Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Medical Application"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Anton Ficai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu st., 011061 Bucharest, Romania
2. Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independenței st., Bucharest, Romania
Interests: bio(nano)materials; synthesis methods; materials processing and design; advanced coatings; tissue engineering; drug delivery; characterization methods
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many advances in the field of medicine are strongly corelated with the use of nanomaterials thus, an important topic/science is establishing namely, NANOMEDICINE. Nowadays, Nanomaterials are exploited in many applications such as diagnosis and treatment, as they are able to induce antimicrobial, antitumoral activity, and hyperthermia or can assure internalisation or targeting capabilities, can act as a smart carrier of a wide range of biologically active agents, etc.

Manuscripts dealing with nanomaterials belonging to the following classes are especially welcome: Metal and oxide nanoparticles, micro and mesoporous materials, carbonaceous materials, phosphates, etc. Topics relating to composite materials designed and manufactured by modern additive manufacturing methods for tissue engineering are also welcome. 3D-printing, electrospinning and electrospraying, atomic layer deposition (ALD), spin coating, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), and pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are only some of the processing techniques which are able to generate nanomaterials with 0D, 1D, 2D, or even 3D structures. Short-, medium-, and long-term (nano)toxicity, multifunctionality, and personalized therapy are essential aspects of the modern medicine thus, manuscripts dealing with any or more such aspects will be encouraged.

Prof. Anton Ficai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Tissue engineering
  • Smart drug delivery
  • Materials processing and design
  • Surface physic and chemistry
  • Nanotoxicity at short/long-term
  • Risks and opportunities

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Biomechanical Features of Graphene-Augmented Inorganic Nanofibrous Scaffolds and Their Physical Interaction with Viruses
Materials 2021, 14(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010164 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Nanofibrous substrates and scaffolds are widely being studied as matrices for 3D cell cultures, and disease models as well as for analytics and diagnostic purposes. These scaffolds usually comprise randomly oriented fibers. Much less common are nanofibrous scaffolds made of stiff inorganic materials [...] Read more.
Nanofibrous substrates and scaffolds are widely being studied as matrices for 3D cell cultures, and disease models as well as for analytics and diagnostic purposes. These scaffolds usually comprise randomly oriented fibers. Much less common are nanofibrous scaffolds made of stiff inorganic materials such as alumina. Well-aligned matrices are a promising tool for evaluation of behavior of biological objects affected by micro/nano-topologies as well as anisotropy. In this work, for the first time, we report a joint analysis of biomechanical properties of new ultra-anisotropic, self-aligned ceramic nanofibers augmented with two modifications of graphene shells (GAIN scaffolds) and their interaction of three different viral types (influenza virus A, picornavirus (human parechovirus) and potato virus). It was discovered that nano-topology and structure of the graphene layers have a significant implication on mechanical properties of GAIN scaffolds resulting in non-linear behavior. It was demonstrated that the viral adhesion to GAIN scaffolds is likely to be guided by physical cues in dependence on mutual steric factors, as the scaffolds lack common cell membrane proteins and receptors which viruses usually deploy for transfection. The study may have implications for selective viral adsorption, infected cells analysis, and potentially opening new tools for anti-viral drugs development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Doxorubicin Loading to Isolated Dexosomes of Immature JAWSII Cells: Formulated and Characterized as the Bionanomaterial
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13153344 - 27 Jul 2020
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Immature dendritic cells (IDc), ‘dexosomes’, are promising natural nanomaterials for cancer diagnose and therapy. Dexosomes were isolated purely from small-scale-up production by using t25-cell-culture flasks. Total RNA was measured as 1.43 ± 0.33 ng/106 cell. Despite the fact that they possessed a [...] Read more.
