The application of silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent is becoming more common. Unfortunately, their effect on microorganisms is still not fully understood. Therefore, this paper attempts to investigate the influence of silver ions, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and nanoparticles functionalized with antibiotics on molecular bacteria profiles. The initial stage of research was aimed at the mechanism determination involved in antibiotics sorption onto nanoparticles’ surface. For this purpose, the kinetics study was performed. Next, the functionalized formulations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and a zeta potential study. The results reveal that functionalization is a complex process, but does not significantly affect the stability of biocolloids. Furthermore, the antimicrobial assays, in most cases, have shown no increases in antibacterial activity after nanoparticle functionalization, which suggests that the functionalization process does not always generate the improved antimicrobial effect. Finally, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique was employed to characterize the changes in the molecular profile of bacteria treated with various antibacterial agents. The recorded spectra proved many differences in bacterial lipids and proteins profiles compared to untreated cells. In addition, the statistical analysis of recorded spectra revealed the strain-dependent nature of stress factors on the molecular profile of microorganisms.
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