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Materials, Volume 13, Issue 10 (May-2 2020) – 216 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This short review article introduces several examples of self-assembly-based structural formation [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Behavior of Partially Grouted Concrete Masonry Walls under Quasi-Static Cyclic Lateral Loading
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102424 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
Eight partially grouted (PG-RM) concrete masonry walls were tested to study the influence of the strength and width of blocks, the wall aspect ratio, the horizontal and vertical reinforcement ratio, and the presence of edge elements (flanges). The results were analyzed in terms [...] Read more.
Eight partially grouted (PG-RM) concrete masonry walls were tested to study the influence of the strength and width of blocks, the wall aspect ratio, the horizontal and vertical reinforcement ratio, and the presence of edge elements (flanges). The results were analyzed in terms of the failure mode, damage progression, shear strength, lateral stiffness degradation, equivalent viscous damping ratio, and displacement ductility. Additionally, the performances of some existing shear expressions were analyzed by comparing the measured and predicted lateral load capacity of the tested walls. Based on the results, a slight increment in the lateral stiffness was achieved when employing stronger blocks, while the shear strength remained constant. Besides, increasing the width of concrete blocks did not have a significant effect on the shear strength nor in the initial tangential stiffness, but it generated a softer post-peak strength degradation. Increasing the wall aspect ratio reduced the brittleness of the response and the shear strength. Reducing the amount of vertical reinforcement lowered the resulting shear strength, although it also slowed down the post-peak resistance degradation. Transversal edge elements provided integrity to the wall response, generated softer resistance degradation, and improved the symmetry of the response, but they did not raise the lateral resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reinforcement and Repair Materials for Masonry Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Desulfurization with Fe2O3 on the Reduction of Nickel Converter Slag
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102423 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Generally in the nickel converter slag, metals are mainly in the form of sulfides, which are difficult to separate from slag. Although metal oxides in the slag, such as NiO, CoO, and Cu2O, are easily reduced into metal using carbon, the [...] Read more.
Generally in the nickel converter slag, metals are mainly in the form of sulfides, which are difficult to separate from slag. Although metal oxides in the slag, such as NiO, CoO, and Cu2O, are easily reduced into metal using carbon, the presence of sulfur inhibits the reduction reaction. In this study, the addition of Fe2O3 to nickel converter slag produced desulfurized slag, which enhanced the carbothermal reduction process. Increasing the desulfurization rate promoted the conversion of sulfides into oxides in slag, which significantly increased the activity of NiO, Cu2O, and Fe2O3. However, the residual sulfur content had no significant effect on the activity of FeO and CoO, due to the high initial FeO content and cobalt existing mainly in the form of oxides. The optimum addition of Fe2O3 was 15.0 g per 100 g nickel slag, while the desulfurization ratio was 36.84% and the rates of nikel, cobalt and copper recovery were 95.33%, 77.73%, and 73.83%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Progressive Failure Analysis of Laminates with Embedded Wrinkle Defects Based on an Elastoplastic Damage Model
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102422 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Out-of-plane wrinkling has a significant influence on the mechanical performance of composite laminates. Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the progressive failure behavior of fiber-reinforced composite laminates with out-of-plane wrinkle defects subjected to axial compression. To describe the material degradation, a three-dimensional elastoplastic [...] Read more.
Out-of-plane wrinkling has a significant influence on the mechanical performance of composite laminates. Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the progressive failure behavior of fiber-reinforced composite laminates with out-of-plane wrinkle defects subjected to axial compression. To describe the material degradation, a three-dimensional elastoplastic damage model with four damage modes (i.e., fiber tensile failure, matrix failure, fiber kinking/splitting, and delamination) was developed based on the LaRC05 criterion. To improve the computational efficiency in searching for the fracture angle in the matrix failure analysis, a high-efficiency and robust modified algorithm that combines the golden section search method with an inverse interpolation based on an existing study is proposed. The elastoplastic damage model was implemented in the finite-element code Abaqus using a user-defined material subroutine in Abaqus/Explicit. The model was applied to the progressive failure analysis of IM7/8552 composite laminates with out-of-plane wrinkles subjected to axial compressive loading. The numerical results showed that the compressive strength prediction obtained by the elastoplastic damage model is more accurate than that derived with an elastic damage model. The present model can describe the nonlinearity of the laminate during the damage evolution and determine the correct damage locations, which are in good agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, it was discovered that the plasticity effects should not be neglected in laminates with low wrinkle levels. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Functionalized Electrospun Nanofibers as a Versatile Platform for Colorimetric Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water: A Review
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102421 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The increasing heavy metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem mainly driven by industrial activities has raised severe concerns over human and environmental health that apparently necessitate the design and development of ideal strategies for the effective monitoring of heavy metals. In this regard, [...] Read more.