Immature dendritic cells (IDc), ‘dexosomes’, are promising natural nanomaterials for cancer diagnose and therapy. Dexosomes were isolated purely from small-scale-up production by using t25-cell-culture flasks. Total RNA was measured as 1.43 ± 0.33 ng/106 cell. Despite the fact that they possessed a surface that is highly abundant in protein, this did not become a significant effect on the DOX loading amount. Ultrasonication was used for doxorubicin (DOX) loading into the IDc dexosomes. In accordance with the literature, three candidate DOX formulations were designed as IC50 values; dExoIII, 1.8 µg/mL, dExoII, 1.2 µg/mL, and dExoI, 0.6 µg/mL, respectively. Formulations were evaluated by MTT test against highly metastatic A549 (CCL-185; ATTC) cell line. Confocal images of unloaded (naïve) were obtained by CellMaskTM membrane staining before DOX loading. Although, dexosome membranes were highly durable subsequent to ultrasonication, it was observed that dexosomes could not be stable above 70 °C during the SEM-image analyses. dExoIII displayed sustained release profile. It was found that dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) results were in good agreement with each other. Zeta potentials of loaded dexosomes have approximately between −15 to −20 mV; and, their sizes are 150 nm even after ultrasonication. IDcJAWSII dexosomes can be able to be utilized as the “BioNanoMaterial” after DOX loading via ultrasonication technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Polycaprolactone/Gelatin/Hyaluronic Acid Electrospun Scaffolds to Mimic Glioblastoma Extracellular Matrix
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112661 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most malignant types of human brain tumor, is resistant to conventional treatments and is associated with poor survival. Since the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) of GBM microenvironment plays a significant role on the tumor behavior, the engineering of [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most malignant types of human brain tumor, is resistant to conventional treatments and is associated with poor survival. Since the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) of GBM microenvironment plays a significant role on the tumor behavior, the engineering of the ECM will help us to get more information on the tumor behavior and to define novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin(Gel)/hyaluronic acid(HA) composite scaffolds with aligned and randomly oriented nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning for mimicking the extracellular matrix of GBM tumor. We investigated the effect of nanotopography and components of fibers on the mechanical, morphological, and hydrophilic properties of electrospun nanofiber as well as their biocompatibility properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to investigate possible interactions between components. The mean fiber diameter in the nanofiber matrix was increased with the presence of HA at low collector rotation speed. Moreover, the rotational velocity of the collector affected the fiber diameters as well as their homogenous distribution. Water contact angle measurements confirmed that hyaluronic acid-incorporated aligned nanofibers were more hydrophilic than that of random nanofibers. In addition, PCL/Gel/HA nanofibrous scaffold (7.9 MPa) exhibited a significant decrease in tensile strength compared to PCL/Gel nanofibrous mat (19.2 MPa). In-vitro biocompatibilities of nanofiber scaffolds were tested with glioblastoma cells (U251), and the PCL/Gel/HA scaffolds with random nanofiber showed improved cell adhesion and proliferation. On the other hand, PCL/Gel/HA scaffolds with aligned nanofiber were found suitable for enhancing axon growth and elongation supporting intracellular communication. Based on these results, PCL/Gel/HA composite scaffolds are excellent candidates as a biomimetic matrix for GBM and the study of the tumor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Nano/Micro Hierarchical Bioceramic Coatings for Bone Implant Surface Treatments
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071548 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
Bone implants with surface modifications that promote the physiological activities of osteoblasts are the first step for osseointegration in bone repair. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component in mammal bones and teeth, and nanoscaled hydroxyapatite promotes the adhesion of osteoblastic cells. In this [...] Read more.
