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Materials, Volume 13, Issue 11 (June-1 2020) – 245 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Graphene quantum dots coated with a silica molecular imprinted polymer (denoted as [email protected]) could [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of Silicon Carbide Merged PiN Schottky Diodes with Electrical-Thermal Coupled Considerations
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112669 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
A comparative study of surge current reliability of 1200 V/5 A 4H-SiC (silicon carbide) MPS (Merged PiN Schottky) diodes with different technologies is presented. The influences of device designs in terms of electrical and thermal aspects on the forward conduction performance and surge [...] Read more.
A comparative study of surge current reliability of 1200 V/5 A 4H-SiC (silicon carbide) MPS (Merged PiN Schottky) diodes with different technologies is presented. The influences of device designs in terms of electrical and thermal aspects on the forward conduction performance and surge current capability were studied. Device forward characteristics were simulated and measured. Standard single-pulse surge current tests and thermal impedance measurements were carried to show their surge capability and thermal design differences. An advanced thermal RC (thermal resistance-capacitance) model, with the consideration of current distribution non-uniformity effects, is proposed to accurately calculate the device junction temperature during surge events. It was found that a thinner substrate and a hexagonal layout design are beneficial to the improvement of the bipolar conduction performance in high current mode, as well as the surge current capability. The thinner substrate design also has advantages on thermal aspects, as it presents the lowest thermal resistance. The calculated failure temperature during the surge tests is consistent with the aluminum melting phenomenon, which is regarded as the failure mechanism. It was demonstrated that, for a SiC MPS diode, higher bipolar conduction performance is conducive to restraining the joule heat, and a lower thermal resistance design is able to accelerate the heat dissipation and limit the junction temperature during surge events. In this way, the MPS diode using a thinner substrate and advanced layout design technology is able to achieve 60% higher surge current density capability compared to the other technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Carbide: From Fundamentals to Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional (3D) Conductive Network of CNT-Modified Short Jute Fiber-Reinforced Natural Rubber: Hierarchical CNT-Enabled Thermoelectric and Electrically Conductive Composite Interfaces
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112668 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 355
Abstract
Jute fibers (JFs) coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been introduced in a natural rubber (NR) matrix creating a three-dimensional (3D) electrically conductive percolated network. The JF-CNT endowed electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties to the final composites. CNT networks fully covered the [...] Read more.
Jute fibers (JFs) coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been introduced in a natural rubber (NR) matrix creating a three-dimensional (3D) electrically conductive percolated network. The JF-CNT endowed electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties to the final composites. CNT networks fully covered the fiber surfaces as shown by the corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. NR/JF-CNT composites, at 10, 20 and 30 phr (parts per hundred gram of rubber) have been manufactured using a two-roll mixing process. The highest value of electrical conductivity (σ) was 81 S/m for the 30 phr composite. Thermoelectric measurements revealed slight differences in the Seebeck coefficient (S), while the highest power factor (PF) was 1.80 × 10−2 μW/m K−2 for the 30 phr loading. The micromechanical properties and electrical response of the composite’s conductive interface have been studied in peak force tapping quantitative nanomechanical (PFT QNM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) mode. The JF-CNT create an electrically percolated network at all fiber loadings endowing electrical and thermoelectric properties to the NR matrix, considered thus as promising thermoelectric stretchable materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Separation of Water in Diesel Using Filter Media Containing Kapok Fibers
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112667 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Traditional water-repellent filter media for water separation in diesel fail to meet requirements due to the high content of surfactants in low sulfur diesel and ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel). To improve the water separation performance of filter media, a novel dual-layer filter [...] Read more.
Traditional water-repellent filter media for water separation in diesel fail to meet requirements due to the high content of surfactants in low sulfur diesel and ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel). To improve the water separation performance of filter media, a novel dual-layer filter medium was prepared by hydrophilic fibers (glass microfibers) and hydrophobic fibers (kapok fibers and bi-component PET fibers). The results showed that the separation efficiency of a filter medium (sample #2) with the upstream layer containing 20 wt% kapok fibers was 89.5%, which was higher than that of filter samples with the upstream layer containing 0 wt%, 40 wt%, 60 wt% and 80 wt% kapok fibers. When the interfacial tension (IFT) of water in diesel was 21 mN/m, 17 mN/m and 13 mN/m, the separation efficiency of filter sample #2 was 99.5%, 89.5% and 30.5%, respectively, which was 23.9%, 57.4% and 17.8% higher than that of the commercial water-repellent filter samples composed of a polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) fiber layer and cellulose fiber layer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation Development and Computational Optimization for Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing Process
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112666 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
The rapid growth of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in the past decade has demonstrated a significant potential in cost-effective production with a superior quality product. A numerical simulation is a steep way to learn and improve the product quality, life cycle, and production cost. [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in the past decade has demonstrated a significant potential in cost-effective production with a superior quality product. A numerical simulation is a steep way to learn and improve the product quality, life cycle, and production cost. To cope with the growing AM field, researchers are exploring different techniques, methods, models to simulate the AM process efficiently. The goal is to develop a thermo-mechanical weld model for the Directed Energy Deposition (DED) process for 316L stainless steel at an efficient computational cost targeting to model large AM parts in residual stress calculation. To adapt the weld model to the DED simulation, single and multi-track thermal simulations were carried out. Numerical results were validated by the DED experiment. A good agreement was found between predicted temperature trends for numerical simulation and experimental results. A large number of weld tracks in the 3D solid AM parts make the finite element process simulation challenging in terms of computational time and large amounts of data management. The method of activating elements layer by layer and introducing heat in a cyclic manner called a thermal cycle heat input was applied. Thermal cycle heat input reduces the computational time considerably. The numerical results were compared to the experimental data for thermal and residual stress analyses. A lumping of layers strategy was implemented to reduce further computational time. The different number of lumping layers was analyzed to define the limit of lumping to retain accuracy in the residual stress calculation. The lumped layers residual stress calculation was validated by the contour cut method in the deposited sample. Thermal behavior and residual stress prediction for the different numbers of a lumped layer were examined and reported computational time reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Methods and Modeling Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Rivet-Inspired Modification of Aramid Fiber by Decorating with Silica Particles to Enhance the Interfacial Interaction and Mechanical Properties of Rubber Composites
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112665 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 321
Abstract
A rivet–inspired method of decorating aramid fiber (AF) with silica particles (SiO2) is proposed to produce SiO2@AF hybrid materials that have largely enhanced interfacial interaction with the rubber matrix. AF was firstly surface-modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) to obtain [...] Read more.
