Special Issue "Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Pawel Pawlus
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Rzeszow University of Technology, Powstancow Warszawy 8 Street, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: tribology; friction; wear; lubrication; contact mechanics; surface engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tribology is the multidisciplinary science of rubbing surfaces. It deals with the design, friction, wear, and lubrication of interacting surfaces in relative motion. Tribology is associated with a wide range of scientific disciplines like reliability, materials science, and diagnostics. The subjects of tribology are of great significance for engineers. Reduction of frictional losses will lead to an improvement in economy.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect high-quality research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on tribology of engineering materials, including contact mechanics and surface engineering. We are looking forward to receiving your submissions.

Prof. Pawel Pawlus
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Tribology
  • friction
  • wear
  • lubrication
  • contact mechanics
  • materials
  • surface engineering

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Isotropic One-Process and Two-Process Surface Textures on the Contact of Flat Surfaces
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244092 - 07 Dec 2019
Abstract
The contact of random modeled one- and two-process textures with smooth, flat surfaces is discussed in this paper. An elastic-plastic contact model was applied, assuming a distributed radius of summits. A one-process surface was characterized by the standard deviations of height and the [...] Read more.
The contact of random modeled one- and two-process textures with smooth, flat surfaces is discussed in this paper. An elastic-plastic contact model was applied, assuming a distributed radius of summits. A one-process surface was characterized by the standard deviations of height and the correlation length; however, it also had a two-process texture by the standard deviations of the plateau and valley structures, the material ratio at the transition point, and the correlation lengths of the plateau and valley parts. It was found that the contact characteristics depended on the height and spatial properties of the surface texture. The plateau part governs the contact characteristics of two-process surfaces, while the effect of the valley surface portion is smaller. The plastic deformation leads to a smaller effect of the surface texture on the contact characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensor-Assisted Assessment of the Tribological Behavioral Patterns of Al–SiCp Composites under Various Environmental Temperature Conditions
Materials 2019, 12(23), 4004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12234004 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
Currently, the use of sensors and supporting technologies has become indispensable in the assessment of tribological behavioral patterns of composites. Furthermore, the current investigation focused on the assessment of the tribological behavior of the Al–SiCp composite for high-temperature applications. Moreover, the Al–SiCp composite [...] Read more.
Currently, the use of sensors and supporting technologies has become indispensable in the assessment of tribological behavioral patterns of composites. Furthermore, the current investigation focused on the assessment of the tribological behavior of the Al–SiCp composite for high-temperature applications. Moreover, the Al–SiCp composite was fabricated by adapting the liquid metallurgy route with varying weight percentages of SiCp (x = 3, 6, and 9). Density, hardness, and high-temperature wear tests were performed to evaluate the hardness and tribological characteristics and properties of modern-day advanced composites. Moreover, the inclusion of SiCp enhanced the advanced composite materials hardness from 60 HV to 110 HV due to a high degree of refinement of the α-phase. Subsequently, the fabricated samples’ wear behavior was assessed by varying the wear parameter viz. the applied load (20 N and 30 N) and sliding distance (250 m, 500 m, 750 m, and 1000 m) with the constant sliding velocity (0.45 m/s) for various temperatures (40 °C, 150 °C, and 250 °C). Moreover, the results revealed that the enhancement in the reinforcement percentage improves the wear resistance. Consequently, the wear rate decreased at 250 °C, possibly owing to the development of the oxide layers. Therefore, the occurrence of delamination and plastic deformation were evidenced in the wear-out surface, thereby depicting the prevalence of delamination and the abrasive wear-mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Mechanical Processes as a Pre-Sulphonitriding Treatment on Tribology Properties of Selected P/M Tool Steels
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203431 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We have evaluated phase composition changes in the surface layer (SL) and wear resistance of steels investigated after various mechanical processes such as a pre-sulphonitriding treatments. Two various paths of surface modification were employed: Grinding–sulphonitriding (G-SN) and hard turning–slide burnishing–sulphonitriding (T-B-SN). Studies were [...] Read more.