The increasing heavy metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem mainly driven by industrial activities has raised severe concerns over human and environmental health that apparently necessitate the design and development of ideal strategies for the effective monitoring of heavy metals. In this regard, colorimetric detection provides excellent opportunities for the easy monitoring of heavy metal ions, and especially, corresponding solid-state sensors enable potential opportunities for their applicability in real-world monitoring. As a result of the significant interest originating from their simplicity, exceptional characteristics, and applicability, the electrospun nanofiber-based colorimetric detection of heavy metal ions has undergone radical developments in the recent decade. This review illustrates the range of various approaches and functional molecules employed in the fabrication of electrospun nanofibers intended for the colorimetric detection of various metal ions in water. We highlight relevant investigations on the fabrication of functionalized electrospun nanofibers encompassing different approaches and functional molecules along with their sensing performance. Furthermore, we discuss upcoming prospectus and future opportunities in the exploration of designing electrospun nanofiber-based colorimetric sensors for real-world applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Impact Polymer Nanofibers and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Tissue Integration and Degradation of a Porous Collagen-Based Scaffold Used for Soft Tissue Augmentation
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102420 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Collagen-based scaffolds hold great potential for tissue engineering, since they closely mimic the extracellular matrix. We investigated tissue integration of an engineered porous collagen-elastin scaffold developed for soft tissue augmentation. After implantation in maxillary submucosal pouches in 6 canines, cell invasion (vimentin), extracellular [...] Read more.
Collagen-based scaffolds hold great potential for tissue engineering, since they closely mimic the extracellular matrix. We investigated tissue integration of an engineered porous collagen-elastin scaffold developed for soft tissue augmentation. After implantation in maxillary submucosal pouches in 6 canines, cell invasion (vimentin), extracellular matrix deposition (collagen type I) and scaffold degradation (cathepsin k, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), CD86) were (immuno)-histochemically evaluated. Invasion of vimentin+ cells (scattered and blood vessels) and collagen type I deposition within the pores started at 7 days. At 15 and 30 days, vimentin+ cells were still numerous and collagen type I increasingly filled the pores. Scaffold degradation was characterized by collagen loss mainly occurring around 15 days, a time point when medium-sized multinucleated cells peaked at the scaffold margin with simultaneous labeling for cathepsin k, TRAP, and CD86. Elastin was more resistant to degradation and persisted up to 90 days in form of packages well-integrated in the newly formed soft connective tissue. In conclusion, this collagen-based scaffold maintained long-enough volume stability to allow an influx of blood vessels and vimentin+ fibroblasts producing collagen type I, that filled the scaffold pores before major biomaterial degradation and collapse occurred. Cathepsin k, TRAP and CD86 appear to be involved in scaffold degradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Capacitance Enhancement by Incorporation of Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes into Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene)/Graphene Oxide Composites
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102419 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
This paper reports on the role of oxidised carbon nanotubes (oxMWCNTs) present in poly-3,4-ethylenedioxytiophene (PEDOT)/graphene oxide (GOx) composite. The final ternary composites (pEDOT/GOx/oxMWCNTs) are synthesised by an electrodeposition process from the suspension-containing monomer, oxidised carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. Dissociated functional groups on [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the role of oxidised carbon nanotubes (oxMWCNTs) present in poly-3,4-ethylenedioxytiophene (PEDOT)/graphene oxide (GOx) composite. The final ternary composites (pEDOT/GOx/oxMWCNTs) are synthesised by an electrodeposition process from the suspension-containing monomer, oxidised carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. Dissociated functional groups on the surface of graphene oxide play a role of counter-ions for the polymer chains. Detailed physicochemical and electrochemical characterisation of the ternary composites is presented in the paper. The results prove that the presence of oxMWCNTs in the ternary composites doubles the capacitance values compared to the binary ones (450 vs. 270 F cm−3 for PEDOT/GOx/oxMWCNTs and PEDOT/GOx, respectively). The amount of carbon nanotubes in the synthesis solution is crucial for physicochemical properties of the composites, their adhesion to the electrode substrate and the electrochemical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrode Materials for Energy Storage Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Isothermal Transformation Times below Ms and Tempering on Strength and Toughness of Low-Temperature Bainite in 0.53 C Bainitic Steel
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102418 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate the microstructures, strength, and impact toughness of low-temperature bainite obtained by isothermal transformation at temperature below Ms (Martensite Starting temperature) for different times and tempering process in 0.53 C wt% bainitic steel. By using the optical microscopy, X-ray [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the microstructures, strength, and impact toughness of low-temperature bainite obtained by isothermal transformation at temperature below Ms (Martensite Starting temperature) for different times and tempering process in 0.53 C wt% bainitic steel. By using the optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical property test, it was found that the microstructures after heat treatment consist of small amounts of martensite, fine bainite, and film retained austenite. After tempered at 250 °C for 2 h, the volume fraction of retained austenite (10.9%) in the sample treated by isothermal transformation at 220 °C for three hours is almost the same as that of the sample without tempering. In addition, the retained austenite fraction decreases with the increase of holding times and is reduced to 6.8% after holding for 15 h. The ultimate tensile strength (1827 MPa), yield strength (1496 MPa), total elongations (16.1%), and impact toughness (up to 58 J/cm2) were obtained by isothermal transformation at 220 °C for three hours and tempered at 250 °C. Whereas, the impact toughness of sample without tempering is 28 J/cm2. After holding for 15 h, the impact toughness raises to 56 J/cm2, while the ductility and strength decreases. These results indicate that the tempering process is helpful to improve the impact toughness of low-temperature bainite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Evolution of Fretting Wear Behavior and Damage Mechanism in Alloy 690TT with Cycle Number
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102417 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
The evolution of fretting wear behavior and damage mechanism in Alloy 690TT with cycle number was investigated via laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focus ion beam (FIB), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the fretting running [...] Read more.
