fine particle fraction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast capabilities were tested on porous lung tissue phantom and ex vivo rat lungs. Cell viability and uptake studies were conducted on murine macrophages RAW 246.9. The final product showed good aerodynamic properties, modified drug release, easier uptake by macrophages in relation to raw isoniazid-MOF, and MRI contrast capabilities. Starting from raw MOF, a fully functional inhalable theranostic system with a potential application in personalized tuberculosis pulmonary therapy was developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Site-Specific 111In-Radiolabeling of Dual-PEGylated Porous Silicon Nanoparticles and Their In Vivo Evaluation in Murine 4T1 Breast Cancer Model
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120686 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been successfully used for improving circulation time of several nanomaterials but prolonging the circulation of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) has remained challenging. Here, we report a site specific radiolabeling of dual-PEGylated thermally oxidized porous silicon (DPEG-TOPSi) NPs and [...] Read more.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been successfully used for improving circulation time of several nanomaterials but prolonging the circulation of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) has remained challenging. Here, we report a site specific radiolabeling of dual-PEGylated thermally oxidized porous silicon (DPEG-TOPSi) NPs and investigation of influence of the PEGylation on blood circulation time of TOPSi NPs. Trans-cyclooctene conjugated DPEG-TOPSi NPs were radiolabeled through a click reaction with [111In]In-DOTA-PEG4-tetrazine (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) and the particle behavior was evaluated in vivo in Balb/c mice bearing 4T1 murine breast cancer allografts. The dual-PEGylation significantly prolonged circulation of [111In]In-DPEG-TOPSi particles when compared to non-PEGylated control particles, yielding 10.8 ± 1.7% of the injected activity/g in blood at 15 min for [111In]In-DPEG-TOPSi NPs. The improved circulation time will be beneficial for the accumulation of targeted DPEG-TOPSi to tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Silicon for Drug Delivery)
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Repurposing Itraconazole Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Improved Antitumor Efficacy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120685 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Itraconazole (ITR) is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug, which has been shown to possess some promising anticancer, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic properties in some cancers, such as cancers of the lung, breast, and skin. However, ITR has some drawbacks, such as poor water solubility, which [...] Read more.
Itraconazole (ITR) is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug, which has been shown to possess some promising anticancer, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic properties in some cancers, such as cancers of the lung, breast, and skin. However, ITR has some drawbacks, such as poor water solubility, which hinder its use as a therapeutic agent. Therefore, in the present study, we developed and characterized chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles of itraconazole and studied their anticancer activities in H1299 lung cancer cells. The prepared ITR nanoparticles showed a small particle size, narrow poly dispersity index (PDI), positive zeta potential, and a controlled drug release profile. The cytotoxicity of ITR nanoparticles (NPs) on H1299 cancer cells after 24 h of exposure was greater than that of the ITR solution. Apoptosis of cancer cells exposed to ITR nanoparticles was also enhanced in comparison with the ITR solution. At the molecular level, ITR NPs were more effective than ITR solution in inducing pro-apoptotic Bax and p53 while reducing anti-apoptotic Bcl2 protein expression. ITR NPs were more effective than ITR solution in arresting cells both at the G0/G1 as well as G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Hence, repurposing itraconazole by encapsulation into PLGA NPs with chitosan coating is a potentially promising approach to treat lung cancers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Aptamers as Delivery Agents of siRNA and Chimeric Formulations for the Treatment of Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120684 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Both aptamers and siRNA technologies have now reached maturity, and both have been validated with a product in the market. However, although pegaptanib reached the market some time ago, there has been a slow process for new aptamers to follow. Today, some 40 [...] Read more.
Both aptamers and siRNA technologies have now reached maturity, and both have been validated with a product in the market. However, although pegaptanib reached the market some time ago, there has been a slow process for new aptamers to follow. Today, some 40 aptamers are in the market, but many in combination with siRNAs, in the form of specific delivery agents. This combination offers the potential to explore the high affinity and specificity of aptamers, the silencing power of siRNA, and, at times, the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy molecules in powerful combinations that promise to delivery new and potent therapies. In this review, we report new developments in the field, following up from our previous work, more specifically on the use of aptamers as delivery agents of siRNA in nanoparticle formulations, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, for the treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery of siRNA Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Modality Therapy Based on Hybrid Gold Nanostars Coated with Temperature Sensitive Liposomes to Overcome Paclitaxel-Resistance in Hepatic Carcinoma
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120683 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 431
Abstract
In this study, we prepared gold nanostar (GNS) composite nanoparticles containing siRNA of cyclooxygenase-2(siCOX-2) that were modified by tumor targeting ligand 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and transmembrane peptide 9-poly-D-arginine (9R) to form siCOX-2(9R/DG-GNS). Paclitaxel loaded temperature sensitive liposomes (PTX-TSL) were surface-modified to produce [...] Read more.