A rivet–inspired method of decorating aramid fiber (AF) with silica particles (SiO2) is proposed to produce SiO2@AF hybrid materials that have largely enhanced interfacial interaction with the rubber matrix. AF was firstly surface-modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) to obtain PAA–AF, and SiO2 was silanized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to obtain APES–SiO2. Then, SiO2@AF was prepared by chemically bonding APES–SiO2 onto the surface of PAA–AF in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP). With the incorporation of SiO2@AF into the rubber matrix, SiO2@AF hybrid materials with high surface roughness can play a role as ‘rivets’ to immobilize large numbers of rubber chains on the surface. The tear strength and tensile strength of rubber composite that filling 4 phr SiO2@AF are dramatically increased by 97.8% and 89.3% compared to pure rubber, respectively. Furthermore, SiO2@AF has superiority in enhancing the cutting resistance of rubber composites, in contrast with unmodified AF and SiO2. SiO2@AF is suitable to be applied as a novel reinforcing filler in rubber composites for high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Composite Materials: Theory, Design and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Nugget Formation and Mechanical Behaviour of Friction Stir Welds of Three Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112664 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 360
Abstract
The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of the properties of the base materials and welding speed on the morphology and mechanical behavior of the friction stir welds of three dissimilar aluminum alloys in a T-joint configuration. The base materials [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of the properties of the base materials and welding speed on the morphology and mechanical behavior of the friction stir welds of three dissimilar aluminum alloys in a T-joint configuration. The base materials were the AA2017-T4, AA5083-H111, and AA6082-T6 alloys in 3 mm-thick sheets. The AA6082-T6 alloy was the stringer, and the other alloys were located either on the advancing or retreating sides of the skin. All the T-joint welds were produced with a constant tool rotation speed but with different welding speeds. The microstructures of the welds were analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the electron backscatter diffraction technique. The mechanical properties were assessed according to micro-hardness, tensile, and fatigue testing. Good quality welds of the three dissimilar aluminum alloys could be achieved with friction stir welding, but a high ratio between the tool’s rotational and traverse speeds was required. The welding speed influenced the weld morphology and fatigue strength. The positioning of the skin materials influenced the nugget morphology and the mechanical behavior of the joints. The joints in which the AA2017 alloy was positioned on the advancing side presented the best tensile properties and fatigue strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Non-Conventional Welding of Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Three-Dimensional Printing Constructs Based on the Chitosan for Tissue Regeneration: State of the Art, Developing Directions and Prospect Trends
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112663 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 385
Abstract
Chitosan (CS) has gained particular attention in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial feature, and biodegradability. Hence, many studies have focused on the manufacturing of CS films, scaffolds, particulate, and inks via different production methods. Nowadays, with the possibility of the precise [...] Read more.
Chitosan (CS) has gained particular attention in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial feature, and biodegradability. Hence, many studies have focused on the manufacturing of CS films, scaffolds, particulate, and inks via different production methods. Nowadays, with the possibility of the precise adjustment of porosity size and shape, fiber size, suitable interconnectivity of pores, and creation of patient-specific constructs, 3D printing has overcome the limitations of many traditional manufacturing methods. Therefore, the fabrication of 3D printed CS scaffolds can lead to promising advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A review of additive manufacturing types, CS-based printed constructs, their usages as biomaterials, advantages, and drawbacks can open doors to optimize CS-based constructions for biomedical applications. The latest technological issues and upcoming capabilities of 3D printing with CS-based biopolymers for different applications are also discussed. This review article will act as a roadmap aiming to investigate chitosan as a new feedstock concerning various 3D printing approaches which may be employed in biomedical fields. In fact, the combination of 3D printing and CS-based biopolymers is extremely appealing particularly with regard to certain clinical purposes. Complications of 3D printing coupled with the challenges associated with materials should be recognized to help make this method feasible for wider clinical requirements. This strategy is currently gaining substantial attention in terms of several industrial biomedical products. In this review, the key 3D printing approaches along with revealing historical background are initially presented, and ultimately, the applications of different 3D printing techniques for fabricating chitosan constructs will be discussed. The recognition of essential complications and technical problems related to numerous 3D printing techniques and CS-based biopolymer choices according to clinical requirements is crucial. A comprehensive investigation will be required to encounter those challenges and to completely understand the possibilities of 3D printing in the foreseeable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of the Electrodeposition Parameters on the Properties of Mn-Co-Based Nanofilms as Anode Materials for Alkaline Electrolysers
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112662 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 311
Abstract
In this work, the influence of the synthesis conditions on the structure, morphology, and electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of Mn-Co-based films is studied. For this purpose, Mn-Co nanofilm is electrochemically synthesised in a one-step process on nickel foam in [...] Read more.