The evolution of fretting wear behavior and damage mechanism in Alloy 690TT with cycle number was investigated via laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focus ion beam (FIB), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the fretting running status underwent a transition from partial slip and mixed stick-slip to final gross slip with the transformation of Ft–D curves from the ellipse to the parallelogram. The coefficient of friction (COF) experienced three drops throughout the fretting process, which indicated the transformation from high-friction wear to low-friction wear. The first drop was due to the transition from two-body to three-body contact. The second and third drops were mainly related to the evolution of the glaze layer from a localized distribution to completely covering the whole contact surface. The competition between fretting induced fatigue cracking (FIF) and fretting induced wear (FIW) ran through the entire fretting wear process. Before the 1.2 × 104th cycle, the fatigue crack growth was faster than wear, and FIF won the competition. As the fretting cycle continued to increase, the wear velocity was obviously faster than that of FIF, which indicated that FIW defeated FIF. The tribologically transformed structure (TTS) participated in the competition between FIF and FIW. The gain boundaries and dislocations in the TTS were a suitable pathway for crack initiation and propagation and oxygen permeation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on Microstructure, Residual Stresses and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Repair Welding on 304 Stainless Steel: Part I-Effects of Heat Input
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102416 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 242
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of repair welding heat input on microstructure, residual stresses, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) sensitivity were investigated by simulation and experiment. The results show that heat input influences the microstructure, residual stresses, and SCC behavior. With the increase [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of repair welding heat input on microstructure, residual stresses, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) sensitivity were investigated by simulation and experiment. The results show that heat input influences the microstructure, residual stresses, and SCC behavior. With the increase of heat input, both the δ-ferrite in weld and the average grain width decrease slightly, while the austenite grain size in the heat affected zone (HAZ) is slightly increased. The predicted repair welding residual stresses by simulation have good agreement with that by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The transverse residual stresses in the weld and HAZ are gradually decreased as the increases of heat input. The higher heat input can enhance the tensile strength and elongation of repaired joint. When the heat input was increased by 33%, the SCC sensitivity index was decreased by more than 60%. The macroscopic cracks are easily generated in HAZ for the smaller heat input, leading to the smaller tensile strength and elongation. The larger heat input is recommended in the repair welding in 304 stainless steel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Toughening of Short-Fiber Composites Using Weak Magnetic Fields
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102415 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
Short fibers may serve as toughening agents of composite materials because of the high energy dissipated during fracture, associated with numerous fiber pullouts. An ongoing challenge is to improve their toughness even further, by directing and concentrating fibers near highly stressed structural regions. [...] Read more.
Short fibers may serve as toughening agents of composite materials because of the high energy dissipated during fracture, associated with numerous fiber pullouts. An ongoing challenge is to improve their toughness even further, by directing and concentrating fibers near highly stressed structural regions. Weak magnetic fields are utilized to increase the fracture toughness of an epoxy matrix reinforced by short magnetized glass fibers by directing and concentrating fibers near highly stressed structural regions. The orientation and local concentration of the fibers are controlled by the vector components of the magnetic field, and by the gradient in field intensity, respectively. Optimized fracture toughness was achieved by using two pairs of permanent magnets, combining enhanced concentration of fibers in the crack-tip vicinity with alignment of the fibers along the load direction. This optimized value was well above the reference fracture-toughness measured for composites with the same filler content in the absence of a magnetic field, as well as above the value achieved by exploiting unidirectional alignment, without fiber translation, using a solenoid. The method suggested in this study—localized reinforcement using magnetic translation of fillers through the formation of magnetic gradients—enables efficient and controllable improvement in the composite’s overall resistance to fracture, without the involvement of additional phases or material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Properties of Fibrous Concrete Made with Plastic Optical Fibers from E-Waste
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102414 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
This article presents research results relating to the potential for waste utilization in the form of polymer optical fiber (POF) scraps. This material is difficult to recycle due to its diverse construction. Three different volumes of POF were used in concrete in these [...] Read more.
This article presents research results relating to the potential for waste utilization in the form of polymer optical fiber (POF) scraps. This material is difficult to recycle due to its diverse construction. Three different volumes of POF were used in concrete in these tests: 1%, 2%, and 3%. The experimental studies investigated the basic properties of the concrete, the elastic and dynamic moduli, as well as deformation and deflection of reinforced beams. The microstructures, including the interfacial transition zones (ITZs), were recorded and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. It was observed that 180 freezing–thawing cycles reduced the concrete frost resistance containing 3% POFs by half compared to the control concrete. The resistance to salt crystallization of this concrete decreased by about 55%. POFs have significant effects on the splitting tensile and flexural strengths compared to the compressive strength. The control beams were destroyed during the four-point static bending tests at half the force applied to the beams that were reinforced with POFs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Analysis of Pressed Cups Producing Possibilities from Rolled Bimetallic Al-1050 + Cu-M1E Sheets
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102413 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Drawability tests of metal sheets are known and used as technological processes that allow assessing possibilities of plastic forming. One such test is the cupping test, which is very useful for examining thin sheets of both uniform and multilayer materials. In this work, [...] Read more.