In this study, we prepared gold nanostar (GNS) composite nanoparticles containing siRNA of cyclooxygenase-2(siCOX-2) that were modified by tumor targeting ligand 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and transmembrane peptide 9-poly-D-arginine (9R) to form siCOX-2(9R/DG-GNS). Paclitaxel loaded temperature sensitive liposomes (PTX-TSL) were surface-modified to produce PTX-TSL-siCOX-2(9R/DG-GNS) displaying homogeneous star-shaped structures of suitable size (293.93 nm ± 3.21) and zeta potentials (2.47 mV ± 0.22). PTX-TSL-siCOX-2(9R/DG-GNS) had a high thermal conversion efficiency under 808 nm laser radiation and a superior transfection efficiency, which may be related to the targeting effects of DG and increased heat induced membrane permeability. COX-2 expression in HepG2/PTX cells was significantly suppressed by PTX-TSL-siCOX-2(9R/DG-GNS) in high temperatures. The co-delivery system inhibited drug-resistant cell growth rates by ≥77% and increased the cell apoptosis rate about 47% at elevated temperatures. PTX-TSL and siCOX-2 loaded gold nanostar particles, therefore, show promise for overcoming tumor resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Delivery Vectors and Physical Methods: Present and Future Trends)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Percutaneous Permeation Study of Escinosomes, Escin-Based Nanovesicles Loaded with Berberine Chloride
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120682 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Escin is a natural saponin, clinically used for the anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of converting escin into vesicle bilayer-forming component. The hyaluronidase inhibition activity of escin was evaluated after its formulation in escinosomes. [...] Read more.
Escin is a natural saponin, clinically used for the anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of converting escin into vesicle bilayer-forming component. The hyaluronidase inhibition activity of escin was evaluated after its formulation in escinosomes. Berberine chloride, a natural quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several medicinal plants that is traditionally used for various skin conditions was loaded in the vesicles. The developed nanovesicles were characterized in terms of diameter, polydispersity, ζ-potential, deformability, recovery, encapsulation efficiency, stability, and release kinetics. Nanovesicle permeation properties through artificial membranes and rabbit ear skin were investigated using skin-PAMPATM and Franz cells were also evaluated. Escinosomes, made of phosphatidylcholine and escin, were loaded with berberine chloride. These nanovesicles displayed the best characteristics for skin application, particularly optimal polydispersity (0.17) and deformability, high negative ζ-potential value, great encapsulation efficiency (about 67%), high stability, and the best release properties of berberine chloride (about 75% after 24 h). In conclusion, escinosomes seem to be new vesicular carriers, capable to maintain escin properties such as hyaluronidase inhibition activity, and able to load other active molecules such as berberine chloride, in order to enhance or expand the activity of the loaded drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergent Strategies for Natural Products Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Repurposing Dihydropyridines for Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120681 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a major cause of the increasing failures in the current eradication therapies against Helicobacter pylori. In this scenario, repurposing drugs could be a valuable strategy to fast-track novel antimicrobial agents. In the present study, we analyzed the inhibitory capability [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is a major cause of the increasing failures in the current eradication therapies against Helicobacter pylori. In this scenario, repurposing drugs could be a valuable strategy to fast-track novel antimicrobial agents. In the present study, we analyzed the inhibitory capability of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) antihypertensive drugs on the essential function of the H. pylori response regulator HsrA and investigated both the in vitro antimicrobial activities and the in vivo efficacy of DHP treatments against H. pylori. Six different commercially available and highly prescribed DHP drugs—namely, Nifedipine, Nicardipine, Nisoldipine, Nimodipine, Nitrendipine, and Lercanidipine—noticeably inhibited the DNA binding activity of HsrA and exhibited potent bactericidal activities against both metronidazole- and clarithromycin-resistant strains of H. pylori, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 4 to 32 mg/L. The dynamics of the decline in the bacterial counts at 2 × MIC appeared to be correlated with the lipophilicity of the drugs, suggesting different translocation efficiencies of DHPs across the bacterial membrane. Oral treatments with 100 mg/kg/day of marketed formulations of Nimodipine or Nitrendipine in combination with omeprazole significantly reduced the H. pylori gastric colonization in mice. The results presented here support a novel therapeutic solution for treatment of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Molecular Weight Chitosan-Complexed RNA Nanoadjuvant for Effective Cancer Immunotherapy
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120680 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Nucleic acid-based adjuvants have recently emerged as promising candidates for use in cancer vaccines to induce tumor-suppressing immune cells. In this study, we tested whether complexation of a nucleic acid-based adjuvant with chitosan (CTS) modulates immune adjuvant functions. As a nucleic acid-based adjuvant, [...] Read more.