Bone implants with surface modifications that promote the physiological activities of osteoblasts are the first step for osseointegration in bone repair. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component in mammal bones and teeth, and nanoscaled hydroxyapatite promotes the adhesion of osteoblastic cells. In this study, we created a nano/micro hierarchical structure using micro-arc oxidation coatings and hydrothermal treatments at 150 °C, 175 °C, and 200 °C for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. After undergoing hydrothermal treatment for 24 h, CaTiO3 began forming regular-shaped crystals at the surface at 175 °C. In order to decrease the CaTiO3 formations and increase the apatite fabrication, a shorter time of hydrothermal treatment was required at 175 °C. There was still surface damage on samples treated for 6 h at 175 °C; however, the nano/micro hierarchical structures were formed in 2 h at 175 °C. The normalized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of the MC3T3-E1 cells with micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings and nano/micro hierarchical bioceramics coatings were 4.51 ± 0.26 and 7.36 ± 0.51 μmol p-NP/mg protein (*** P value of <0.001), respectively. The MC3T3-E1 cells with coatings showed highly statistically significant results in terms of the ALP activity. This proposed nano/micro hierarchical structure promoted cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. This study realized a promising nano system for osseointegration via bone implant surface treatments, which can promote the physiological activities of osteoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Blended Natural Support Materials—Collagen Based Hydrogels Used in Biomedicine
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245641 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
Due to their unique properties—the are biocompatible, easily accessible, and inexpensive with programmable properties—biopolymers are used in pharmaceutical and biomedical research, as well as in cosmetics and food. Collagen is one of the most-used biomaterials in biomedicine, being the most abundant protein in [...] Read more.
Due to their unique properties—the are biocompatible, easily accessible, and inexpensive with programmable properties—biopolymers are used in pharmaceutical and biomedical research, as well as in cosmetics and food. Collagen is one of the most-used biomaterials in biomedicine, being the most abundant protein in animals with a triple helices structure, biocompatible, biomimetic, biodegradable, and hemostatic. Its disadvantages are its poor mechanical and thermal properties and enzymatic degradation. In order to solve this problem and to use its benefits, collagen can be used blended with other biomaterials such as alginate, chitosan, and cellulose. The purpose of this review article is to offer a brief paper with updated information on blended collagen-based formulations and their potential application in biomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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Open AccessReview
Nanostructured Fibers Containing Natural or Synthetic Bioactive Compounds in Wound Dressing Applications
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102407 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
The interest in wound healing characteristics of bioactive constituents and therapeutic agents, especially natural compounds, is increasing because of their therapeutic properties, cost-effectiveness, and few adverse effects. Lately, nanocarriers as a drug delivery system have been actively investigated and applied in medical and [...] Read more.
The interest in wound healing characteristics of bioactive constituents and therapeutic agents, especially natural compounds, is increasing because of their therapeutic properties, cost-effectiveness, and few adverse effects. Lately, nanocarriers as a drug delivery system have been actively investigated and applied in medical and therapeutic applications. In recent decades, researchers have investigated the incorporation of natural or synthetic substances into novel bioactive electrospun nanofibrous architectures produced by the electrospinning method for skin substitutes. Therefore, the development of nanotechnology in the area of dressings that could provide higher performance and a synergistic effect for wound healing is needed. Natural compounds with antimicrobial, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activity in combination with nanostructured fibers represent a future approach due to the increased wound healing process and regeneration of the lost tissue. This paper presents different approaches in producing electrospun nanofibers, highlighting the electrospinning process used in fabricating innovative wound dressings that are able to release natural and/or synthetic substances in a controlled way, thus enhancing the healing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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Open AccessReview
Phytosynthesized Metallic Nanoparticles—between Nanomedicine and Toxicology. A Brief Review of 2019′s Findings
Materials 2020, 13(3), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030574 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Phytosynthesized nanoparticles represent a continuously increasing field of research, with numerous studies published each year. However, with the emerging interest in this area, the quality of the published works is also continuously increasing, switching from routine antioxidant or antimicrobial studies on trivial microbial [...] Read more.
Phytosynthesized nanoparticles represent a continuously increasing field of research, with numerous studies published each year. However, with the emerging interest in this area, the quality of the published works is also continuously increasing, switching from routine antioxidant or antimicrobial studies on trivial microbial lines to antibiotic-resistant strains or antitumoral studies. However, this increasing interest has not been not reflected in the studies regarding the toxicological effects of nanoparticles (NPs); this should be a subject of greatest interest, as the increasing administration of NPs in general (and phytosynthesized NPs in particular) could lead to their accumulation in the environment (soil, water and living organisms). The present review aims to present the most recent findings in the application of phytosynthesized NPs as antimicrobial and antitumoral agents, as well as the results regarding their toxicological potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Medical Application)
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