We have evaluated phase composition changes in the surface layer (SL) and wear resistance of steels investigated after various mechanical processes such as a pre-sulphonitriding treatments. Two various paths of surface modification were employed: Grinding–sulphonitriding (G-SN) and hard turning–slide burnishing–sulphonitriding (T-B-SN). Studies were carried out on Vanadis 8 and Vancron 40 tool steels, which are classified as advanced powder metallurgy (P/M) high-alloyed steels with different types and amounts of carbides. Heat treatment to the final hardness of 64 ± 1 HRC (Vanadis 8) and 62 ± 1 HRC (Vancron 40) was performed in vacuum furnaces with gas quenching. Precipitation of different types such as sulfides, nitrides, and carbides was observed using X-ray diffraction analysis. Tribological properties of SL were evaluated by pin-on-disc experiments. Pins of Al2O3 and 19MnB4 steel were used as counterbodies materials. 3D surface geometrical structure measurements were also performed. Wear tracks and cross-sections of SL were observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The three-stage process increases the wear resistance about 37% and 30%, respectively for Vanadis 8 and Vancron 40 (in case of alumina pins), whereas values of wear rates after tests performed against steel pins were very similar for two compared processes for both steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Disc Surface Topography on the Dry Gross Fretting Wear of an Equal-Hardness Steel Pair
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193250 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Experimental investigations were carried out with an Optimol SRV5 tribological tester in a flat-on-sphere scheme. The balls co-acted with the discs in a gross sliding fretting regime. The balls and discs were made from the same steel with a very similar hardness. Tests [...] Read more.
Experimental investigations were carried out with an Optimol SRV5 tribological tester in a flat-on-sphere scheme. The balls co-acted with the discs in a gross sliding fretting regime. The balls and discs were made from the same steel with a very similar hardness. Tests were conducted at 25–35% relative humidity, 30 °C, and a constant normal load and number of cycles (18,000). The discs had different textures after various machining treatments. It was found that the total wear level of the tribological assembly was proportional to the disc surface amplitude. The influence of the disc roughness on the coefficient of friction was evident only for the smallest stroke of 0.1 mm, and the frequency of oscillation affected this dependency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation on Wear Behavior of Cryogenically Treated Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy under Dry and Wet Conditions
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182850 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Titanium alloys are widely used in many fields because of their excellent comprehensive properties. However, its poor friction and wear properties limit its many potential applications. In general, the surface roughness of important parts manufactured by titanium alloy should meet certain requirements. As [...] Read more.
Titanium alloys are widely used in many fields because of their excellent comprehensive properties. However, its poor friction and wear properties limit its many potential applications. In general, the surface roughness of important parts manufactured by titanium alloy should meet certain requirements. As a low-cost and high-efficiency processing method, barrel finishing has been used for the surface finishing of titanium alloys. The main material removal mechanism of barrel finishing is micro-cutting/grinding, which is similar to the material wear mechanism under some conditions. In addition, titanium alloys are subjected to a low force in common surface finishing processes. Cryogenic treatment is a method that can improve the comprehensive properties of titanium alloys. Therefore, the friction and wear behavior of cryogenically treated Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy (CT Ti alloy) and non-cryogenically treated Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy (NT Ti alloy) at a low load and scratch speed was studied comparatively in this paper. The results show that the CT Ti alloy exhibits a lower friction coefficient and wear rate under both dry and wet wear conditions. Under wet conditions, the stabilized friction coefficient is lower than that under dry conditions. The stabilized friction coefficient of CT Ti alloy is 0.18 after reaching a stable wear stage under wet conditions. Under dry wear conditions, the NT Ti alloy mainly showed typical abrasive wear, heavy adhesion wear and oxidation wear characters. The wear mechanisms of CT Ti alloy are mainly abrasive wear, slight adhesion wear and oxidation wear. Under wet wear conditions, the wear mechanism of NT Ti alloy is abrasive wear and slight adhesion wear. After cryogenic treatment, the mechanism for CT Ti alloy is slight abrasive wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Resistance of Various Alloy Hardfacings for Application on Heavy-Duty Chipper Tools in Forestry Shredding and Mulching Operations
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132212 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Five different alloy hardfacings on 16MnCr5 grade low-carbon ferritic–pearlitic steel were investigated in terms of their abrasive wear resistance in laboratory testing conditions. The selected hardfacing materials, namely “E520 RB”, “RD 571”, “LNM 420FM”, “E DUR 600”, and “Weartrode 62”, were individually deposited [...] Read more.