Nucleic acid-based adjuvants have recently emerged as promising candidates for use in cancer vaccines to induce tumor-suppressing immune cells. In this study, we tested whether complexation of a nucleic acid-based adjuvant with chitosan (CTS) modulates immune adjuvant functions. As a nucleic acid-based adjuvant, we used toll-like receptor 3-recognizing RNA adjuvant (RA). Negatively charged RA formed nanoscale polyplexes with cationic CTS that possessed positive zeta potentials. RA/CTS polyplexes exerted dendritic cell (DC)-maturation effects without causing significant DC toxicity. This DC-maturation effect was CTS molecular weight dependent, with RA/CTS polyplexes with a CTS molecular weight of 340 kDa (RA/CTS 340K) producing the greatest effect. Subcutaneous injection of RA/CTS 340K polyplexes with the model tumor antigen ovalbumin exerted a preventive effect against challenge by ovalbumin-expressing tumor cells. It also provided greater inhibitory effects against a second challenge with the same tumor cells compared with other treatments. These protective effects of subcutaneous RA/CTS polyplex treatment were associated with the highest tumor antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses after tumor challenge, and with the greatest infiltration of CD4 helper T cell and CD8 T cell into the tumor tissues. Mice vaccinated with ovalbumin and RA/CTS polyplexes showed complete survival, even after repeated challenge with tumor cells. Our results suggest the potential of RA/CTS polyplexes as effective nanoadjuvants in the design of tumor vaccines and cancer immunotherapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Optimization of Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Containing Dexamethasone for Ophthalmic Use
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120679 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The aim of this study was to perform a preformulation study of dexamethasone (DXM)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for ocular use. Lipid screening was applied to find the most suitable solid and liquid lipids and surfactant for the NLC formulation. The visual observation [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to perform a preformulation study of dexamethasone (DXM)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for ocular use. Lipid screening was applied to find the most suitable solid and liquid lipids and surfactant for the NLC formulation. The visual observation was proved with XRD measurements for the establishment of the soluble state of DXM. Thermoanalytical measurements indicated that the most relevant depression of the crystallinity index could be ensured when using a 7:3 solid lipid:oil ratio. In order to optimize the NLC composition, a 23 full factorial experimental design was used. It was established that each independent factor (lipid, DXM, and surfactant concentration) had a significant effect on the particle size while in the case of entrapment efficiency, the DXM and surfactant concentrations were significant. Lower surfactant and lipid concentrations could be beneficial because the stability and the entrapment efficacy of NLCs were more favorable. The toxicity tests on human cornea cells indicated good ophthalmic tolerability of NLCs. The in vitro drug release study predicted a higher concentration of the solute DXM on the eye surface while the Raman mapping penetration study on the porcine cornea showed a high concentration of nanocarriers in the hydrophylic stroma layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solid Lipid Micro- and Nanoparticle Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Bi-Layered Polymer Carriers with Surface Modification by Electrospinning for Potential Wound Care Applications
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120678 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 380
Abstract
Polymeric wound dressings with advanced properties are highly preferred formulations to promote the tissue healing process in wound care. In this study, a combinational technique was investigated for the fabrication of bi-layered carriers from a blend of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate [...] Read more.
Polymeric wound dressings with advanced properties are highly preferred formulations to promote the tissue healing process in wound care. In this study, a combinational technique was investigated for the fabrication of bi-layered carriers from a blend of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate (SA). The bi-layered carriers were prepared by solvent casting in combination with two surface modification approaches: electrospinning or three-dimensional (3D) printing. The bi-layered carriers were characterized and evaluated in terms of physical, physicochemical, adhesive properties and for the safety and biological cell behavior. In addition, an initial inkjet printing trial for the incorporation of bioactive substances for drug delivery purposes was performed. The solvent cast (SC) film served as a robust base layer. The bi-layered carriers with electrospun nanofibers (NFs) as the surface layer showed improved physical durability and decreased adhesiveness compared to the SC film and bi-layered carriers with patterned 3D printed layer. Thus, these bi-layered carriers presented favorable properties for dermal use with minimal tissue damage. In addition, electrospun NFs on SC films (bi-layered SC/NF carrier) provided the best physical structure for the cell adhesion and proliferation as the highest cell viability was measured compared to the SC film and the carrier with patterned 3D printed layer (bi-layered SC/3D carrier). The surface properties of the bi-layered carriers with electrospun NFs showed great potential to be utilized in advanced technical approach with inkjet printing for the fabrication of bioactive wound dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development of Electrospinning for Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptome-Guided Drug Repositioning
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120677 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Drug repositioning can save considerable time and resources and significantly speed up the drug development process. The increasing availability of drug action and disease-associated transcriptome data makes it an attractive source for repositioning studies. Here, we have developed a transcriptome-guided approach for drug/biologics [...] Read more.