Drawability tests of metal sheets are known and used as technological processes that allow assessing possibilities of plastic forming. One such test is the cupping test, which is very useful for examining thin sheets of both uniform and multilayer materials. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of the shaping of the bimetallic product Al–Cu (Al-1050 + Cu-M1E) was carried out. The research covers the entire production cycle, from explosive-welding, through asymmetric rolling (ASR) to deep drawing. The scientific and cognitive aspect of the work is to determine the potential of plastic-forming processes without the need for interoperational heat treatments. Tests were carried out for two variants of bimetals used in tools: matrix–Al-1050 + Cu-M1E and matrix–Cu-M1E + Al-1050. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Behavior of AISI 304 Stainless Steel Reinforcements in SCBA-SF Ternary Ecological Concrete Exposed to MgSO4
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102412 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
In this study, ternary ecological concrete (TEC) mixtures were produced with partial substitution of the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) by 10%, 20%, and 30% of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF); a control mixture (100% OPC) was prepared according to [...] Read more.
In this study, ternary ecological concrete (TEC) mixtures were produced with partial substitution of the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) by 10%, 20%, and 30% of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF); a control mixture (100% OPC) was prepared according to ACI 211.1 standard. The studied TEC specimens were reinforced with AISI 304 stainless steel and AISI 1018 carbon steel rebars. TEC reinforced specimens were immersed in two different electrolytes, a control (DI-water) and 3.5 wt.% MgSO4 solution, for 180 days. The electrochemical corrosion was monitored by corrosion potential (Ecorr) according to ASTM C-876-15 standard, and the linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique using ASTM G59 standard. The Ecorr and current density icorr results show that AISI 304 stainless steel rebars have a high corrosion resistance, with icorr values below 0.1 µA/cm2, which is interpreted as a level of negligible corrosion. The best corrosion performance was found for the TEC mixture made with a 20% addition of blend of sugar cane bagasse ash-silica fume (SCBA-SF) to the OPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Concrete and Construction Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Distributions of Potential and Contact-Induced Charges in Conventional Organic Photovoltaics
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102411 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The interfaces of dissimilar materials play central roles in photophysical events in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Depth profiles of electrostatic potential and contact-induced charges determine the energy-level lineup of the frontier orbitals at electrode/organic and organic heterointerfaces. They are critical for the elementary processes [...] Read more.
The interfaces of dissimilar materials play central roles in photophysical events in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Depth profiles of electrostatic potential and contact-induced charges determine the energy-level lineup of the frontier orbitals at electrode/organic and organic heterointerfaces. They are critical for the elementary processes in an OPV cell, such as generation and diffusion of free carriers. A simple electrostatic model describes the energetics in organic heterojunctions supported by an electrode, and experiments via photoelectron spectroscopy and the Kelvin probe method validate the potential distribution in the stacking direction of the device. A comparative study has clarified the significance of Fermi-level pinning and resulting electrostatic fields in determining the energy-level alignment. In this review, we discuss how parameters of device constituents affect the distributions of potential and the dark charges in conventional OPVs comprising metallophthalocyanine and C60 as donor and acceptor, respectively. The results of previous studies, together with additional numerical simulations, suggest that a number of the factors influence the depth profiles of the dark charge and potential, such as the work function of bottom materials, layer thickness, structural inhomogeneity at interfaces, top electrode, and stacking sequence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Characterization for Electrical Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Nanocomposite Systems with Conducting Fiber Fillers
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102410 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Hybrid nanotube composite systems with two different types of fillers attract considerable attention in several applications. The incorporation of secondary fillers exhibits conflicting behaviors of the electrical conductivity, which either increases or decreases according to the dimension of secondary fillers. This paper addresses [...] Read more.
Hybrid nanotube composite systems with two different types of fillers attract considerable attention in several applications. The incorporation of secondary fillers exhibits conflicting behaviors of the electrical conductivity, which either increases or decreases according to the dimension of secondary fillers. This paper addresses quantitative models to predict the electrical performance in the configuration of two dimensional systems with one-dimensional secondary fillers. To characterize these properties, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted for percolating networks with a realistic model with the consideration of the resistance of conducting NWs, which conventional computational approaches mostly lack from the common assumption of zero-resistance or perfect conducting NWs. The simulation results with nonperfect conductor NWs are compared with the previous results of perfect conductors. The variation of the electrical conductivity reduces with the consideration of the resistance as compared to the cases with perfect conducting fillers, where the overall electrical conductivity solely originates from the contact resistance caused by tunneling effects between NWs. In addition, it is observed that the resistance associated with the case of invariant conductivity with respect to the dimension of the secondary fillers increases, resulting in the need for secondary fillers with the increased scale to achieve the same electrical performance. The results offer useful design guidelines for the use of a two-dimensional percolation network for flexible conducting electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribochemical Interactions between Carbon Nanotubes and ZDDP Antiwear Additive during Tribofilm Formation on Uncoated and DLC-Coated Steel
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102409 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 352
Abstract
The data from the authors’ earlier investigations show that molecules of zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) added to a lubricant can absorb energy emitted by a solid surface, which is where triboreactions occur. If the lubricant contains structures able to conduct energy, the ZDDP reactions [...] Read more.
