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Pharmaceutics, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 85 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Polymeric microcontainers loaded with insulin, a permeation enhancer, and a protease inhibitor are [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Partial Least Squares Regression-Based Robust Forward Control of the Tableting Process
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010085 - 20 Jan 2020
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Abstract
In this study, we established a robust feed-forward control model for the tableting process by partial least squares regression using the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and physical attributes of the granules to be compressed. The NIR spectra of granules are rich in information about [...] Read more.
In this study, we established a robust feed-forward control model for the tableting process by partial least squares regression using the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and physical attributes of the granules to be compressed. The NIR spectra of granules are rich in information about chemical attributes, such as the compositions of any ingredients and moisture content. Polymorphism and pseudo-polymorphism can also be quantitatively evaluated by NIR spectra. We used the particle size distribution, flowability, and loose and tapped density as the physical attributes of the granules. The tableting process was controlled by the lower punch fill depth and the minimum distance between the upper and lower punches at compression, which were specifically related to the tablet weight and thickness, respectively. The feed-forward control of the process would be expected to provide some advantages for automated and semi-automated continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. As a result, our model, using a combination of NIR spectra and the physical attributes of granules to control the distance between punches, resulted in respectable agreement between the predicted process parameters and actual settings to produce tablets of the desired thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Acetylated Annealed Starch on the Release of β-Escin from the Anionic and Non-Ionic Hydrophilic Gels
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010084 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Naturally sourced products introduced to human nutrition and rediscovered for therapy include polysaccharides from potatoes. The starch may obtain unique properties via acetylation with acetic anhydride at 13 cm3/100 g of starch as the basic dose of reagent used in industrial [...] Read more.
Naturally sourced products introduced to human nutrition and rediscovered for therapy include polysaccharides from potatoes. The starch may obtain unique properties via acetylation with acetic anhydride at 13 cm3/100 g of starch as the basic dose of reagent used in industrial conditions. The hydrogel formulation was applied as a carrier for escin included in the dry extract of Aesculus hippocastanum. Six hydrogels were evaluated (methylcellulose, polyacrylic acid-Carbopol 980 NF and polyacrylate crosspolymer 11—Aristoflex Velvet) with various concentrations of the modified starch. The kinetic studies of in vitro β-escin release were carried out in purified water at 37 ± 0.5 °C using a paddle apparatus at 50 rpm and a time period of 7 h. The criterion for the most suitable model was based on a high correlation coefficient of evaluated release profiles. The addition of modified annealed acetylated potato starch resulted in prolongation of β-escin release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Complex Bone Diseases: Bone Cancer, Bone Infection and Osteoporosis
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010083 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Bone diseases, such as bone cancer, bone infection and osteoporosis, constitute a major issue for modern societies as a consequence of their progressive ageing. Even though these pathologies can be currently treated in the clinic, some of those treatments present drawbacks that may [...] Read more.
Bone diseases, such as bone cancer, bone infection and osteoporosis, constitute a major issue for modern societies as a consequence of their progressive ageing. Even though these pathologies can be currently treated in the clinic, some of those treatments present drawbacks that may lead to severe complications. For instance, chemotherapy lacks great tumor tissue selectivity, affecting healthy and diseased tissues. In addition, the inappropriate use of antimicrobials is leading to the appearance of drug-resistant bacteria and persistent biofilms, rendering current antibiotics useless. Furthermore, current antiosteoporotic treatments present many side effects as a consequence of their poor bioavailability and the need to use higher doses. In view of the existing evidence, the encapsulation and selective delivery to the diseased tissues of the different therapeutic compounds seem highly convenient. In this sense, silica-based mesoporous nanoparticles offer great loading capacity within their pores, the possibility of modifying the surface to target the particles to the malignant areas and great biocompatibility. This manuscript is intended to be a comprehensive review of the available literature on complex bone diseases treated with silica-based mesoporous nanoparticles—the further development of which and eventual translation into the clinic could bring significant benefits for our future society. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism and Improved Dissolution of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Solid Dispersion by Alkalizers
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010082 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 267
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to increase the dissolution of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) by preparing ternary solid dispersion (TSD) systems containing alkalizers, and to explore the modulating mechanism of alkalizers in solid dispersion systems. GA TSDs were prepared by hot melt extrusion [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to increase the dissolution of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) by preparing ternary solid dispersion (TSD) systems containing alkalizers, and to explore the modulating mechanism of alkalizers in solid dispersion systems. GA TSDs were prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME) with Kollidon® VA64 as the carrier and L-arginine/meglumine as the alkalizers. The in vitro release of the TSD was investigated with a dissolution test, and the dissociation constant (pKa) was used to describe the ionization degree of the drug in different pH buffers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and a molecular model were used for solid-state characterizations and to study the dissolution mechanism of the TSDs. It was evident that the dissolution of GA significantly increased as a result of the TSD compared to the pure drug and binary solid dispersion. SEM, DSC, and XPRD data showed that GA transformed into an amorphous form in TSD. As illustrated by FTIR, Raman, XPS, and molecular docking, high binding energy ion-pair complexes formed between GA and the alkalizers during the process of HME. These can destroy the H-bond between GA molecules. Further, intermolecular H-bonds formed between the alkalizers and Kollidon® VA64, which can increase the wettability of the drug. Our results will significantly improve the solubility and dissolution of GA. In addition, the lower pKa value of TSD indicates that higher ionization is beneficial to the dissolution of the drug. This study should facilitate further developments of TSDs containing alkalizers to improve the dissolution of weakly acidic drugs and gain a richer understanding of the mechanism of dissolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solubilization and Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle
Gastrointestinal Tracking and Gastric Emptying of Coated Capsules in Rats with or without Sedation Using CT imaging
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010081 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Following oral administration, gastric emptying is often a rate-limiting step in the absorption of drugs and is dependent on both physiological and pharmaceutical factors. To guide translation into humans, small animal imaging during pre-clinical studies has been increasingly used to localise the gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
Following oral administration, gastric emptying is often a rate-limiting step in the absorption of drugs and is dependent on both physiological and pharmaceutical factors. To guide translation into humans, small animal imaging during pre-clinical studies has been increasingly used to localise the gastrointestinal transit of solid dosage forms. In contrast to humans, however, anaesthesia is usually required for effective imaging in animals which may have unintended effects on intestinal physiology. This study evaluated the effect of anaesthesia and capsule size on the gastric emptying rate of coated capsules in rats. Computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to track and locate the capsules through the gastrointestinal tract. Two commercial gelatine mini-capsules (size 9 and 9h) were filled with barium sulphate (contrast agent) and coated using Eudragit L. Under the effect of anaesthesia, none of the capsules emptied from the stomach. In non-anaesthetised rats, most of the size 9 capsules did not empty from the stomach, whereas the majority of the smaller size 9h capsules successfully emptied from the stomach and moved into the intestine. This study demonstrates that even with capsules designed to empty from the stomach in rats, the gastric emptying of such solid oral dosage forms is not guaranteed. In addition, the use of anaesthesia was found to abolish gastric emptying of both capsule sizes. The work herein further highlights the utility of CT imaging for the effective visualisation and location of solid dosage forms in the intestinal tract of rats without the use of anaesthesia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Treatment of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Captopril-Surface Functionalized Furosemide-Loaded Multi-Wall Lipid-Core Nanocapsules
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010080 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Multi-wall lipid-core nanocapsule (MLNC) functionalized with captopril and nanoencapsulating furosemide within the core was developed as a liquid formulation for oral administration. The nanocapsules had mean particle size below 200 nm, showing unimodal and narrow size distributions with moderate dispersity (laser diffraction and [...] Read more.
Multi-wall lipid-core nanocapsule (MLNC) functionalized with captopril and nanoencapsulating furosemide within the core was developed as a liquid formulation for oral administration. The nanocapsules had mean particle size below 200 nm, showing unimodal and narrow size distributions with moderate dispersity (laser diffraction and dynamic light scattering). Zeta potential was inverted from −14.3 mV [LNC-Fur(0,5)] to +18.3 mV after chitosan coating. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed spherical structures corroborating the nanometric diameter of the nanocapsules. Regarding the systolic pressure, on the first day, the formulations showed antihypertensive effect and a longer effect than the respective drug solutions. When both drugs were associated, the anti-hypertensive effect was prolonged. On the fifth day, a time effect reduction was observed for all treatments, except for the nanocapsule formulation containing both drugs [Capt(0.5)-Zn(25)-MLNC-Fur(0.45)]. For diastolic pressure, only Capt(0.5)-Zn(25)-MLNC-Fur(0.45) presented a significant difference (p < 0.05) on the first day. On the fifth day, both Capt(0.5)-MLNC-Fur(0.45) and Capt(0.5)-Zn(25)-MLNC-Fur(0.45) had an effect lasting up to 24 h. The analysis of early kidney damage marker showed a potential protection in renal function by Capt(0.5)-Zn(25)-MLNC-Fur(0.45). In conclusion, the formulation Capt(0.5)-Zn(25)-MLNC-Fur(0.45) proved to be suitable for hypertension treatment envisaging an important innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarriers and Nanomedicine for Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Various Cell Lines and Three-Dimensional Mucociliary Tissue Model Systems to Estimate Drug Permeability Using an In Vitro Transport Study to Predict Nasal Drug Absorption in Rats
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010079 - 17 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Recently, various types of cultured cells have been used to research the mechanisms of transport and metabolism of drugs. Although many studies using cultured cell systems have been published, a comparison of different cultured cell systems has never been reported. In this study, [...] Read more.
Recently, various types of cultured cells have been used to research the mechanisms of transport and metabolism of drugs. Although many studies using cultured cell systems have been published, a comparison of different cultured cell systems has never been reported. In this study, Caco-2, Calu-3, Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK), EpiAirway and MucilAir were used as popular in vitro cell culture systems, and the permeability of model compounds across these cell systems was evaluated to compare barrier characteristics and to clarify their usefulness as an estimation system for nasal drug absorption in rats. MDCK unexpectedly showed the best correlation (r = 0.949) with the fractional absorption (Fn) in rats. Secondly, a high correlation was observed in Calu-3 (r = 0.898). Also, Caco-2 (r = 0.787) and MucilAir (r = 0.750) showed a relatively good correlation with Fn. The correlation between Fn and permeability to EpiAirway was the poorest (r = 0.550). Because EpiAirway forms leakier tight junctions than other cell culture systems, the paracellular permeability was likely overestimated with this system. On the other hand, because MDCK formed such tight cellular junctions that compounds of paracellular model were less likely permeated, the paracellular permeability could be underestimated. Calu-3, Caco-2 and MucilAir form suitable cellular junctions and barriers, indicating that those cell systems enable the precise estimation of nasal drug absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intranasal Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Aerosol Characteristics and Physico-Chemical Compatibility of Combivent® (Containing Salbutamol and Ipratropium Bromide) Mixed with Three Other Inhalants: Budesonide, Beclomethasone or N-Acetylcysteine
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010078 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Inhalation therapy with a nebulizer is widely used in chronic respiratory disease. Mixing inhalation solutions/suspensions for simultaneous inhalation is more convenient and might simplify the administration procedure. However, there are no data available to address the in vitro aerosol characteristics and physico-chemical compatibility [...] Read more.