Drug repositioning can save considerable time and resources and significantly speed up the drug development process. The increasing availability of drug action and disease-associated transcriptome data makes it an attractive source for repositioning studies. Here, we have developed a transcriptome-guided approach for drug/biologics repositioning based on multi-layer self-organizing maps (ml-SOM). It allows for analyzing multiple transcriptome datasets by segmenting them into layers of drug action- and disease-associated transcriptome data. A comparison of expression changes in clusters of functionally related genes across the layers identifies “drug target” spots in disease layers and evaluates the repositioning possibility of a drug. The repositioning potential for two approved biologics drugs (infliximab and brodalumab) confirmed the drugs’ action for approved diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease for infliximab and psoriasis for brodalumab). We showed the potential efficacy of infliximab for the treatment of sarcoidosis, but not chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Brodalumab failed to affect dysregulated functional gene clusters in Crohn’s disease (CD) and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA), clearly indicating that it may not be effective in the treatment of these diseases. In conclusion, ml-SOM offers a novel approach for transcriptome-guided drug repositioning that could be particularly useful for biologics drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synergy of Phospholipid—Drug Formulations Significantly Deactivates Profibrogenic Human Hepatic Stellate Cells
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120676 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The pivotal role of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in orchestrating the bidirectional process of progression and regression of liver fibrosis makes them an ideal target for exploring new antifibrotic therapies. Essential phospholipids (EPLs), with their polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) fraction, either alone or combined with [...] Read more.
The pivotal role of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in orchestrating the bidirectional process of progression and regression of liver fibrosis makes them an ideal target for exploring new antifibrotic therapies. Essential phospholipids (EPLs), with their polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) fraction, either alone or combined with other hepatoprotective substances such as silymarin, are recommended in hepatic impairment, but a scientific rationale for their use is still lacking. Herein, we compared the ability of EPLs to restore quiescent-like features in HSCs with that of dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), PPC fraction’s main component. Specifically, we screened at the cellular level the antifibrotic effects of PPC formulations in the presence and absence of silymarin, by using LX-2 cells (pro-fibrogenic HSCs) and by assessing the main biochemical hallmarks of the activated and deactivated states of this cell line. We also proved the formulations’ direct effect on the motional order of cell membranes of adherent cells. LX-2 cells, examined for lipid droplets as a quiescence marker, showed that PPCs led to a more prominent deactivation than DLPC. This result was confirmed by a reduction of collagen and α-SMA expression, and by a profound alteration in the cell membrane fluidity. PPC–silymarin formulations deactivated HSCs with a significant synergistic effect. The remarkable bioactivity of PPCs in deactivating fibrogenic HSCs paves the way for the rational design of new therapeutics aimed at managing hepatic fibrosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hyaluronan Graft Copolymers Bearing Fatty-Acid Residues as Self-Assembling Nanoparticles for Olanzapine Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120675 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 341
Abstract
In order to evaluate the potential of a technology platform based on hyaluronan copolymers grafted with propargylated ferulate fluorophores (HA-FA-Pg) in the development of drug delivery systems, the propargyl groups of HA-FA-Pg derivatives were employed with oleic acid (OA) or stearic acid (SA) [...] Read more.
In order to evaluate the potential of a technology platform based on hyaluronan copolymers grafted with propargylated ferulate fluorophores (HA-FA-Pg) in the development of drug delivery systems, the propargyl groups of HA-FA-Pg derivatives were employed with oleic acid (OA) or stearic acid (SA) residues across a biocompatible hexa(ethylene glycol) (HEG) spacer. The designed materials (i.e., HA-FA-HEG-OA or HA-FA-HEG-SA) showed clear-cut aggregation features in an aqueous environment, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), generating nanoaggregate systems. In fact, HA-FA-HEG-OA and HA-FA-HEG-SA derivatives showed the property to create self-assembled cytocompatible nanostructured aggregates in water, thanks to the simultaneous presence of hydrophilic portions in the polymeric backbone, such as hyaluronic acid, and hydrophobic portions in the side chains. Furthermore, the designed materials interact with living cells showing a high degree of cytocompatibility. The potential ability of nanosystems to load pharmacologically active molecules was assessed by the physical entrapment of olanzapine into both polymeric systems. The drug loading evaluation demonstrated that the nanoparticles are able to incorporate a good quantity of olanzapine, as well as improve drug solubility, release profile, and cytocompatibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microwave-Assisted Freeze-Drying of Monoclonal Antibodies: Product Quality Aspects and Storage Stability
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120674 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 378
Abstract
In order to overcome the downside of long conventional freeze-drying (CFD) process times for monoclonal antibody formulations, microwave-assisted freeze-drying (MFD) was introduced. Recently, the general applicability and potential shortening of drying times were shown. However, little is known about the storage stability of [...] Read more.