In this work, the influence of the synthesis conditions on the structure, morphology, and electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of Mn-Co-based films is studied. For this purpose, Mn-Co nanofilm is electrochemically synthesised in a one-step process on nickel foam in the presence of metal nitrates without any additives. The possible mechanism of the synthesis is proposed. The morphology and structure of the catalysts are studied by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The analyses show that the as-deposited catalysts consist mainly of oxides/hydroxides and/or (oxy)hydroxides based on Mn2+, Co2+, and Co3+. The alkaline post-treatment of the film results in the formation of Mn-Co (oxy)hydroxides and crystalline Co(OH)2 with a β-phase hexagonal platelet-like shape structure, indicating a layered double hydroxide structure, desirable for the OER. Electrochemical studies show that the catalytic performance of Mn-Co was dependent on the concentration of Mn versus Co in the synthesis solution and on the deposition charge. The optimised Mn-Co/Ni foam is characterised by a specific surface area of 10.5 m2·g−1, a pore volume of 0.0042 cm3·g−1, and high electrochemical stability with an overpotential deviation around 330–340 mV at 10 mA·cm−2geo for 70 h. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polycaprolactone/Gelatin/Hyaluronic Acid Electrospun Scaffolds to Mimic Glioblastoma Extracellular Matrix
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112661 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most malignant types of human brain tumor, is resistant to conventional treatments and is associated with poor survival. Since the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) of GBM microenvironment plays a significant role on the tumor behavior, the engineering of [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most malignant types of human brain tumor, is resistant to conventional treatments and is associated with poor survival. Since the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) of GBM microenvironment plays a significant role on the tumor behavior, the engineering of the ECM will help us to get more information on the tumor behavior and to define novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin(Gel)/hyaluronic acid(HA) composite scaffolds with aligned and randomly oriented nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning for mimicking the extracellular matrix of GBM tumor. We investigated the effect of nanotopography and components of fibers on the mechanical, morphological, and hydrophilic properties of electrospun nanofiber as well as their biocompatibility properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to investigate possible interactions between components. The mean fiber diameter in the nanofiber matrix was increased with the presence of HA at low collector rotation speed. Moreover, the rotational velocity of the collector affected the fiber diameters as well as their homogenous distribution. Water contact angle measurements confirmed that hyaluronic acid-incorporated aligned nanofibers were more hydrophilic than that of random nanofibers. In addition, PCL/Gel/HA nanofibrous scaffold (7.9 MPa) exhibited a significant decrease in tensile strength compared to PCL/Gel nanofibrous mat (19.2 MPa). In-vitro biocompatibilities of nanofiber scaffolds were tested with glioblastoma cells (U251), and the PCL/Gel/HA scaffolds with random nanofiber showed improved cell adhesion and proliferation. On the other hand, PCL/Gel/HA scaffolds with aligned nanofiber were found suitable for enhancing axon growth and elongation supporting intracellular communication. Based on these results, PCL/Gel/HA composite scaffolds are excellent candidates as a biomimetic matrix for GBM and the study of the tumor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy Study of the Electronic Transport Properties of Working Organic Photovoltaics: Degradation Analysis
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112660 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Electronic transport measurement using modulated photocurrent (MPC) spectroscopy is demonstrated herein in working organic photovoltaics (OPVs) before and after AM1.5G irradiation. OPVs with bulk heterojunction (BHJ) using prototypical donor and acceptor materials, poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1–2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] = hieno [3–4-b]thiophenediyl]] (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC [...] Read more.
Electronic transport measurement using modulated photocurrent (MPC) spectroscopy is demonstrated herein in working organic photovoltaics (OPVs) before and after AM1.5G irradiation. OPVs with bulk heterojunction (BHJ) using prototypical donor and acceptor materials, poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1–2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] = hieno [3–4-b]thiophenediyl]] (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), were fabricated. The OPVs had inverted structures (BHJs are formed on transparent conductive oxide substrates). The photovoltaic performance of PTB7:PC71BM OPVs was characterized and the best power conversion efficiency was obtained at PTB7 content of 40 wt%. Electron and hole mobility were determined with MPC spectroscopy in PTB7:PC71BM OPVs and were well balanced at PTB7 content of 40 wt%. Degradation of the photovoltaic performance of PTB7:PC71BM OPVs with PTB7 content of 40 wt% caused by AM1.5G irradiation was studied. MPC spectroscopy showed that the well-balanced mobility was not affected by AM1.5G irradiation. The degradation of OPVs was not due to changes in the electronic transport properties, but mainly to the reduced short circuit current (Jsc) and fill factor (FF). The origin of this reduction is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Dependence of Rheology of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions and Frictional Behavior of Articular Cartilage
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112659 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) injections represent one of the most common methods for the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, the clinical results of this method are unambiguous mainly because the mechanism of action has not been clearly clarified yet. Viscosupplementation consists, inter alia, of the [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) injections represent one of the most common methods for the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, the clinical results of this method are unambiguous mainly because the mechanism of action has not been clearly clarified yet. Viscosupplementation consists, inter alia, of the improvement of synovial fluid rheological properties by injected solution. The present paper deals with the effect of HA molecular weight on the rheological properties of its solutions and also on friction in the articular cartilage model. Viscosity and viscoelastic properties of HA solutions were analyzed with a rotational rheometer in a cone–plate and plate–plate configuration. In total, four HA solutions with molecular weights between 77 kDa and 2010 kDa were tested. The frictional measurements were realized on a commercial tribometer Bruker UMT TriboLab, while the coefficient of friction (CoF) dependency on time was measured. The contact couple consisted of the articular cartilage pin and the plate made from optical glass. The contact was fully flooded with tested HA solutions. Results showed a strong dependency between HA molecular weight and its rheological properties. However, no clear dependence between HA molecular weight and CoF was revealed from the frictional measurements. This study presents new insight into the dependence between rheological and frictional behavior of the articular cartilage, while such an extensive investigation has not been presented before. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Characterization of Components Manufactured by Direct Laser Metal Deposition
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112658 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) is an innovative additive technology becoming of key importance in the field of repairing applications for industrial and aeronautical components. The performance of the repaired components is highly related to the intrinsic presence of defects, such as cracks, [...] Read more.
Direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) is an innovative additive technology becoming of key importance in the field of repairing applications for industrial and aeronautical components. The performance of the repaired components is highly related to the intrinsic presence of defects, such as cracks, porosity, excess of dilution or debonding between clad and substrate. Usually, the quality of depositions is evaluated through destructive tests and microstructural analysis. Clearly, such methodologies are inapplicable in-process or on repaired components. The proposed work aims to evaluate the capability of ultrasonic techniques to perform the mechanical characterization of additive manufactured (AM) components. The tested specimens were manufactured by DLMD using a nickel-based superalloy deposited on an AISI 304 substrate. Ultrasonic goniometric immersion tests were performed in order to mechanical characterize the substrate and the new material obtained by AM process, consisting of the substrate and the deposition. Furthermore, the relationship was evaluated between the acoustic and the mechanical properties of the AM components and the deposition process parameters and the geometrical characteristics of multiclad depositions, respectively. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed non-destructive experimental approach for the characterization of the created deposition anomalies has been investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Deposition Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation Between the Indentation Properties and Microstructure of Dissimilar Capacitor Discharge Welded WC-Co/High-Speed Steel Joints
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112657 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 291
Abstract
The welding of cemented carbide to tool steel is a challenging task, of scientific and industrial relevance, as it combines the high level of hardness of cemented carbide with the high level of fracture toughness of steel, while reducing the shaping cost and [...] Read more.
The welding of cemented carbide to tool steel is a challenging task, of scientific and industrial relevance, as it combines the high level of hardness of cemented carbide with the high level of fracture toughness of steel, while reducing the shaping cost and extending the application versatility, as its tribological, toughness, thermal and chemical properties can be optimally harmonised. The already existing joining technologies often impart either insufficient toughness or poor high-temperature strength to a joint to withstand the ever-increasing severe service condition demands. In this paper, a novel capacitor discharge welding (CDW) process is investigated for the case of a butt-joint between a tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) composite rod and an AISI M35 high-speed steel (HSS) rod. The latter was shaped with a conical-ended projection to promote a high current concentration and heat at the welding zone. CDW functions by combining a direct current (DC) electric current pulse and external uniaxial pressure after a preloading step, in which only uniaxial pressure is applied. The relatively high heating and cooling rates promote a thin layer of a characteristic ultrafine microstructure that combines high strength and toughness. Morphological analysis showed that the CDW process: (a) forms a sound and net shaped joint, (b) preserves the sub-micrometric grain structure of the original WC-Co composite base materials, via a transitional layer, (c) refines the microstructure of the original martensite of the HSS base material, and (d) results in an improved corrosion resistance across a 1-mm thick layer near the weld interface on the steel side. A nano-indentation test survey determined: (e) no hardness deterioration on the HSS side of the weld zone, although (f) a slight decrease in hardness was observed across the transitional layer on the composite side. Furthermore, (g) an indication of toughness of the joint was perceived as the size of the crack induced by processing the residual stress after sample preparation was unaltered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene-Like Nanosheets for Use in Ceramic Nanocomposites
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112656 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
In this work, the synthesis of graphene-like nanosheets (GNS) by an electrochemical exfoliation method, their microstructural characterization and their performance as fillers in a ceramic matrix composite have been assessed. To fabricate the composites, 3 mol % yttria tetragonal zirconia (3YTZP) powders with [...] Read more.
In this work, the synthesis of graphene-like nanosheets (GNS) by an electrochemical exfoliation method, their microstructural characterization and their performance as fillers in a ceramic matrix composite have been assessed. To fabricate the composites, 3 mol % yttria tetragonal zirconia (3YTZP) powders with 1 vol % GNS were processed by planetary ball milling in tert-butanol to enhance the GNS distribution throughout the matrix, and densified by spark plasma sintering (SPS). According to a thorough Raman analysis and SEM observations, the electrochemically exfoliated GNS possessed less than 10 graphene layers and a lateral size lower than 1 μm. However, they contained amorphous carbon and vacancy-like defects. In contrast the GNS in the sintered composite exhibited enhanced quality with a lower number of defects, and they were wavy, semi-transparent and with very low thickness. The obtained nanocomposite was fully dense with a homogeneous distribution of GNS into the matrix. The Vickers hardness of the nanocomposite showed similar values to those of a monolithic 3YTZP ceramic sintered in the same conditions, and to the reported ones for a 3YTZP composite with the same content of commercial graphene nanosheets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polylactic Acid/Polycaprolactone Blends: On the Path to Circular Economy, Substituting Single-Use Commodity Plastic Products
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112655 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Circular economy comes to break the linear resource to waste economy, by introducing different strategies, two of them being: using material from renewable sources and producing biodegradable products. The present work aims at developing polylactic acid (PLA), typically made from fermented plant starch, [...] Read more.