Inhalation therapy with a nebulizer is widely used in chronic respiratory disease. Mixing inhalation solutions/suspensions for simultaneous inhalation is more convenient and might simplify the administration procedure. However, there are no data available to address the in vitro aerosol characteristics and physico-chemical compatibility of Combivent® (containing Salbutamol and Ipratropium bromide) with other inhalation solutions/suspensions. In order to investigate the in vitro aerosol characteristics and physico-chemical compatibility of Combivent® with Budesonide, Beclomethasone, and N-acetylcysteine, the appearance, pH, osmotic pressure, chemical stability, mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), fine particles fraction (FPF), particle size corresponding to X50 (particle size, which accounts for 50% of the total cumulative percentage of volume of all particles), delivery rate, and total delivery of the mixed inhalation solution/suspension were tested. There was no change in the appearance such as a change in color or precipitation formation at room temperature. The pH, osmolality, and chemicals of the mixtures were stable for 24 h after mixing. There were no significant differences between Combivent®, Budesonide, Beclomethasone, N-acetylcysteine, and the mixtures in MMAD, FPF, X50, the delivery rate, and the total delivery. This indicates that the mixtures were physically and chemically compatible. The mixing did not influence the particle size, distribution, or delivery compatibility of the mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery Through Pulmonary)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Intragastric Floating, Controlled Release 3D Printed Theophylline Tablets Using Hot-Melt Extrusion and Fused Deposition Modeling
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010077 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 338
Abstract
This work presents a novel approach for producing gastro-retentive floating tablets (GRFT) by coupling hot-melt extrusion (HME) and fused deposition three-dimensional printing (3DP). Filaments containing theophylline (THEO) within a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) matrix were prepared using HME. 3DP tablets with different infill percentages [...] Read more.
This work presents a novel approach for producing gastro-retentive floating tablets (GRFT) by coupling hot-melt extrusion (HME) and fused deposition three-dimensional printing (3DP). Filaments containing theophylline (THEO) within a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) matrix were prepared using HME. 3DP tablets with different infill percentages and shell thickness were developed and evaluated to determine their drug content, floating behavior, dissolution, and physicochemical properties. The dissolution studies revealed a relationship between the infill percentage/shell thickness and the drug release behavior of the 3DP tablets. All the developed GRFTs possessed the ability to float for 10 h and exhibited zero-order release kinetics. The drug release could be described by the Peppas–Sahlin model, as a combination of Fickian diffusion and swelling mechanism. Drug crystallinity was found unaltered throughout the process. 3DP coupled with HME, could be an effective blueprint to produce controlled-release GRFTs, providing the advantage of simplicity and versatility compared to the conventional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Intranasal Drug Delivery: Geraniol Charged Polymeric Mixed Micelles for Targeting Cerebral Insult as a Result of Ischaemia/Reperfusion
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010076 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Brain damage caused by cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) can lead to handicapping. So, the present study aims to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of geraniol in the form of intranasal polymeric mixed micelle (PMM) on the central nervous system in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) [...] Read more.
Brain damage caused by cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) can lead to handicapping. So, the present study aims to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of geraniol in the form of intranasal polymeric mixed micelle (PMM) on the central nervous system in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. A 32 factorial design was used to prepare and optimize geraniol PMM to investigate polymer and stabilizer different concentrations on particle size (PS) and percent entrapment efficiency (%EE). F3 possessing the highest desirability value (0.96), with a PS value of 32.46  ±  0.64 nm, EE of 97.85  ±  1.90%, and release efficiency of 59.66  ±  0.64%, was selected for further pharmacological and histopathological studies. In the prophylactic study, animals were classified into a sham-operated group, a positive control group for which I/R was done without treatment, and treated groups that received vehicle (plain micelles), geraniol oil, and geraniol micelles intranasally before and after I/R. In the therapeutic study, treated rats received geraniol oil and micelles after I/R. Evaluation of the effect of geraniol on behavior was done by activity cage and rotarod and the analgesic effect tested by hot plate. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring interleukin β6, cyclooxygenase-2, hydrogen peroxide, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Histopathogical examination of cerebral cortices was also done to confirm the results of a biochemical assay. Geraniol nanostructured polymeric mixed micelles showed an enhanced neuro-protective effect compared to geraniol oil, confirming that PMM via intranasal route could be an efficient approach for delivering geraniol directly to the brain through crossing the blood–brain barrier. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Rifapentine-Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles Using a Quality-by-Design Strategy
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010075 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 274
Abstract
This work aims to optimize and assess the potential use of lipid nanoparticles, namely nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), as drug delivery systems of rifapentine (RPT) for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). A Box–Behnken design was used to increase drug encapsulation efficiency (EE) and [...] Read more.