In order to overcome the downside of long conventional freeze-drying (CFD) process times for monoclonal antibody formulations, microwave-assisted freeze-drying (MFD) was introduced. Recently, the general applicability and potential shortening of drying times were shown. However, little is known about the storage stability of MFD products compared to CFD references. Additionally, batch homogeneity issues were seen within MFD in the past. In this study, we examined four different formulations of two different monoclonal antibodies using three different glass-forming excipients: sucrose, trehalose, and arginine phosphate. These formulations were freeze-dried with two different drying protocols (CFD and MFD), stored for 24 weeks, and analyzed for solid-state and protein-related quality attributes. Moreover, a new microwave generator setup was investigated for its potential to improve batch homogeneity. In all investigated formulations, comparable stability profiles were found, although the classical magnetron generator led to inferior batch homogeneity with respect to residual moisture distribution. In contrast, the new MFD setup indicated the potential to approximate batch homogeneity to the level of CFD. However, for future applications, there is an unabated need for new machine designs to comply with pharmaceutical manufacturing requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Freeze Drying and Spray Drying)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Metabolic Drug Interaction Potential of Dutasteride with Ketoconazole
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120673 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Dutasteride (DUT) is a selective, potent, competitive, and irreversible inhibitor of both type-1 and type-2 5α-reductase (5AR) commonly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. In the present study, we developed a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with [...] Read more.
Dutasteride (DUT) is a selective, potent, competitive, and irreversible inhibitor of both type-1 and type-2 5α-reductase (5AR) commonly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. In the present study, we developed a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) method for simultaneous determination of DUT and its major active metabolite, 6β-hydroxydutasteride (H-DUT). Next, the pharmacokinetic interactions of DUT with ketoconazole (KET), a potent CYP3A inhibitor, were comprehensively investigated. In vivo rat intravenous and oral studies revealed that the pharmacokinetics of DUT and H-DUT were significantly altered by the co-administration of KET. Furthermore, the in vitro microsomal metabolism, blood distribution, and protein-binding studies suggest that the altered pharmacokinetics of DUT could be attributed primarily to the inhibition of the DUT metabolism by KET. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show the drug interaction potential of DUT with azole antifungal drugs including KET, together with a newly developed HPLC-FL method for the simultaneous quantification of DUT and H-DUT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions and Herb-Drug Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
3D-Printed Solid Dispersion Drug Products
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120672 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 699
Abstract
With the well-known advantages of additive manufacturing methods such as three-dimensional (3D) printing in drug delivery, it is disappointing that only one product has been successful in achieving regulatory approval in the past few years. Further research and development is required in this [...] Read more.
With the well-known advantages of additive manufacturing methods such as three-dimensional (3D) printing in drug delivery, it is disappointing that only one product has been successful in achieving regulatory approval in the past few years. Further research and development is required in this area to introduce more 3D printed products into the market. Our study investigates the potential of fixed dose combination solid dispersion drug products generated via 3D printing. Two model drugs—fluorescein sodium (FS) and 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA)—were impregnated onto a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filament, and the influence of solvent choice in optimal drug loading as well as other influences such as the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the resultant filaments were investigated prior to development of the resultant drug products. Key outcomes of this work included the improvement of filament drug loading by one- to threefold due to solvent choice on the basis of its polarity and the generation of a 3D-printed product confirmed to be a solid dispersion fixed dose combination with the two model drugs exhibiting favourable in vitro dissolution characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
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Open AccessReview
Poloxamer Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120671 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 429
Abstract
This review article focuses on thermoresponsive hydrogels consisting of poloxamers which are of high interest for biomedical application especially in drug delivery for ophthalmic, injectable, transdermal, and vaginal administration. These hydrogels remain fluid at room temperature but become more viscous gel once they [...] Read more.
This review article focuses on thermoresponsive hydrogels consisting of poloxamers which are of high interest for biomedical application especially in drug delivery for ophthalmic, injectable, transdermal, and vaginal administration. These hydrogels remain fluid at room temperature but become more viscous gel once they are exposed to body temperature. In this way, the gelling system remains at the topical level for a long time and the drug release is controlled and prolonged. Poloxamers are synthetic triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO), also commercially known as Pluronics®, Synperonics® or Lutrol®. The different poloxamers cover a range of liquids, pastes, and solids, with molecular weights and ethylene oxide–propylene oxide weight ratios varying from 1100 to 14,000 and 1:9 to 8:2, respectively. Concentrated aqueous solutions of poloxamers form thermoreversible gels. In recent years this type of gel has arouse interest for tissue engineering. Finally, the use of poloxamers as biosurfactants is evaluated since they are able to form micelles in an aqueous environment above a concentration threshold known as critical micelle concentration (CMC). This property is exploited for drug delivery and different therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designing Hydrogels for Controlled Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessCommunication
Determining Thermal Conductivity of Small Molecule Amorphous Drugs with Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Vacuum Molding Sample Preparation
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120670 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Thermal conductivity is a material specific property, which influences many aspects of pharmaceutical development, such as processing, modelling, analysis, and the development of novel formulation approaches. We have presented a method to measure thermal conductivity of small molecule organic glasses, based on a [...] Read more.