The data from the authors’ earlier investigations show that molecules of zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) added to a lubricant can absorb energy emitted by a solid surface, which is where triboreactions occur. If the lubricant contains structures able to conduct energy, the ZDDP reactions can occur even at a relatively large distance from the solid surface, which should increase the effectiveness of ZDDP as an antiwear additive. The purpose of this paper was to verify the thesis that the tribocatalytic effect depends on the ability of the solid surface to emit electrons/energy and the ability of ordered molecular structures, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), to conduct energy and, most likely, to enhance the energy transfer. The tribological tests were performed using a TRB3 tribotester for 100Cr6 steel balls and uncoated or a-C:H coated HS6-5-2C steel discs. Polyalphaolefin 8 (PAO8) and PAO8 mixed with ZDDP and CNTs were used as lubricants. The results of the tribological tests suggested that: (a) the effect of the interactions between ZDDP and CNTs was clearly visible; (b) the structure and properties of the solid surface layer had a significant influence on the antiwear action of the ZDDP additive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Biopolymer Adsorbents for Column Treatment of Sulfate Species in Saline Aquifers
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102408 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
In the present study, variable forms of pelletized chitosan adsorbents were prepared and their sulfate uptake properties in aqueous solution was studied in a fixed-bed column system. Unmodified chitosan pellets (CP), cross-linked chitosan pellets with glutaraldehyde (CL–CP), and calcium-doped forms of these pellets [...] Read more.
In the present study, variable forms of pelletized chitosan adsorbents were prepared and their sulfate uptake properties in aqueous solution was studied in a fixed-bed column system. Unmodified chitosan pellets (CP), cross-linked chitosan pellets with glutaraldehyde (CL–CP), and calcium-doped forms of these pellets (Ca–CP, Ca–CL–CP) were prepared, where the removal efficiencies and breakthrough curves were studied. Dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted at pH 4.5 and 6.5 with a specific flow rate of 3 mL/min, fixed-bed height of 200 mm, and an initial sulfate concentration of 1000 mg/L. Breakthrough parameters demonstrated that Ca–CP had the best sulfate removal among the adsorbents, where the following adsorption parameters were obtained: breakthrough time (75 min), exhaust time (300 min), maximum sulfate adsorption capacity (qmax; 46.6 mg/g), and sulfate removal (57%) at pH 4.5. Two well-known kinetic adsorption models, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson, were fitted to the experimental kinetic data to characterize the breakthrough curves. The fixed-bed column experimental results were well-fitted by both models and the maximum adsorption capacity (46.9 mg/g) obtained was for the Ca–CP adsorbent. A regeneration study over four adsorption-desorption cycles suggested that Ca–CP is a promising adsorbent for sulfate removal in a fixed-bed column system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies for Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessReview
Nanostructured Fibers Containing Natural or Synthetic Bioactive Compounds in Wound Dressing Applications
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102407 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 304
Abstract
The interest in wound healing characteristics of bioactive constituents and therapeutic agents, especially natural compounds, is increasing because of their therapeutic properties, cost-effectiveness, and few adverse effects. Lately, nanocarriers as a drug delivery system have been actively investigated and applied in medical and [...] Read more.
The interest in wound healing characteristics of bioactive constituents and therapeutic agents, especially natural compounds, is increasing because of their therapeutic properties, cost-effectiveness, and few adverse effects. Lately, nanocarriers as a drug delivery system have been actively investigated and applied in medical and therapeutic applications. In recent decades, researchers have investigated the incorporation of natural or synthetic substances into novel bioactive electrospun nanofibrous architectures produced by the electrospinning method for skin substitutes. Therefore, the development of nanotechnology in the area of dressings that could provide higher performance and a synergistic effect for wound healing is needed. Natural compounds with antimicrobial, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activity in combination with nanostructured fibers represent a future approach due to the increased wound healing process and regeneration of the lost tissue. This paper presents different approaches in producing electrospun nanofibers, highlighting the electrospinning process used in fabricating innovative wound dressings that are able to release natural and/or synthetic substances in a controlled way, thus enhancing the healing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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Open AccessReview
Current Status and Prospects of Polymer Powder 3D Printing Technologies
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102406 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
3D printing technology, which greatly simplifies the manufacturing of complex parts by a two-dimensional layer-upon-layer process, has flourished in recent years. As one of the most advanced technology, polymer powder 3D printing has many advantages such as high materials utilization rate, free of [...] Read more.