Circular economy comes to break the linear resource to waste economy, by introducing different strategies, two of them being: using material from renewable sources and producing biodegradable products. The present work aims at developing polylactic acid (PLA), typically made from fermented plant starch, and polycaprolactone (PCL) blends, a biodegradable polyester, to study their potential to be used as substitutes of oil-based commodity plastics. For this, PLA/PCL blends were compounded in a batch and lab scale internal mixer and processed by means of injection molding. Tensile and impact characteristics were determined and compared to different thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polystyrene, and others. It has been found that the incorporation of PCL into a PLA matrix can lead to materials in the range of 18.25 to 63.13 megapascals of tensile strength, 0.56 to 3.82 gigapascals of Young’s modulus, 12.65 to 3.27 percent of strain at maximum strength, and 35 to 2 kJ/m2 of notched impact strength. The evolution of the tensile strength fitted the Voigt and Reuss model, while Young’s modulus was successfully described by the rule of mixtures. Toughness of PLA was significantly improved with the incorporation of PCL, significantly increasing the energy required to fracture the specimens. Blends containing more than 20 wt% of PCL did not break when unnotched specimens were tested. Overall, it was found that the obtained PLA/PCL blends can constitute a strong and environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based commodity materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Fibers and Polymers)
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Open AccessCommunication
Gas Barrier, Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Immiscible Natural Rubber/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber/Organoclay (NR/NBR/Organoclay) Blend Nanocomposites
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112654 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 366
Abstract
In this paper, gas permeability studies were performed on materials based on natural rubber/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber blends and nanoclay incorporated blend systems. The properties of natural rubber (NR)/nitrile rubber (NBR)/nanoclay nanocomposites, with a particular focus on gas permeability, are presented. The measurements of [...] Read more.
In this paper, gas permeability studies were performed on materials based on natural rubber/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber blends and nanoclay incorporated blend systems. The properties of natural rubber (NR)/nitrile rubber (NBR)/nanoclay nanocomposites, with a particular focus on gas permeability, are presented. The measurements of the barrier properties were assessed using two different gases—O2 and CO2—by taking in account the blend composition, the filler loading and the nature of the gas molecules. The obtained data showed that the permeability of gas transport was strongly affected by: (i) the blend composition—it was observed that the increase in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber component considerably decreased the permeability; (ii) the nature of the gas—the permeation of CO2 was higher than O2; (iii) the nanoclay loading—it was found that the permeability decreased with the incorporation of nanoclay. The localization of nanoclay in the blend system also played a major role in determining the gas permeability. The permeability of the systems was correlated with blend morphology and dispersion of the nanoclay platelets in the polymer blend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical and Rheological Behaviour of Polymer-Based Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Heat Source Models in Numerical Simulations of Laser Welding
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112653 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 329
Abstract
The article presents new possibilities for modifying heat source models in numerical simulations of laser welding processes conducted using VisualWeld (SYSWELD) software. Due to the different power distributions and shapes of a laser beams, it was necessary to propose a modification of heat [...] Read more.
The article presents new possibilities for modifying heat source models in numerical simulations of laser welding processes conducted using VisualWeld (SYSWELD) software. Due to the different power distributions and shapes of a laser beams, it was necessary to propose a modification of heat source models and methods of defining the heat introduced into a welded material in the case of simulations of welding processes using solid-state and high-power diode lasers. A solution was proposed in the form of modification of predefined heat source models in the case of simulations of welding processes using solid-state disc lasers and high-power diode lasers (HPDL). Based on the results of metallographic tests and the acquisition of thermal cycles of real laser welding processes, the process of calibration and validation of the proposed models of heat sources depending on the type of device used as well as the obtained shapes of fusion beads was carried out. The purpose and assumptions of this approach towards creating heat sources were also reported, comparing exemplary stresses and cumulative plastic strain distributions for the calculation variant using a standard and modified heat source model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Laser Welding and Surface Treatment of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Inclination of Welding Torch on Weld Bead during Pulsed-GMAW Process
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112652 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 304
Abstract
This work is about the influence rule of inclination of welding torch on the formation and characteristics of weld bead during the pulsed-gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process based on the robotic operation. The inclination of welding torch was an important operation condition [...] Read more.
This work is about the influence rule of inclination of welding torch on the formation and characteristics of weld bead during the pulsed-gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process based on the robotic operation. The inclination of welding torch was an important operation condition during the pulsed-GMAW process, because it can affect the formation and quality of weld bead, which was the output of the process. In this work, the different inclination modes and values were employed to conduct actual welding experiments, and some influence rules can be obtained according to examine the surface topography and cross section. Then, to obtain further rules, serious measurements for the geometry characteristic parameters were conducted and corresponding curve fitting equations between inclination angles and the bead width, penetration and bead height were obtained, and the largest error of these curve fitting equations was 0.117 mm, whose corresponding mean squared error (MSE) was 0.0103. Corresponding verification experiments validated the effectiveness of the curve fittings and showed the second order polynomials were proper, and the largest errors between measurements and curve fitting equations for inclination angle under backward mode were larger than those under forward mode, and were 0.10 mm and 0.15 mm, respectively, which corresponded to the penetration and were below 10%, therefore the equations can be used to predict the geometry of the weld bead. This work can benefit the process and operation optimization of the pulsed-GMAW process, both in the academic researches and actual industrial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding and Joining Processes of Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Complete Real-Scale Application of Recycled Aggregates in a Port Loading Platform in Huelva, Spain
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112651 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
The application of recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste and crushed concrete blocks is a very important challenge for the coming years from the environmental point of view, in order to reduce the exploitation of natural resources. In Spain, the use [...] Read more.