Thermal conductivity is a material specific property, which influences many aspects of pharmaceutical development, such as processing, modelling, analysis, and the development of novel formulation approaches. We have presented a method to measure thermal conductivity of small molecule organic glasses, based on a vacuum molding sample preparation technique combined with modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The method is applied to the two amorphous model compounds indomethacin and celecoxib. The measured values of below 0.2 W/m °C indicate very low thermal conductivity of the amorphous compounds, within the range of organic liquids and low conducting polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Amorphous Drug Formulations)
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Open AccessArticle
Niosomal Formulation of a Lipoyl-Carnosine Derivative Targeting TRPA1 Channels in Brain
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120669 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 401
Abstract
The transient receptor potential akyrin type-1 (TRPA1) is a non-selective cation channel playing a pivotal role in pain sensation and neurogenic inflammation. TRPA1 channels expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) have a critical role in the modulation of cortical spreading depression (CSD), [...] Read more.
The transient receptor potential akyrin type-1 (TRPA1) is a non-selective cation channel playing a pivotal role in pain sensation and neurogenic inflammation. TRPA1 channels expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) have a critical role in the modulation of cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is a key pathophysiological basis of migraine pain. ADM_09 is a recently developed lipoic acid-based TRPA1 antagonist that is able to revert oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain and inflammatory trigeminal allodynia. In this context, aiming at developing drugs that are able to target TRPA1 channels in the CNS and promote an antioxidant effect, permeability across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) represents a central issue. Niosomes are nanovesicles that can be functionalized with specific ligands selectively recognized by transporters expressed on the BBB. In this work, the activity of ADM_09 on neocortex cultures was studied, and an efficient formulation to cross the BBB was developed with the aim of increasing the concentration of ADM_09 into the brain and selectively delivering it to the CNS rapidly after parenteral administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarriers and Nanomedicine for Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Topical Delivery of Niacinamide: Influence of Binary and Ternary Solvent Systems
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120668 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Niacinamide (NIA) is the amide form of vitamin B3 and has been widely used in pharmaceutical and personal care formulations. Previously, we reported a comparative study of NIA permeation from neat solvents using the Skin Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) and mammalian [...] Read more.
Niacinamide (NIA) is the amide form of vitamin B3 and has been widely used in pharmaceutical and personal care formulations. Previously, we reported a comparative study of NIA permeation from neat solvents using the Skin Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) and mammalian skin. A good correlation between NIA permeation in the different models was found. In the present work, ten binary and ternary systems were evaluated for their ability to promote NIA delivery in the Skin PAMPA model, porcine skin and human epidermis. Penetration enhancement was evident for binary systems composed of propylene glycol and fatty acids in human skin studies. However, propylene glycol and oleic acid did not promote enhancement of NIA compared with other systems in the Skin PAMPA model. A good correlation was obtained for permeation data from Skin PAMPA and porcine skin. However, data from the Skin PAMPA model and from human skin could only be correlated when the PG-fatty acid systems were excluded. These findings add to our knowledge of the potential applications of Skin PAMPA for screening dermal/transdermal preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semisolid Dosage)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Squalene Oil-Based Emulsion Adjuvants Employing a Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System and Assessment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-Specific Antibody Titers in BALB/c Mice
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120667 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 334
Abstract
In this study, a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) was employed to prepare novel squalene oil-based emulsion adjuvants. Deionized water, 0.01% and 0.02% (w/v) carbomer solutions of C-971P NF and C-940 grades were used to prepare emulsions containing 3%, [...] Read more.
In this study, a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) was employed to prepare novel squalene oil-based emulsion adjuvants. Deionized water, 0.01% and 0.02% (w/v) carbomer solutions of C-971P NF and C-940 grades were used to prepare emulsions containing 3%, 5% and 10% of squalene oil. Altogether 15 candidate emulsions were prepared and used as adjuvants for the delivery of a combination vaccine containing a porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antigen and inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (J101 strain) antigen. Most of the emulsions showed droplet sizes in the submicron range and maintained zeta potential values between −40 mV to 0 mV for six months, indicating good physical stability as a vaccine adjuvant. Emulsion-based candidate adjuvants prepared with SEDDS technology stimulated IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a like a currently commercially available adjuvant, Montanide ISATM 201, and they were safe and their Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-specific antibody titers were considered as comparable with that of Montanide ISATM 201. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery and Evaluation of Novel Adjuvants for Vaccine Formulations)
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Open AccessArticle
Sugar and Polymer Excipients Enhance Uptake and Splice-Switching Activity of Peptide-Dendrimer/Lipid/Oligonucleotide Formulations
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120666 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Non-viral transfection vectors are commonly used for oligonucleotide (ON) delivery but face many challenges before reaching the desired compartments inside cells. With the support of additional compounds, it might be more feasible for a vector to endure the barriers and achieve efficient delivery. [...] Read more.