This work aims to optimize and assess the potential use of lipid nanoparticles, namely nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), as drug delivery systems of rifapentine (RPT) for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). A Box–Behnken design was used to increase drug encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of RPT-loaded NLCs. The optimized nanoparticles were fully characterized, and their effect on cell viability was assessed. The quality-by-design approach allowed the optimization of RPT-loaded NLCs with improved EE and LC using the minimum of experiments. Analyses of variance were indicative of the validity of this model to optimize this nanodelivery system. The optimized NLCs had a mean diameter of 242 ± 9 nm, polydispersity index <0.2, and a highly negative zeta potential. EE values were higher than 80%, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis enabled the confirmation of the efficient encapsulation of RPT. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed spherical nanoparticles, uniform in shape and diameter, with no visible aggregation. Stability studies indicated that NLCs were stable over time. No toxicity was observed in primary human macrophage viability for nanoparticles up to 1000 μg mL−1. Overall, the optimized NLCs are efficient carriers of RPT and should be considered for further testing as promising drug delivery systems to be used in TB treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mechanistic Physiologically-Based Biopharmaceutics Modeling (PBBM) Approach to Assess the In Vivo Performance of an Orally Administered Drug Product: From IVIVC to IVIVP
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010074 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
The application of in silico modeling to predict the in vivo outcome of an oral drug product is gaining a lot of interest. Fully relying on these models as a surrogate tool requires continuous optimization and validation. To do so, intraluminal and systemic [...] Read more.
The application of in silico modeling to predict the in vivo outcome of an oral drug product is gaining a lot of interest. Fully relying on these models as a surrogate tool requires continuous optimization and validation. To do so, intraluminal and systemic data are desirable to judge the predicted outcomes. The aim of this study was to predict the systemic concentrations of ibuprofen after oral administration of an 800 mg immediate-release (IR) tablet to healthy subjects in fasted-state conditions. A mechanistic oral absorption model coupled with a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic (PK) model was built in Phoenix WinNonlinWinNonlin® software and in the GastroPlus™ simulator. It should be noted that all simulations were performed in an ideal framework as we were in possession of a plethora of in vivo data (e.g., motility, pH, luminal and systemic concentrations) in order to evaluate and optimize these models. All this work refers to the fact that important, yet crucial, gastrointestinal (GI) variables should be integrated into biopredictive dissolution testing (low buffer capacity media, considering phosphate versus bicarbonate buffer, hydrodynamics) to account for a valuable input for physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) platform programs. While simulations can be performed and mechanistic insights can be gained from such simulations from current software, we need to move from correlations to predictions (IVIVC → IVIVP) and, moreover, we need to further determine the dynamics of the GI variables controlling the dosage form transit, disintegration, dissolution, absorption and metabolism along the human GI tract. Establishing the link between biopredictive in vitro dissolution testing and mechanistic oral absorption modeling (i.e., physiologically-based biopharmaceutics modeling (PBBM)) creates an opportunity to potentially request biowaivers in the near future for orally administered drug products, regardless of its classification according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Induction of WNT16 via Peptide-mRNA Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Maintains Cartilage Homeostasis
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010073 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease that causes significant disability and pain and for which there are limited treatment options. We posit that delivery of anabolic factors that protect and maintain cartilage homeostasis will halt or retard OA progression. We employ a [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease that causes significant disability and pain and for which there are limited treatment options. We posit that delivery of anabolic factors that protect and maintain cartilage homeostasis will halt or retard OA progression. We employ a peptide-based nanoplatform to deliver Wingless and the name Int-1 (WNT) 16 messenger RNA (mRNA) to human cartilage explants. The peptide forms a self-assembled nanocomplex of approximately 65 nm in size when incubated with WNT16 mRNA. The complex is further stabilized with hyaluronic acid (HA) for enhanced cellular uptake. Delivery of peptide-WNT16 mRNA nanocomplex to human cartilage explants antagonizes canonical β-catenin/WNT3a signaling, leading to increased lubricin production and decreased chondrocyte apoptosis. This is a proof-of-concept study showing that mRNA can be efficiently delivered to articular cartilage, an avascular tissue that is poorly accessible even when drugs are intra-articularly (IA) administered. The ability to accommodate a wide range of oligonucleotides suggests that this platform may find use in a broad range of clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology-Based Approaches for Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
PLGA-PEG-ANG-2 Nanoparticles for Blood–Brain Barrier Crossing: Proof-of-Concept Study
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010072 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 353
Abstract
The treatment of diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS) represents a great research challenge due to the restriction imposed by the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to allow the passage of drugs into the brain. However, the use of modified nanomedicines engineered with [...] Read more.
The treatment of diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS) represents a great research challenge due to the restriction imposed by the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to allow the passage of drugs into the brain. However, the use of modified nanomedicines engineered with different ligands that can be recognized by receptors expressed in the BBB offers a favorable alternative for this purpose. In this work, a BBB-penetrating peptide, angiopep-2 (Ang–2), was conjugated to poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles through pre- and post-formulation strategies. Then, their ability to cross the BBB was qualitatively assessed on an animal model. Proof-of-concept studies with fluorescent and confocal microscopy studies highlighted that the brain-targeted PLGA nanoparticles were able to cross the BBB and accumulated in neuronal cells, thus showing a promising brain drug delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery to the Brain)
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Open AccessArticle
Directly Compressed Tablets of Free Acid Ibuprofen with Nanocellulose Featuring Enhanced Dissolution: A Side-by-Side Comparison with Commercial Oral Dosage Forms
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010071 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 308
Abstract
We have previously reported that heated powder mixtures of ibuprofen (IBU) and high surface area nanocellulose exhibit an enhanced dissolution and solubility of the drug due to IBU amorphization. The goal of the present work was to further elaborate the concept and conduct [...] Read more.
