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Open AccessArticle

Investigation to Explain Bioequivalence Failure in Pravastatin Immediate-Release Products

Engineering, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmaceutical Technology Area, Miguel Hernandez University, 03550 San Juan de Alicante, Spain
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Analysis and Control Department, University of Los Andes, Merida 05101, Venezuela
Service on Pharmacokinetics and Generic Medicines, Division of Pharmacology and Clinical Evaluation, Department of Human Use Medicines, Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Care Products, 28022 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Edificio Muhammad Al-Shafra, Facultad de Farmacia, UMH, Carretera Alicante Valencia km 87, 03550 San Juan de Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(12), 663;
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 9 December 2019
The purpose of this work is to explore the predictive ability of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) biowaiver based on the dissolution methods for two pravastatin test products, where one of them showed bioequivalence (BE) while the other test failed (non-bioequivalence, or NBE), and to explore the reasons for the BE failure. Experimental solubility and permeability data confirmed that pravastatin is a BCS class III compound. The permeability experiments confirmed that the NBE formulation significantly increased pravastatin permeability, and could explain its higher absorption rate and higher Cmax. This finding highlights the relevance of requiring similar excipients for BCS class III drugs. The BCS-based biowaiver dissolution tests at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8, with the paddle apparatus at 50 rpm in 900 mL media, were not able to detect differences in pravastatin products, although the NBE formulation exhibited a more rapid dissolution at earlier sampling times. Dissolution tests conducted in 500 mL did not achieve complete dissolution, and both formulations were dissimilar because the amount dissolved at 15 min was less than 85%. The difference was less than 10% at pH 1.2 and 4.5, while at pH 6.8 f2, results reflected the Cmax rank order. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioequivalence; Biopharmaceutics Classification System; in vitro; dissolution test; pravastatin bioequivalence; Biopharmaceutics Classification System; in vitro; dissolution test; pravastatin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Picazo, A.; Colón-Useche, S.; Perez-Amorós, B.; González-Álvarez, M.; Molina-Martínez, I.; González-Álvarez, I.; García-Arieta, A.; Bermejo, M. Investigation to Explain Bioequivalence Failure in Pravastatin Immediate-Release Products. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 663.

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