Non-viral transfection vectors are commonly used for oligonucleotide (ON) delivery but face many challenges before reaching the desired compartments inside cells. With the support of additional compounds, it might be more feasible for a vector to endure the barriers and achieve efficient delivery. In this report, we screened 18 different excipients and evaluated their effect on the performance of peptide dendrimer/lipid vector to deliver single-stranded, splice-switching ONs under serum conditions. Transfection efficiency was monitored in four different reporter cell lines by measuring splice-switching activity on RNA and protein levels. All reporter cell lines used had a mutated human β-globin intron 2 sequence interrupting the luciferase gene, which led to an aberrant splicing of luciferase pre-mRNA and subsidence of luciferase protein translation. In the HeLa Luc/705 reporter cell line (a cervical cancer cell line), the lead excipients (Polyvinyl derivatives) potentiated the splice-switching activity up to 95-fold, compared to untreated cells with no detected cytotoxicity. Physical characterization revealed that lead excipients decreased the particle size and the zeta potential of the formulations. In vivo biodistribution studies emphasized the influence of formulations as well as the type of excipients on biodistribution profiles of the ON. Subsequently, we suggest that the highlighted impact of tested excipients would potentially assist in formulation development to deliver ON therapeutics in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Viral Gene Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Risperidone-Loaded PLGA–Lipid Particles with Improved Release Kinetics: Manufacturing and Detailed Characterization by Electron Microscopy and Nano-CT
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120665 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 366
Abstract
For parenteral controlled drug release, the desired zero order release profile with no lag time is often difficult to achieve. To overcome the undesired lag time of the current commercial risperidone controlled release formulation, we developed PLGA–lipid microcapsules (MCs) and PLGA–lipid microgels (MGs). [...] Read more.
For parenteral controlled drug release, the desired zero order release profile with no lag time is often difficult to achieve. To overcome the undesired lag time of the current commercial risperidone controlled release formulation, we developed PLGA–lipid microcapsules (MCs) and PLGA–lipid microgels (MGs). The lipid phase was composed of middle chain triglycerides (MCT) or isopropylmyristate (IPM). Hydroxystearic acid was used as an oleogelator. The three-dimensional inner structure of Risperidone-loaded MCs and MGs was assessed by using the invasive method of electron microscopy with focused ion beam cutting (FIB-SEM) and the noninvasive method of high-resolution nanoscale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT). FIB-SEM and nano-CT measurements revealed the presence of highly dispersed spherical structures around two micrometres in size. Drug release kinetics did strongly depend on the used lipid phase and the presence or absence of hydroxystearic acid. We achieved a nearly zero order release without a lag time over 60 days with the MC-MCT formulation. In conclusion, the developed lipid-PLGA microparticles are attractive alternatives to pure PLGA-based particles. The advantages include improved release profiles, which can be easily tuned by the lipid composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PLGA Based Drug Carrier and Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring the Clinical Response to an Innovative Transdermal Delivery System for Ibuprofen
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120664 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 311
Abstract
We present a phase 1 study that utilizes a crossover design that provides a rapid and relatively inexpensive methodology for evaluating a new transdermal product. The treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) aims to reduce pain and improve function. An innovative magnetophoresis technology has been [...] Read more.
We present a phase 1 study that utilizes a crossover design that provides a rapid and relatively inexpensive methodology for evaluating a new transdermal product. The treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) aims to reduce pain and improve function. An innovative magnetophoresis technology has been developed that facilitates transdermal delivery of ibuprofen. The study used measures that were taken over a relatively short time period to monitor the pharmacodynamic response to ibuprofen. Each participant received magnetophoresis-enhanced transdermal ibuprofen or placebo in randomised order, with a five-day washout period. The participants were 24 volunteers with medically diagnosed, painful knee OA. The primary outcome measures were VAS rating of pain on movement and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) pain and function scores. VAS for pain on movement (p < 0.001), WOMAC pain score (p = 0.004), and WOMAC function score (p = 0.004) were all significantly improved. There was a significant reduction in movement-related pain (p < 0.05) during the first patch application and for the remainder of the study period. The number needed to treat for a 50% reduction in movement related pain was 2.2. The study showed a rapid and significant analgesic effect in response to transdermal ibuprofen. A short trial of this nature can be used for informing the parameters that are required for a major randomised controlled trial. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation to Explain Bioequivalence Failure in Pravastatin Immediate-Release Products
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120663 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 348