The application of recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste and crushed concrete blocks is a very important challenge for the coming years from the environmental point of view, in order to reduce the exploitation of natural resources. In Spain, the use of these recycled materials in the construction of road bases and sub-bases is growing significantly. However, presently, there are few studies focused on the properties and behavior of RA in civil works such as road sections or seaport platforms. In this work, two types of RA were studied and used in a complete real-scale application. Firstly, recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) were applied in the granular base layer under bituminous superficial layers, and secondly mixed recycled aggregates (MRA) which contain a mix of ceramic, asphalt, and concrete particles were applied in the granular subbase layer, under the base layer made with RCA. Both RA were applied in a port loading platform in Huelva, applying a 100% recycling rate. This civil engineering work complied with the technical requirements of the current Spanish legislation required for the use of conventional aggregates. The environmental benefits of this work have been very relevant, and it should encourage the application of MRA and RCA in civil engineering works such as port platforms in a much more extended way. This is the first and documented real-scale application of RA to completely build the base and sub-base of a platform in the Huelva Port, Spain, replacing 100% of natural aggregates with recycled ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties and Novel Applications of Recycled Aggregates)
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Open AccessArticle
Teicoplanin-Modified HPLC Column as a Source of Experimental Parameters for Prediction of the Anticonvulsant Activity of 1,2,4-Triazole-3-Thiones by the Regression Models
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112650 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 316
Abstract
The cell membrane is a complex system that consists of lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, and amphiphilic phospholipids. It plays an important role in ADME processes that are responsible for the final pharmaceutical effects of xenobiotics (bioavailability, activity). To study drug-membrane interaction at the molecular [...] Read more.
The cell membrane is a complex system that consists of lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, and amphiphilic phospholipids. It plays an important role in ADME processes that are responsible for the final pharmaceutical effects of xenobiotics (bioavailability, activity). To study drug-membrane interaction at the molecular level, several high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) membrane model systems have been proposed which are mimicking mainly its lipid character. The aim of this work was to study interactions of new synthesized antiepileptic compounds of 4-alkyl-5-(3-chlorophenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives with Chirobiotic column containing glycoprotein ligand attached to the silica matrix. The affinity of the analytes to immobilized glycoprotein ligand was examined chromatographically in reversed-phase mode. The thermodynamics of interactions between bioactive compounds and teicoplanin was studied in terms of the van’t Hoff linear relationship ln k vs. 1/T in the range of 5–45 °C. Change in enthalpy (ΔH°), change in entropy (ΔS°) and change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) were estimated utilizing graphical extrapolation and interpolation methods. The density functional theory (DFT) approach and docking simulations were used to get the molecular interpretation and prove the obtained experimental results. Cross-correlations of chromatographic and thermodynamic parameters with non-empirical topological and quantum chemical indices suggest that the polarizability of analytes appears to be responsible for the interactions of the tested molecules with teicoplanin and, ultimately, their retention on the column. Experimental and theoretical parameters were subjected to statistical analysis using regression models. Partial least squares (PLS) regression model showed the usefulness of the experimentally measured parameter φ0 (MeOH) to discriminate between anticonvulsant active and inactive 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives. Obtained results point out the usefulness of interaction of potential anticonvulsants with glycoprotein class of compounds to anticipate their activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Simulation and Design)
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Open AccessArticle
The Photocatalytic Activity of Titania Coatings Produced by Electrochemical and Chemical Oxidation of Ti6Al4V Substrate, Estimated According to ISO 10678:2010
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112649 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 305
Abstract
The last twenty years have been a period of intense investigations of materials based on titanium dioxide, which have unique properties and functionalities, and which can be used in various areas of medicine. As a part of this issue, the results of our [...] Read more.
The last twenty years have been a period of intense investigations of materials based on titanium dioxide, which have unique properties and functionalities, and which can be used in various areas of medicine. As a part of this issue, the results of our works for the assessment of the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanocoatings of different nanoarchitecture (nanoporous, nanotubular, nanosponge-like and nanofibrous examples), which were earlier checked in terms of their biocompatibility and usability for the modification of medical devices’ surfaces, are presented. The studied materials were produced on the surface of Ti6Al4V substrates using electrochemical and chemical oxidation methods. The activity of produced titania materials was studied on the base of the methylene blue (MB) degradation effect, in accordance to ISO 10678:2010. In our works, we have focused on the analysis of the correlation between the photocatalytic activity of nanoarchitecturally different TiO2 coatings, their morphology and structure. The obtained results prove that all studied coatings, both amorphous and amorphous containing crystalline domains, revealed photocatalytic activity in the photoinduced degradation of the organic pollution standard. This activity may be an additional advantage of medical device coatings, being adequate for use in sterilization processes applying UVA light. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid System Coupling Moving Bed Bioreactor with UV/O3 Oxidation and Membrane Separation Units for Treatment of Industrial Laundry Wastewater
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112648 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
This paper describes the investigations on the possibilities of treatment of wastewater generated in an industrial laundry with application of a combined biological-photooxidation- membrane system aimed at water recycle and reuse. The two treatment schemes were compared: 1) scheme A consisting of a [...] Read more.