3D printing technology, which greatly simplifies the manufacturing of complex parts by a two-dimensional layer-upon-layer process, has flourished in recent years. As one of the most advanced technology, polymer powder 3D printing has many advantages such as high materials utilization rate, free of support structure, great design freedom, and large available materials, which has shown great potential and prospects in various industry applications. With the launch of the Multi jet Fusion system from HP, polymer powder 3D printing has been attracting more attention from industries and researchers. In this work, a comprehensive review of the main polymer powder-based 3D printing methods including binder jetting, selective laser sintering, high-speed sintering were carried out. Their forming mechanism, advantages and drawbacks, materials, and developments were presented, compared, and discussed respectively. In addition, this paper also gives suggestions on the process selection by comparing typical equipment parameters and features of each technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical and Non-Destructive Testing of Plasterboards Subjected to a Hydration Process
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102405 - 23 May 2020
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plasterboards’ humidity absorption on their performance. Specimens’ hydration procedure consisted of consecutive immersing in water and subsequent drying at room temperature. Such a procedure was performed to increase the content of moisture [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plasterboards’ humidity absorption on their performance. Specimens’ hydration procedure consisted of consecutive immersing in water and subsequent drying at room temperature. Such a procedure was performed to increase the content of moisture within the material volume. The microstructural observations of five different plasterboard types were performed through optical and scanning electron microscopy. The deterioration of their properties was evaluated by using a three-point bending test and a subsequent ultrasonic (ultrasound testing (UT)) longitudinal wave velocity measurement. Depending on the material porosity, a loss of UT wave velocity from 6% to 35% and a considerable decrease in material strength from 70% to 80% were observed. Four types of approximated formulae were proposed to describe the dependence of UT wave velocity on board moisture content. It was found that the proposed UT method could be successfully used for the on-site monitoring of plasterboards’ hydration processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Testing of Materials and Elements in Civil Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Compositional and Grain Size Measurements Using Laser Opto-Ultrasonic Dual Detection for Additive Manufacturing
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102404 - 23 May 2020
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Abstract
Metal-based additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technique with great potential across multiple industries; however, its manufacturing quality is unstable, leading to an urgent requirement for component properties detection. The distribution of grain size has an important effect on many mechanical properties in [...] Read more.
Metal-based additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technique with great potential across multiple industries; however, its manufacturing quality is unstable, leading to an urgent requirement for component properties detection. The distribution of grain size has an important effect on many mechanical properties in AM, while the distribution of added elements, such as titanium (Ti), has a measurable effect on the grain size of an aluminum (Al) alloy. Therefore, the detection of the distributions of grain size and elements is of great significance for AM. In this study, we investigated the distribution of grain size and elements simultaneously for wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) with an Al alloy using laser opto-ultrasonic dual (LOUD) detection. The average grain size obtained from the acoustic attenuation of ultrasonic signals was consistent with the results of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.981 for linear fitting. The Ti element distribution obtained from optical spectra showed that the enrichment of Ti corresponded to the grain refinement area in the detected area. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed that the spectral peaks were moved from Al to AlTi and Al2Ti forms in the Ti-rich areas, which confirmed the LOUD results. The results indicated that LOUD detection holds promise for becoming an effective method of analyzing the mechanical and chemical properties of components simultaneously, which could help explain the complex physical and chemical changes in AM and ultimately improve the manufacturing quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Different Forms of Silver on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102403 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
The application of silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent is becoming more common. Unfortunately, their effect on microorganisms is still not fully understood. Therefore, this paper attempts to investigate the influence of silver ions, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and nanoparticles functionalized with antibiotics [...] Read more.
The application of silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent is becoming more common. Unfortunately, their effect on microorganisms is still not fully understood. Therefore, this paper attempts to investigate the influence of silver ions, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and nanoparticles functionalized with antibiotics on molecular bacteria profiles. The initial stage of research was aimed at the mechanism determination involved in antibiotics sorption onto nanoparticles’ surface. For this purpose, the kinetics study was performed. Next, the functionalized formulations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and a zeta potential study. The results reveal that functionalization is a complex process, but does not significantly affect the stability of biocolloids. Furthermore, the antimicrobial assays, in most cases, have shown no increases in antibacterial activity after nanoparticle functionalization, which suggests that the functionalization process does not always generate the improved antimicrobial effect. Finally, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique was employed to characterize the changes in the molecular profile of bacteria treated with various antibacterial agents. The recorded spectra proved many differences in bacterial lipids and proteins profiles compared to untreated cells. In addition, the statistical analysis of recorded spectra revealed the strain-dependent nature of stress factors on the molecular profile of microorganisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Complementary SEM-AFM of Swelling Bi-Fe-O Film on HOPG Substrate
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102402 - 23 May 2020
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Abstract
The objective of this work is to study the delamination of bismuth ferrite prepared by atomic layer deposition on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate. The samples’ structures and compositions are provided by XPS, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Raman spectroscopy. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to study the delamination of bismuth ferrite prepared by atomic layer deposition on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate. The samples’ structures and compositions are provided by XPS, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Raman spectroscopy. The resulting films demonstrate buckling and delamination from the substrates. The composition inside the resulting bubbles is in a gaseous state. It contains the reaction products captured on the surface during the deposition of the film. The topography of Bi-Fe-O thin films was studied in vacuum and under atmospheric conditions using simultaneous SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Besides complementary advanced imaging, a correlative SEM-AFM analysis provides the possibility of testing the mechanical properties by using a variation of pressure. In this work, the possibility of studying the surface tension of the thin films using a joint SEM-AFM analysis is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle
The Preliminary Exploration of Micro-Friction Stir Welding Process and Material Flow of Copper and Brass Ultra-Thin Sheets
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102401 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 326
Abstract
In the friction stir welding (FSW) of ultra-thin dissimilar metal sheets, different physical material properties, the reduction of plastic metal in the weld zone, and insufficient plastic metal flow lead to poor weld seam shapes and joint qualities. Therefore, it is necessary to [...] Read more.