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to explore the predictive ability of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) biowaiver based on the dissolution methods for two pravastatin test products, where one of them showed bioequivalence (BE) while the other test failed (non-bioequivalence, or NBE), [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to explore the predictive ability of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) biowaiver based on the dissolution methods for two pravastatin test products, where one of them showed bioequivalence (BE) while the other test failed (non-bioequivalence, or NBE), and to explore the reasons for the BE failure. Experimental solubility and permeability data confirmed that pravastatin is a BCS class III compound. The permeability experiments confirmed that the NBE formulation significantly increased pravastatin permeability, and could explain its higher absorption rate and higher Cmax. This finding highlights the relevance of requiring similar excipients for BCS class III drugs. The BCS-based biowaiver dissolution tests at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8, with the paddle apparatus at 50 rpm in 900 mL media, were not able to detect differences in pravastatin products, although the NBE formulation exhibited a more rapid dissolution at earlier sampling times. Dissolution tests conducted in 500 mL did not achieve complete dissolution, and both formulations were dissimilar because the amount dissolved at 15 min was less than 85%. The difference was less than 10% at pH 1.2 and 4.5, while at pH 6.8 f2, results reflected the Cmax rank order. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using a Material Library to Understand the Impacts of Raw Material Properties on Ribbon Quality in Roll Compaction
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120662 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to use a material library to investigate the effect of raw material properties on ribbon tensile strength (TS) and solid fraction (SF) in the roll compaction (RC) process. A total of 81 pharmaceutical materials, including 53 excipients [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to use a material library to investigate the effect of raw material properties on ribbon tensile strength (TS) and solid fraction (SF) in the roll compaction (RC) process. A total of 81 pharmaceutical materials, including 53 excipients and 28 natural product powders (NPPs), were characterized by 22 material descriptors and were compacted under five different hydraulic pressures. The transversal and longitudinal splitting behaviors of the ribbons were summarized. The TS-porosity and TS-pressure relationships were used to explain the roll compaction behavior of powdered materials. Through defining the target ribbon quality (i.e., 0.6 ≤ SF ≤ 0.8 and TS ≥ 1 MPa), the roll compaction behavior classification system (RCBCS) was built and 81 materials were classified into three categories. A total of 24 excipients and five NPPs were classified as Category I materials, which fulfilled the target ribbon quality and had less occurrence of transversal splitting. Moreover, the multivariate relationships between raw material descriptors, the hydraulic pressure and ribbon quality attributes were obtained by PLS regression. Four density-related material descriptors and the cohesion index were identified as critical material attributes (CMAs). The multi-objective design space summarizing the feasible material properties and operational region for the RC process were visualized. The RCBCS presented in this paper enables a formulator to perform the initial risk assessment of any new materials, and the data modeling method helps to predict the impact of formulation ingredients on strength and porosity of compacts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Process for Drug Delivery Systems with Locally Incorporated Drug Depots
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120661 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Here, we present a new hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) process to create drug delivery systems (DDSs) with selectively incorporated drug depots. The matrix of a DDS was generated by stereolithography (SLA), whereas the drug depots were loaded using inkjet printing. The novel AM [...] Read more.
Here, we present a new hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) process to create drug delivery systems (DDSs) with selectively incorporated drug depots. The matrix of a DDS was generated by stereolithography (SLA), whereas the drug depots were loaded using inkjet printing. The novel AM process combining SLA with inkjet printing was successfully implemented in an existing SLA test setup. In the first studies, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate-based specimens with integrated depots were generated. As test liquids, blue and pink ink solutions were used. Furthermore, bovine serum albumin labeled with Coomassie blue dye as a model drug was successfully placed in a depot inside a DDS. The new hybrid AM process makes it possible to place several drugs independently of each other within the matrix. This allows adjustment of the release profiles of the drugs depending on the size as well as the position of the depots in the DDS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Silicone-Containing Semisolid in Situ Film-Forming Systems Using QbD Tools
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120660 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 266
Abstract
The aim of our research work was to develop dermally applicable, semisolid film-forming systems (FFSs) containing silicones, which form a film on the skin in situ, with suitable mechanical properties for skin application. FFSs were developed and investigated by means of the Quality [...] Read more.
The aim of our research work was to develop dermally applicable, semisolid film-forming systems (FFSs) containing silicones, which form a film on the skin in situ, with suitable mechanical properties for skin application. FFSs were developed and investigated by means of the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology. With this QbD approach, the initial risk assessment defines the critical quality attributes (CQAs), the critical material attributes (CMAs) and the critical process parameters (CPPs) to ensure the required quality. Different semisolid systems were formed with or without silicones. During the initial risk assessment, three CQAs, namely skin adhesion, film flexibility and burst strength, were found to be critical attributes, while film appearance, film integrity and the drying time of the semisolid system, were found to be medium attributes. These parameters were investigated. The initial risk assessment also showed that there are three high CMAs: the type of silicones, film-forming excipients, drying excipients, and that there was one medium CMA: viscosity-enhancing excipients. Based on our results, the silicone content had a great effect on the film-forming systems. Different silicones affected the mechanical properties of the films in varying ways, decreased the drying time and showed promising results regarding the drying mechanism. Full article
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