This paper describes the investigations on the possibilities of treatment of wastewater generated in an industrial laundry with application of a combined biological-photooxidation- membrane system aimed at water recycle and reuse. The two treatment schemes were compared: 1) scheme A consisting of a treatment in a moving bed biological reactor (MBBR) followed by microfiltration (MF) and nanofiltration (NF), and 2) scheme B comprising MBBR followed by oxidation by photolysis enhanced with in situ generated O3 (UV/O3) after which MF and NF were applied. The removal efficiency in MBBR reached 95–97% for the biochemical oxygen demand; 90–93% for the chemical oxygen demand and 89–99% for an anionic and a nonionic surfactants. The application of UV/O3 system allowed to decrease the content of the total organic carbon by 68% after 36 h of operation with a mineralization rate of 0.36 mg/L·h. Due to UV/O3 pretreatment, a significant mitigation of membrane fouling in the case of both MF and NF processes was achieved. The MF permeate flux in the system B was over two times higher compared to that in the system A. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that the laundry wastewater pretreated in the MBBR-UV/O3-MF-NF system could be recycled to any stage of the laundry process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies for Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Cu2+ Ions on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy with Microarc Oxidation
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112647 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 450
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to reduce the corrosion rate and increase the cytocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy. Two coatings were considered. One coating contained MgO (MAO/AZ31). The other coating contained Cu2+ (Cu/MAO/AZ31), and it was produced on the AZ31 Mg [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to reduce the corrosion rate and increase the cytocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy. Two coatings were considered. One coating contained MgO (MAO/AZ31). The other coating contained Cu2+ (Cu/MAO/AZ31), and it was produced on the AZ31 Mg alloy via microarc oxidation (MAO). Coating characterization was conducted using a set of methods, including scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion properties were investigated through an electrochemical test, and a H2 evolution measurement. The AZ31 Mg alloy with the Cu2+-containing coating showed an improved and more stable corrosion resistance compared with the MgO-containing coating and AZ31 Mg alloy specimen. Cell morphology observation and cytotoxicity test via Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that the Cu2+-containing coating enhanced the proliferation of L-929 cells and did not induce a toxic effect, thus resulting in excellent cytocompatibility and biological activity. In summary, adding Cu ions to MAO coating improved the corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of the coating. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quinoline- and Benzoselenazole-Derived Unsymmetrical Squaraine Cyanine Dyes: Design, Synthesis, Photophysicochemical Features and Light-Triggerable Antiproliferative Effects against Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112646 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy is an innovative treatment approach broadly directed towards oncological diseases. Its applicability and efficiency are closely related to the interaction of three main components, namely a photosensitizer, light and molecular triplet oxygen, which should drive cell death. Recently, several studies have [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy is an innovative treatment approach broadly directed towards oncological diseases. Its applicability and efficiency are closely related to the interaction of three main components, namely a photosensitizer, light and molecular triplet oxygen, which should drive cell death. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that squaraine cyanine dyes have a set of photophysical and photochemical properties that have made of these compounds’ potential photosensitizers for this therapeutic modality. In the present research work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of four quinoline- and benzoselenazole-derived unsymmetrical squaraine cyanine dyes. Except for the precursor of aminosquaraine dyes, i.e., O-methylated derivative, all dyes were evaluated for their behavior and absorption capacity in different organic and aqueous solvents, their ability to form singlet oxygen, their light-stability, and in vitro phototherapeutic effects against two human breast cancer cell cultures (BT-474 and MCF-7). Regardless of the nature of the used solvents, the synthesized dyes showed intense absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral regions, despite the formation of aggregates in aqueous media. Dyes showed high light-stability against light exposure. Despite the low ability to produce singlet oxygen, aminosquaraine dyes demonstrated worthy in vitro phototherapeutic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Antistatic Fibers for High-Visibility Workwear: Challenges of Melt-Spinning Industrial Fibers
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112645 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Safety workwear often requires antistatic protection to prevent the build-up of static electricity and sparks, which can be extremely dangerous in a working environment. In order to make synthetic antistatic fibers, electrically conducting materials such as carbon black are added to the fiber-forming [...] Read more.
Safety workwear often requires antistatic protection to prevent the build-up of static electricity and sparks, which can be extremely dangerous in a working environment. In order to make synthetic antistatic fibers, electrically conducting materials such as carbon black are added to the fiber-forming polymer. This leads to unwanted dark colors in the respective melt-spun fibers. To attenuate the undesired dark color, we looked into various possibilities including the embedding of the conductive element inside a dull side-by-side bicomponent fiber. The bicomponent approach, with an antistatic compound as a minor element, also helped in preventing the severe loss of tenacity often caused by a high additive loading. We could melt-spin a bicomponent fiber with a specific resistance as low as 0.1 Ωm and apply it in a fabric that fulfills the requirements regarding the antistatic properties, luminance and flame retardancy of safety workwear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Synthetic Fibers for Textile Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Study of Shear Bond Strength in Direct and Indirect Bonding with Three Types of Adhesive Systems
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112644 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 305
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remaining index (ARI) using one conventional and two novel adhesive systems with clinical step reduction and direct and indirect bonding. A sample of 72 human premolars were divided into six groups [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remaining index (ARI) using one conventional and two novel adhesive systems with clinical step reduction and direct and indirect bonding. A sample of 72 human premolars were divided into six groups of 12 samples. The first three groups (G1, G2, G3) were bonded with a direct technique, while the remaining groups (G4, G5, G6) were bonded by the indirect technique. Groups G1 and G4 used conventional acid-etching primer composite (XT); groups G2 and G5 used self-etching bonding (BO), and groups G3 and G6 had an acid-etching treatment followed by a self-adhesive composite (OC). All groups were exposed to thermocycling. Shear bond strength was analyzed with a universal test machine, and the ARI was examined with 4× magnification. The results showed statistically significant differences between the three adhesive systems. The highest strength values were observed in the XT group G1 (13.54 ± 4 MPa), while the lowest were shown in the BO G2 samples (5.05 ± 2 MPa). There was no significant difference between the direct or indirect bonding techniques on the three compared groups. The type of primer and bonding material significantly influenced the SBS. Values with self-etching bonding were below the minimum recommended for clinical use (5.9–7.8 MPa). There was no difference between indirect and direct bonding techniques. The lowest ARI scores (0–1) were observed in both self-etching and BO groups. Further clinical studies are needed to compare in vivo results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Photoluminescence of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Carbide Thin Films by Means of a Fast Thermal Annealing Process
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112643 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
In this paper, the photoluminescence (PL) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-Si1−xCx:H) thin films obtained by Plasma Enhancement Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) is reported. Strong PL is obtained after a fast annealing process for 60 s at temperatures of [...] Read more.