We have previously reported that heated powder mixtures of ibuprofen (IBU) and high surface area nanocellulose exhibit an enhanced dissolution and solubility of the drug due to IBU amorphization. The goal of the present work was to further elaborate the concept and conduct side-by-side in vitro drug release comparisons with commercial formulations, including film-coated tablets, soft gel liquid capsules, and IBU-lysine conjugate tablets, in biorelevant media. Directly compressed tablets were produced from heated mixtures of 20% w/w IBU and high surface area Cladophora cellulose (CLAD), with 5% w/w sodium croscarmelose (AcDiSol) as superdisintegrant. The side-by side studies in simulated gastric fluid, fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid, and fed-state simulated intestinal fluid corroborate that the IBU-CLAD tablets show more rapid and less variable release in various media compared to three commercial IBU formulations. On the sidelines of the main work, a possibility of the presence of a new meta-crystalline form of IBU in mixture with nanocellulose is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solubilization and Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Targeting of Colon Cancer Cells with Piperine Natural Anticancer Prodrug Using Functionalized Clusters of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010070 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Targeted drug delivery offers great opportunities for treating cancer. Here, we developed a novel anticancer targeted delivery system for piperine (Pip), an alkaloid prodrug derived from black pepper that exhibits anticancer effects. The tailored delivery system comprises aggregated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAPs) functionalized with [...] Read more.
Targeted drug delivery offers great opportunities for treating cancer. Here, we developed a novel anticancer targeted delivery system for piperine (Pip), an alkaloid prodrug derived from black pepper that exhibits anticancer effects. The tailored delivery system comprises aggregated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAPs) functionalized with phosphonate groups (HAP-Ps). Pip was loaded into HAPs and HAP-Ps at pH 7.2 and 9.3 to obtain nanoformulations. The nanoformulations were characterized using several techniques and the release kinetics and anticancer effects investigated in vitro. The Pip loading capacity was >20%. Prolonged release was observed with kinetics dependent on pH, surface modification, and coating. The nanoformulations fully inhibited monolayer HCT116 colon cancer cells compared to Caco2 colon cancer and MCF7 breast cancer cells after 72 h, whereas free Pip had a weaker effect. The nanoformulations inhibited ~60% in HCT116 spheroids compared to free Pip. The Pip-loaded nanoparticles were also coated with gum Arabic and functionalized with folic acid as a targeting ligand. These functionalized nanoformulations had the lowest cytotoxicity towards normal WI-38 fibroblast cells. These preliminary findings suggest that the targeted delivery system comprising HAP aggregates loaded with Pip, coated with gum Arabic, and functionalized with folic acid are a potentially efficient agent against colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergent Strategies for Natural Products Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Focused-Ultrasound-and-Microbubble-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption on Drug Transport under Liposome-Mediated Delivery in Brain Tumour: A Pilot Numerical Simulation Study
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010069 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Focused ultrasound (FUS) coupled with microbubbles (MB) has been found to be a promising approach to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, how this disruption affects drug transport remains unclear. In this study, drug transport in combination therapy of liposomes and FUS-MB-induced BBB [...] Read more.
Focused ultrasound (FUS) coupled with microbubbles (MB) has been found to be a promising approach to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, how this disruption affects drug transport remains unclear. In this study, drug transport in combination therapy of liposomes and FUS-MB-induced BBB disruption (BBBD) was investigated based on a multiphysics model. A realistic 3D brain tumour model extracted from MR images was applied. The results demonstrated the advantage of liposomes compared to free doxorubicin injection in further improving treatment when the BBB is opened under the same delivery conditions using burst sonication. This improvement was mainly due to the BBBD-enhanced transvascular transport of free doxorubicin and the sustainable supply of the drug by long-circulating liposomes. Treatment efficacy can be improved in different ways. Disrupting the BBB simultaneously with liposome bolus injection enables more free drug molecules to cross the vessel wall, while prolonging the BBBD duration could accelerate liposome transvascular transport for more effective drug release. However, the drug release rate needs to be well controlled to balance the trade-off among drug release, transvascular exchange and elimination. The results obtained in this study could provide suggestions for the future optimisation of this FUS-MB–liposome combination therapy against brain cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatible Materials in Drug Delivery System in Oncology)
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Open AccessReview
Strategic Approaches for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery: An Overview of Recent Advancements
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010068 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Colon targeted drug delivery systems have gained a great deal of attention as potential carriers for the local treatment of colonic diseases with reduced systemic side effects and also for the enhanced oral delivery of various therapeutics vulnerable to acidic and enzymatic degradation [...] Read more.
Colon targeted drug delivery systems have gained a great deal of attention as potential carriers for the local treatment of colonic diseases with reduced systemic side effects and also for the enhanced oral delivery of various therapeutics vulnerable to acidic and enzymatic degradation in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, the global pharmaceutical market for biologics has grown, and increasing demand for a more patient-friendly drug administration system highlights the importance of colonic drug delivery as a noninvasive delivery approach for macromolecules. Colon-targeted drug delivery systems for macromolecules can provide therapeutic benefits including better patient compliance (because they are pain-free and can be self-administered) and lower costs. Therefore, to achieve more efficient colonic drug delivery for local or systemic drug effects, various strategies have been explored including pH-dependent systems, enzyme-triggered systems, receptor-mediated systems, and magnetically-driven systems. In this review, recent advancements in various approaches for designing colon targeted drug delivery systems and their pharmaceutical applications are covered with a particular emphasis on formulation technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Formulation Approaches for Targeted Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Model-Based Process Start-Up in Pharmaceutical Continuous Granulation and Drying
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010067 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a promising strategy to achieve various benefits in the context of quality, flexibility, safety and cost in pharmaceutical production. One of the main technical challenges of CM is that the process needs to handle transient conditions such as the [...] Read more.
Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a promising strategy to achieve various benefits in the context of quality, flexibility, safety and cost in pharmaceutical production. One of the main technical challenges of CM is that the process needs to handle transient conditions such as the start-up phase before state of control operation is reached, which can potentially cause out-of-specification (OOS) material. In this context, the presented paper aims to demonstrate that suitable process control strategies during start-up of a continuous granulation and drying operation can limit or even avoid OOS material production and hence can ensure that the provided benefits of CM are not compromised by poor production yields. In detail, heat-up of the drying chamber prior the start of production can lead to thermal energy being stored inside of the stainless-steel housing, acting as an energy buffer that is known to cause over-dried granules in the first few minutes of the drying process. To compensate this issue, an automatic ramping procedure of dryer rotation speed (and hence drying time) was introduced into the plant’s process control system, which counteracts the excessive drying capacity during start-up. As a result, dry granules exiting the dryer complied with the targeted intermediate critical quality attribute loss-on-drying (LOD) from the very beginning of production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Along the Process Chain to Probiotic Tablets: Evaluation of Mechanical Impacts on Microbial Viability
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010066 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Today, probiotics are predominantly used in liquid or semi-solid functionalized foods, showing a rapid loss of cell viability. Due to the increasing spread of antibiotic resistance, probiotics are promising in pharmaceutical development because of their antimicrobial effects. This increases the formulation requirements, e.g., [...] Read more.
Today, probiotics are predominantly used in liquid or semi-solid functionalized foods, showing a rapid loss of cell viability. Due to the increasing spread of antibiotic resistance, probiotics are promising in pharmaceutical development because of their antimicrobial effects. This increases the formulation requirements, e.g., the need for an enhanced shelf life that is achieved by drying, mainly by lyophilization. For oral administration, the process chain for production of tablets containing microorganisms is of high interest and, thus, was investigated in this study. Lyophilization as an initial process step showed low cell survival of only 12.8%. However, the addition of cryoprotectants enabled survival rates up to 42.9%. Subsequently, the dried cells were gently milled. This powder was tableted directly or after mixing with excipients microcrystalline cellulose, dicalcium phosphate or lactose. Survival rates during tableting varied between 1.4% and 24.1%, depending on the formulation and the applied compaction stress. More detailed analysis of the tablet properties showed advantages of excipients in respect of cell survival and tablet mechanical strength. Maximum overall survival rate along the complete manufacturing process was >5%, enabling doses of 6   ×   10 8 colony forming units per gram ( CFU   g total 1 ), including cryoprotectants and excipients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Processing in Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Antitumor Features of Vegetal Protein-Based Nanotherapeutics
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010065 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
The introduction of nanotechnology into pharmaceutical application revolutionized the administration of antitumor drugs through the modulation of their accumulation in specific organs/body compartments, a decrease in their side-effects and their controlled release from innovative systems. The use of plant-derived proteins as innovative, safe [...] Read more.
The introduction of nanotechnology into pharmaceutical application revolutionized the administration of antitumor drugs through the modulation of their accumulation in specific organs/body compartments, a decrease in their side-effects and their controlled release from innovative systems. The use of plant-derived proteins as innovative, safe and renewable raw materials to be used for the development of polymeric nanoparticles unlocked a new scenario in the drug delivery field. In particular, the reduced size of the colloidal systems combined with the peculiar properties of non-immunogenic polymers favored the characterization and evaluation of the pharmacological activity of the novel nanoformulations. The aim of this review is to describe the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles composed of vegetal proteins used to retain and deliver anticancer drugs, together with the most important preparation methods and the pharmacological features of these potential nanomedicines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Metastatic Effects on Melanoma via Intravenous Administration of Anti-NF-κB siRNA Complexed with Functional Peptide-Modified Nano-Micelles
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010064 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Controlling metastasis is an important strategy in cancer treatment. Nanotechnology and nucleic acids with novel modalities are promising regulators of cancer metastasis. We aimed to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) systemic delivery and anti-metastasis system using nanotechnology. We previously reported that polyethylene [...] Read more.
Controlling metastasis is an important strategy in cancer treatment. Nanotechnology and nucleic acids with novel modalities are promising regulators of cancer metastasis. We aimed to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) systemic delivery and anti-metastasis system using nanotechnology. We previously reported that polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) and functional peptide CH2R4H2C nano-micelle (MPEG-PCL-CH2R4H2C) has high siRNA silencing effects, indicated by increased drug accumulation in tumor-bearing mice, and has an anti-tumor effect on solid tumors upon systemic injection. In this study, we aimed to apply our micelles to inhibit metastasis and evaluated the inhibitory effect of anti-RelA siRNA (siRelA), which is a subunit of NF-κB conjugated with MPEG-PCL-CH2R4H2C, via systemic administration. We report that siRelA/MPEG-PCL-CH2R4H2C had a high cellular uptake and suppressed the migration/invasion of cells in B16F10 cells without toxicity. In addition, in a lung metastasis mouse model using intravenous administration of B16F10 cells treated with siRelA/MPEG-PCL-CH2R4H2C, the number of lung nodules in lung tissue significantly decreased compared to naked siRelA and siControl/MPEG-PCL-CH2R4H2C micelle treatments. Hence, we show that RelA expression can reduce cancer metastasis, and MPEG-PCL-CH2R4H2C is an effective siRNA carrier for anti-metastasis cancer therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Viral Gene Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Printing of Drug-Loaded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Meshes: A Potential Material for Soft Tissue Reinforcement in Vaginal Surgery
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010063 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
Current strategies to treat pelvic organ prolapse (POP) or stress urinary incontinence (SUI), include the surgical implantation of vaginal meshes. Recently, there have been multiple reports of issues generated by these meshes conventionally made of poly(propylene). This material is not the ideal candidate, [...] Read more.