Five different alloy hardfacings on 16MnCr5 grade low-carbon ferritic–pearlitic steel were investigated in terms of their abrasive wear resistance in laboratory testing conditions. The selected hardfacing materials, namely “E520 RB”, “RD 571”, “LNM 420FM”, “E DUR 600”, and “Weartrode 62”, were individually deposited onto plain ground-finish surfaces of 10 mm thick steel plate samples. The studied hardfacings were fabricated using several different welding methods and process parameters proposed by their industrial manufacturers. In the present comparative study, the results obtained from laboratory abrasive wear tests of the investigated hardfacings were analyzed and discussed in relation to their microstructure, hardness, and wear mechanism characteristics. Regardless of great variety in microstructure and chemical composition of individual hardfacing materials, the results clearly indicated the governing factor for the wear resistance improvement to be the overall carbon content of the used hardfacing material. Thus it has been shown that the “E520 RB” hardfacing exhibited the highest abrasive wear resistance thanks to its appropriate hardness and beneficial “ledeburite-type” eutectic microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Friction Behavior of Silver Perrhenate in Oil as Lubricating Additive for Use at Elevated Temperatures
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132199 - 08 Jul 2019
Abstract
In this study, we use an aqueous solution synthesis method to prepare silver perrhenate powders and suspend them into a poly alpha olefin (PAO) base oil with polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether. Four ball tests and ball-on-disk reciprocating mode are performed to determine how silver [...] Read more.
In this study, we use an aqueous solution synthesis method to prepare silver perrhenate powders and suspend them into a poly alpha olefin (PAO) base oil with polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether. Four ball tests and ball-on-disk reciprocating mode are performed to determine how silver perrhenate performs tribologically as a lubricating additive over a wide range of temperatures. The physical and chemical properties, as well as the lubricating mechanisms of the silver perrhenate additive, are characterized via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectrum, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The four-ball test results demonstrate that the oil added with silver perrhenate additive is more effective than the base oil in reducing friction and improving wear resistance, and provides the best lubricating performance when at a concentration of 0.5 wt%. The reciprocating mode findings indicate that the hybrid lubricant exhibits distinctively better tribological properties than the base oil at high temperatures, and its low shear strength and chemical inertness allow for low friction at elevated temperatures. The resulting silver perrhenate layer that incorporates native superalloy oxides on the worn surface can provide lubrication by serving as a barrier that prevents direct contact between the rubbing surfaces at elevated temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Friction and Wear Behavior of Date Palm Fruit Syrup as an Environmentally Friendly Lubricant
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101589 - 15 May 2019
Abstract
The effect of various operational factors, such as sliding speed, normal load and temperature on the tribological properties of Date palm fruit syrup (DPFS) as an environmentally friendly lubricant, is investigated. Ball-on-disc wear tests are conducted on mild steel samples in the presence [...] Read more.
The effect of various operational factors, such as sliding speed, normal load and temperature on the tribological properties of Date palm fruit syrup (DPFS) as an environmentally friendly lubricant, is investigated. Ball-on-disc wear tests are conducted on mild steel samples in the presence of DPFS as a lubricant under different conditions and the coefficient of friction and wear rate are measured. Scanning electron microscopy, stylus profilometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to evaluate the wear tracks to determine the underlying wear mechanisms. Results showed that DPFS has excellent tribological properties in terms of low friction and low wear rates making it a potential candidate to be used as a lubricant in tribological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cast-Iron Surface Texturing on the Anti-Scuffing Performance under Starved Lubrication
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101586 - 15 May 2019
Abstract
Advances in heavy-duty diesel engine designs place higher demands on the friction and wear performance of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL) interface. The potential of using micro-textures machined on the whole stroke of a cast-iron cylinder liner was investigated in this [...] Read more.
Advances in heavy-duty diesel engine designs place higher demands on the friction and wear performance of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL) interface. The potential of using micro-textures machined on the whole stroke of a cast-iron cylinder liner was investigated in this work. A set of running-in and starved lubrication experiments was performed using a custom reciprocating test rig that imparts a combination of combustion-level pressures and the resulting impacts. Based on a comparison of micro-dimple parameters, the friction coefficient for the running-in period at the shocking dead center was the smallest at a designed combination of 1000-μm diameter, 22% area fraction, and arrangement with half-radius intersecting distance of two adjacent micro-dimple columns. The non-scuffing time under starvation was the longest at a designed combination of the following parameters: 800 μm diameter, 22% area fraction, and quarter-radius intersecting distance arrangement. From finite element analysis, it was found that stress concentrates at the micro-dimple periphery and at the connections between adjacent micro-dimples. However, surface topography examination showed that scuffing initiates in the non-dimpled regions between the micro-dimpled columns rather than at their edges. Finally, under reciprocating motion, micro-dimples can collect wear debris to inhibit further propagation of scuffing in the micro-dimpled region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials)
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