In this paper, the photoluminescence (PL) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-Si1−xCx:H) thin films obtained by Plasma Enhancement Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) is reported. Strong PL is obtained after a fast annealing process for 60 s at temperatures of 200, 400, 600, and 800 °C. The thin films are characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), PL spectroscopy, and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). According to the results of the structural characterization, it is deduced that a structural rearrangement of the amorphous matrix is carried out during the fast annealing process, which results in different degrees of oxidation on the a-Si1−xCx:H films. The PL peak position shifts towards higher energies as the temperature increases. The sample deposited with a silane/methane flux ratio of 37.5 at an Radio Frequency (RF) power of 6 W experiences an increase in PL intensity of more than nine times, with a displacement in the peak position from 2.5 eV to 2.87 eV, at 800 °C. From the PL analysis, we observe two emission bands: one centered in the near infrared and other in the visible range (with a blue peak). This study opens the possibility to use such thin films in the development of optoelectronics devices, with potential for application in solar cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduction of Power Consumption by Chip Breakability Control in Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy Turning
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112642 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 335
Abstract
The paper concerns the problem of energy savings in turning of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Since this alloy belongs to difficult to cut materials, there is a problem with chip forming and breaking. The turning process is often supported by implementing a high-pressure cooling [...] Read more.
The paper concerns the problem of energy savings in turning of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Since this alloy belongs to difficult to cut materials, there is a problem with chip forming and breaking. The turning process is often supported by implementing a high-pressure cooling (HPC) system. Based on the observations and the adopted chip classification method, the authors proved that it is not necessary to use this method in roughing operations, however it helps with the chips breaking process in finishing operations. A general algorithm for machining optimization due to the chip geometry is presented and described. In the presented case, it was shown that the acceptable chip geometry could be obtained with a reduced power consumption by approximately Pc = 0.5 kW. The authors concluded that it was not necessary to apply cutting data and a coolant system to achieve perfect chip geometry. An acceptable form was often sufficient, while requiring less energy. An additional factor resulting from the operation of systems supporting the cutting process, such as an HPC device, should be taken into account in the formula concerning the energy consumption (EC) of a computerized numerical control (CNC) machine tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Simulation in Alloy Cutting Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Are Magnesium Screws Proper for Mandibular Condyle Head Osteosynthesis?
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112641 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Recently, magnesium alloys have gained a significant amount of recognition as potential biomaterials for degradable implants for craniofacial bone screws. Purpose: The aim of this work was to compare screws made specifically for mandibular head osteosynthesis from different materials. Materials and Methods: Screws [...] Read more.
Recently, magnesium alloys have gained a significant amount of recognition as potential biomaterials for degradable implants for craniofacial bone screws. Purpose: The aim of this work was to compare screws made specifically for mandibular head osteosynthesis from different materials. Materials and Methods: Screws measuring 14 mm made by one manufacturer specifically for mandibular head osteosynthesis out of the following materials were selected: magnesium (MgYREZr), titanium (Ti6Al7Nb), and polymer (PLGA). The axial pull-out strength and torsional properties were investigated. Results: Each type of screw presented different pull-out forces (Kruskal–Wallis test, p < 0.001). The magnesium screw had the highest pull-out force of 399 N (cracked without the screw out being pulled out), followed by the titanium screw, with a force of 340 N, and the PLGA screw, with a force of 138 N (always cracked at the base of the screw head without the screw being pulled out). ANOVA was performed for the maximal torques before damage to the screw (torsional properties), revealing that the maximal torque of the magnesium screw was 16 N·cm, while that of the titanium screw was 19 N·cm. The magnesium screw was significantly weaker than the titanium screw (p < 0.05). The measured torque and pull-out force were not related to each other (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Among the screws compared, the metal biodegradable magnesium screw seems to be the most suitable material for multiscrew mandibular head osteosynthesis, considering the condition of the fragile screwdriver socket. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical and Biomechanical Analysis in Bioengineering)
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Open AccessEditorial
Welding, Joining, and Coating of Metallic Materials
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112640 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Welding, joining, and coating of metallic materials are among the most applicable fabrication processes in modern metallurgy. Welding or joining is the manufacture of a metal one-body workpiece from several pieces. Coating is the process of production of metallic substrate with required properties [...] Read more.
Welding, joining, and coating of metallic materials are among the most applicable fabrication processes in modern metallurgy. Welding or joining is the manufacture of a metal one-body workpiece from several pieces. Coating is the process of production of metallic substrate with required properties of the surface. A long list of specific techniques is studied during schooling and applied in industry; several include resistant spot, laser or friction welding, micro arc oxidation (MAO), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD), among others. This Special Issue presents 21 recent developments in the field of welding, joining, and coating of various metallic materials namely, Ti and Mg alloys, different types of steel, intermetallics, and shape memory alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Coating of Metallic Materials)
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