Current strategies to treat pelvic organ prolapse (POP) or stress urinary incontinence (SUI), include the surgical implantation of vaginal meshes. Recently, there have been multiple reports of issues generated by these meshes conventionally made of poly(propylene). This material is not the ideal candidate, due to its mechanical properties leading to complications such as chronic pain and infection. In the present manuscript, we propose the use of an alternative material, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), loaded with an antibiotic in combination with fused deposition modelling (FDM) to prepare safer vaginal meshes. For this purpose, TPU filaments containing levofloxacin (LFX) in various concentrations (e.g., 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%) were produced by extrusion. These filaments were used to 3D print vaginal meshes. The printed meshes were fully characterized through different tests/analyses such as fracture force studies, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT), release studies and microbiology testing. The results showed that LFX was uniformly distributed within the TPU matrix, regardless the concentration loaded. The mechanical properties showed that poly(propylene) (PP) is a tougher material with a lower elasticity than TPU, which seemed to be a more suitable material due to its elasticity. In addition, the printed meshes showed a significant bacteriostatic activity on both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli cultures, minimising the risk of infection after implanting them. Therefore, the incorporation of LFX to the TPU matrix can be used to prepare anti-infective vaginal meshes with enhanced mechanical properties compared with current PP vaginal meshes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
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Open AccessReview
Antibodies for the Treatment of Brain Metastases, a Dream or a Reality?
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010062 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 487
Abstract
The incidence of brain metastases (BM) in cancer patients is increasing. After diagnosis, overall survival (OS) is poor, elicited by the lack of an effective treatment. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapy has achieved remarkable success in treating both hematologic and non-central-nervous system (CNS) tumors [...] Read more.
The incidence of brain metastases (BM) in cancer patients is increasing. After diagnosis, overall survival (OS) is poor, elicited by the lack of an effective treatment. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapy has achieved remarkable success in treating both hematologic and non-central-nervous system (CNS) tumors due to their inherent targeting specificity. However, the use of mAbs in the treatment of CNS tumors is restricted by the blood–brain barrier (BBB) that hinders the delivery of either small-molecules drugs (sMDs) or therapeutic proteins (TPs). To overcome this limitation, active research is focused on the development of strategies to deliver TPs and increase their concentration in the brain. Yet, their molecular weight and hydrophilic nature turn this task into a challenge. The use of BBB peptide shuttles is an elegant strategy. They explore either receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) or adsorptive-mediated transcytosis (AMT) to cross the BBB. The latter is preferable since it avoids enzymatic degradation, receptor saturation, and competition with natural receptor substrates, which reduces adverse events. Therefore, the combination of mAbs properties (e.g., selectivity and long half-life) with BBB peptide shuttles (e.g., BBB translocation and delivery into the brain) turns the therapeutic conjugate in a valid approach to safely overcome the BBB and efficiently eliminate metastatic brain cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery across Biological Barriers)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Transfer in Vials Nested in a Rack System During Lyophilization
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010061 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Small batch sizes are a consequence of more personalized medicine and reflect a trend in the biopharmaceutical industry. Freeze drying of vials nested in a rack system is a tool used in new flexible pilot scale processing lines. Understanding of heat transfer mechanisms [...] Read more.
Small batch sizes are a consequence of more personalized medicine and reflect a trend in the biopharmaceutical industry. Freeze drying of vials nested in a rack system is a tool used in new flexible pilot scale processing lines. Understanding of heat transfer mechanisms in the rack loaded with vials not in direct contact with each other is necessary to ensure high quality. Lyophilization in the rack vial system enables a homogeneous drying with a reduced edge-vial-effect and shielding against radiation from surrounding components, e.g., the chamber wall. Due to the separation effect of the rack, direct shelf contact contributes approx. 40% to the overall energy transfer to the product during primary drying. Hence overall the rack is a flexible, robust tool for small batch production, which ensures a controlled heat transfer resulting in a uniform product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Freeze Drying and Spray Drying)
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Open AccessArticle
Zein Beta-Cyclodextrin Micropowders for Iron Bisglycinate Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010060 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Given the limited number of materials available to design delivery platforms for nutrients, the rational combination of raw materials already approved as food ingredients and their processing through nano-micro technology can offer a unique tool for innovation. Here, we propose a nano-in-micro strategy [...] Read more.