In the friction stir welding (FSW) of ultra-thin dissimilar metal sheets, different physical material properties, the reduction of plastic metal in the weld zone, and insufficient plastic metal flow lead to poor weld seam shapes and joint qualities. Therefore, it is necessary to study the flow behavior during the FSW of ultrathin sheets. In this study, micro friction stir welding (μFSW) was conducted and analyzed for the butt welding of 0.6-mm-thick ultrathin brass (H62-H) and pure copper (T2-Y) sheets. By analyzing the electric signals of the temperature and force during the welding process, testing the mechanical properties, and analyzing the metallography of the joint, the influences of the process parameters on the metal flow behavior during μFSW were studied. In the proper process conditions, the material preferentially migrated and concentric vortex flow occurred in the vicinity of the shoulder and tool pin action areas. The copper was pushed from the retreating side (RS) to the advancing side (AS) of the weld, allowing it to flow more fully. A mixture of both materials formed at the bottom of the weld nugget, and less migration occurred in the heat-affected zone of the AS at this time. The highest tensile strength can reach 194 MPa, accounting for 82.6% of the copper. The presence of brittle phases Cu5Zn8, AgZn3 and AgZn caused the hardness to fluctuate slightly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Core-Shell Nanoparticle in Fractional Dimensional Space
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102400 - 22 May 2020
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Abstract
The investigation of core-shell nanoparticles has been greatly exciting in biomedical applications, as this remains of prime importance in targeted drug delivery, sensing, etc. In the present work, the polarizability and scattering features of nanoparticles comprised of nano-sized dielectric/metallic core-shell structures were investigated [...] Read more.
The investigation of core-shell nanoparticles has been greatly exciting in biomedical applications, as this remains of prime importance in targeted drug delivery, sensing, etc. In the present work, the polarizability and scattering features of nanoparticles comprised of nano-sized dielectric/metallic core-shell structures were investigated in the fractional dimensional (FD) space, which essentially relates to the confinement of charged particles. For this purpose, three different kinds of metals—namely aluminum, gold and silver—were considered to form the shell, having a common silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticle as the core. It is noteworthy that the use of noble metal-SiO2 mediums interface remains ideal to realize surface plasmon resonance. The core-shell nanoparticles were considered to have dimensions smaller than the operating wavelength. Under such conditions, the analyses of polarizability and the scattering and absorption cross-sections, and also, the extinction coefficients were taken up under Rayleigh scattering mechanism, emphasizing the effects of a varying FD parameter. Apart from these, the tuning of resonance peaks and the magnitude of surface plasmons due to FD space parameter were also analyzed. It was found that the increase of FD space parameter generally results in blue-shifts in the resonance peaks. Apart from this, the usage of gold and silver shells brings in fairly large shifts in the peak positions of wavelengths, which allows them to be more suitable for a biosensing purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tunable Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
MCM-22, MCM-36, and ITQ-2 Zeolites with Different Si/Al Molar Ratios as Effective Catalysts of Methanol and Ethanol Dehydration
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102399 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
MCM-22, MCM-36, and ITQ-2 zeolites with the intended Si/Al molar ratios of 15, 25, and 50 were synthetized and tested as catalysts for dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether and dehydration of ethanol to diethyl ether and ethylene. The surface concentration of acid [...] Read more.
MCM-22, MCM-36, and ITQ-2 zeolites with the intended Si/Al molar ratios of 15, 25, and 50 were synthetized and tested as catalysts for dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether and dehydration of ethanol to diethyl ether and ethylene. The surface concentration of acid sites was regulated by the synthesis of zeolite precursors with different aluminum content in the zeolite framework, while the influence of porous structure on the overall efficiency of alcohol conversion was analyzed by application of zeolitic materials with different types of porosity—microporous MCM-22 as well as microporous-mesoporous MCM-36 and ITQ-2. The zeolitic samples were characterized with respect to their: chemical composition (ICP-OES), structure (XRD, FT-IR), texture (N2 sorption), and surface acidity (NH3-TPD). Comparison of the catalytic activity of the studied zeolitic catalysts with other reported catalytic systems, including zeolites with the similar Si/Al ratio as well as γ-Al2O3 (one of the commercial catalysts for methanol dehydration), shows a great potential of MCM-22, MCM-36, and ITQ-2 in the reactions of alcohols dehydration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Catalytic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Studies on Durability of PVD-Based CrCN/CrN-Coated Cutting Blade of Planer Knives Used in the Pine Wood Planing Process
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102398 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 258
Abstract
The condition of the cutting tool is one of the most important factors as it directly affects the technological and economic efficiencies of the woodworking process. The large variety of raw materials of wood combined with possible impurities and inclusion of solids puts [...] Read more.