Given the limited number of materials available to design delivery platforms for nutrients, the rational combination of raw materials already approved as food ingredients and their processing through nano-micro technology can offer a unique tool for innovation. Here, we propose a nano-in-micro strategy to produce powders based on the hydrophobic protein zein, useful for the oral delivery of a hydrophilic iron source (iron bisglycinate) in anaemic patients. Iron-loaded powders were prepared through a two-step strategy consisting in the formation of a zein pseudolatex followed by a spray-drying step. To extend the manipulation space for zein and entrap iron bisglycinate, β-cyclodextrin (βCD) was selected as helping excipient. Addition of βCD allowed iron loading in the pseudolatex and greatly increased product yields after the drying process as compared to zein alone. Iron-loaded micro-sized powders were characterised by attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to elucidate the role of βCD as a compatibilizer for the zein–iron system. Remarkably, micropowders released only 20% of FeBIS in a simulated gastric fluid, whereas release in a simulated intestinal fluid was almost completed in 7 h. In summary, βCD association to zein is a novel strategy to expand applications in the oral delivery of iron bisglycinate and, prospectively, to micronutrient chelates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polymer Cancerostatics Containing Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Internalization Efficacy Depends on Peptide Type and Spacer Length
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010059 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are commonly used substances enhancing the cellular uptake of various cargoes that do not easily cross the cellular membrane. CPPs can be either covalently bound directly to the cargo or they can be attached to a transporting system such as [...] Read more.
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are commonly used substances enhancing the cellular uptake of various cargoes that do not easily cross the cellular membrane. CPPs can be either covalently bound directly to the cargo or they can be attached to a transporting system such as a polymer carrier together with the cargo. In this work, several CPP–polymer conjugates based on copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (pHPMA) with HIV-1 Tat peptide (TAT), a minimal sequence of penetratin (PEN), IRS-tag (RYIRS), and PTD4 peptide, and the two short hydrophobic peptides VPMLK and PFVYLI were prepared and characterized. Moreover, the biological efficacy of fluorescently labeled polymer carriers decorated with various CPPs was compared. The experiments revealed that the TAT–polymer conjugate and the PEN–polymer conjugate were internalized about 40 times and 15 times more efficiently than the control polymer, respectively. Incorporation of dodeca(ethylene glycol) spacer improved the cell penetration of both studied polymer–peptide conjugates compared to the corresponding spacer-free polymer conjugates, while the shorter tetra(ethylene glycol) spacer improved only the penetration of the TAT conjugate but it did not improve the penetration of the PEN conjugate. Finally, a significantly improved cytotoxic effect of the polymer conjugate containing anticancer drug pirarubicin and TAT attached via a dodeca(ethylene glycol) was observed when compared with the analogous polymer–pirarubicin conjugate without TAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Delivery Systems for Cancer Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Stability and Compatibility Studies of Levothyroxine Sodium in Solid Binary Systems—Instrumental Screening
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010058 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 337
Abstract
The influence of excipients on the stability of sodium levothyroxine pentahydrate (LTSS) under ambient conditions and thermal stress was evaluated. Since LTSS is a synthetic hormone with a narrow therapeutic index, the interactions of LTSS with excipients can lead to a drastic diminution [...] Read more.
The influence of excipients on the stability of sodium levothyroxine pentahydrate (LTSS) under ambient conditions and thermal stress was evaluated. Since LTSS is a synthetic hormone with a narrow therapeutic index, the interactions of LTSS with excipients can lead to a drastic diminution of therapeutic activity. Ten commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different roles in solid formulations were chosen as components for binary mixtures containing LTSS, namely, starch, anhydrous lactose, D-mannitol, D-sorbitol, gelatin, calcium lactate pentahydrate, magnesium stearate, methyl 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (Tylose), colloidal SiO2 (Aerosil) and talc. As investigational tools, universal attenuated total reflectance- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy UATR-FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis were chosen and used as follows: UATR-FTIR spectra were drawn up for samples kept under ambient conditions, while thermoanalytical tools (TG/DTG/HF data) were chosen to evaluate the inducing of interactions during thermal stress. The corroboration of instrumental results led to the conclusion that LTSS is incompatible with lactose, mannitol and sorbitol, and these excipients should not be considered in the development of new generic solid formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Stability and Stabilization Techniques)
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Designing Hydrogels for Controlled Drug Delivery: Guest Editors’ Introduction
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010057 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Hydrogels have received growing attention in recent years as materials for drug delivery systems (DDS), because they are biocompatible and nontoxic [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of Bio-Active Patches Based on Pectin for the Treatment of Ulcers and Wounds Using 3D-Bioprinting Technology
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010056 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Biodegradable 3D-printable inks based on pectin have been developed as a system for direct and indirect wound-dressing applications, suitable for 3D printing technologies. The 3D-printable inks formed free-standing transparent films upon drying, with the latter exhibiting fast disintegration upon contact with aqueous media. [...] Read more.
Biodegradable 3D-printable inks based on pectin have been developed as a system for direct and indirect wound-dressing applications, suitable for 3D printing technologies. The 3D-printable inks formed free-standing transparent films upon drying, with the latter exhibiting fast disintegration upon contact with aqueous media. The antimicrobial and wound-healing activities of the inks have been successfully enhanced by the addition of particles, comprised of chitosan and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes with propolis extract. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for the optimization of the inks (extrusion-printing pressure, shrinkage minimization over-drying, increased water uptake and minimization of the disintegration of the dry patches upon contact with aqueous media). Particles comprised of chitosan and cyclodextrin/propolis extract inclusion complexes (CCP), bearing antimicrobial properties, were optimized and integrated with the produced inks. The bioprinted patches were assessed for their cytocompatibility, antimicrobial activity and in vitro wound-healing properties. These studies were complemented with ex vivo skin adhesion measurements, a relative surface hydrophobicity and opacity measurement, mechanical properties, visualization, and spectroscopic techniques. The in vitro wound-healing studies revealed that the 3D-bioprinted patches enhanced the in vitro wound-healing process, while the incorporation of CCP further enhanced wound-healing, as well as the antimicrobial activity of the patches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
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