The condition of the cutting tool is one of the most important factors as it directly affects the technological and economic efficiencies of the woodworking process. The large variety of raw materials of wood combined with possible impurities and inclusion of solids puts high demands on planing machines. One of the methods to modify their operational properties is to apply antiwear coating on their working surfaces using vacuum deposition methods, such as physical vapor deposition (PVD). The use of such coatings reduces the adhesion of planing products to the surface of industrial planer knives, reduces the friction between the cutting tool and the workpiece, and limits the penetration of heat into the tool, thereby contributing to extending its effective working life. This study examines the impact of PVD-based CrCN/CrN coating on the operational durability and intensity of wear of planer knives operating in production conditions compared to unmodified knives (typically used in the wood processing industry for pine wood planing). For the unmodified and CrCN/CrN-coated planing blades (before and after processing), detailed analyses were carried out. These analyses included determining the rounding radius and profile along the blade (worn edge displacement), calculating surface texture parameters of the rake face of planer knives, and carrying out visual microscopic analysis of its condition. The results of the experiments indicated an increase in durability of up to 142% for the CrCN/CrN-coated tools. It was also found that the use of PVD-based modified industrial planer knives turned out to be more beneficial in each analyzed area of analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of γ′ Precipitates in Cast Ni-Based Superalloy and Their Behaviour at High-Homologous Temperatures Studied by TEM and in Situ XRD
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102397 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 317
Abstract
In situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate René 108 Ni-based superalloy after short-term annealing at high-homologous temperatures. Current work is focused on characterisation of γ′ precipitates, their volume fraction, evolution of the lattice parameter of γ and [...] Read more.
In situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate René 108 Ni-based superalloy after short-term annealing at high-homologous temperatures. Current work is focused on characterisation of γ′ precipitates, their volume fraction, evolution of the lattice parameter of γ and γ′ phases and misfit parameter of γ′ in the matrix. Material in the initial condition is characterised by a high-volume fraction (over 63%) of γ′ precipitates. Irregular distribution of alloying elements was observed. Matrix channels were strongly enriched in Cr, Co, W and Mo, whereas precipitates contain large amount of Al, Ti, Ta and Hf. Exposure to high-homologous temperatures in the range 1100–1250 °C led to the dissolution of the precipitates, which influenced the change of lattice parameter of both γ and γ′ phases. The lattice parameter of the matrix continuously grew during holding at high temperatures, which had a dominant influence on the more negative misfit coefficient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Particle Size on Toughening Mechanisms of Layered Silicates in CFRP
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102396 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxies are frequently used for lightweight applications that require high mechanical properties. Still, there is potential regarding the improvement of the interlaminar-fracture toughness. As matrix toughening with nanoparticles is one possibility, in this study two different layered silicates are used to reinforce [...] Read more.
Carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxies are frequently used for lightweight applications that require high mechanical properties. Still, there is potential regarding the improvement of the interlaminar-fracture toughness. As matrix toughening with nanoparticles is one possibility, in this study two different layered silicates are used to reinforce carbon fiber composites. The first type is a synthetical K-Hectorite (K-Hect) with outstanding lateral extension (6 µm) that has shown high toughening ability in resins in previous work. The other is a commercial montmorillonite (MMT) with a smaller size (400 nm). The aim of this study is to show the influence of the particles on mode I and mode II fracture toughness, especially the influence of particle size. Therefore, double-cantilever-beam tests and end-notched-flexure tests were carried out. Additionally, the fracture mechanisms were investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is concluded, that the larger Hectorite particles are beneficial for mode I fracture behavior because of enhanced toughening mechanisms. One the other hand, the mode II energy dissipation rate is increased by the smaller montmorillonite particles due to sufficient interaction with the formation of hackling structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Filler Type on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Metakaolinite-Based Geopolymer Composites
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102395 - 22 May 2020
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Abstract
Metakaolinite-based geopolymer binder was prepared at room temperature by mixing calcined claystone and potassium alkaline activator. Various granular inorganic fillers were added, amounting to 65 vol % to form geopolymer composites. The effect of four types of fillers (sand quartz, chamotte, cordierite, and [...] Read more.
Metakaolinite-based geopolymer binder was prepared at room temperature by mixing calcined claystone and potassium alkaline activator. Various granular inorganic fillers were added, amounting to 65 vol % to form geopolymer composites. The effect of four types of fillers (sand quartz, chamotte, cordierite, and corundum) on the thermo-mechanical properties of metakaolinite-based geopolymer composites were investigated. The samples were also examined by an X-ray diffraction method to determine their phase composition. The pore size distributions were determined by a mercury intrusion porosimeter. The XRD revealed the crystallization of new phase (leucite) after thermal exposure at 1000 °C and higher. Geopolymer binders had low mechanical properties (flexural strength 2.5 MPa and compressive strength 45 MPa) and poor thermo-mechanical properties (especially high shrinkage—total shrinkage 9%) compared to geopolymer composites (flexural strength up to 13.8 MPa, compressive strength up to 95 MPa and total shrinkage up to 1%). The addition of fillers reduced the shrinkage of geopolymers and improved their mechanical properties. The results have shown that the compressive strength tested in situ and after exposure to high temperature are in conflict. Geopolymer composites with the addition of chamotte had the best mechanical properties before and after thermal exposure (compressive strength up to 95 MPa). The average pore size diameters increased with the increasing temperature (from 10 nm to approx. 700 nm). The fillers addition decreased the pore volume (from 250 mm3/g to approx. 100 mm3/g). Full article
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