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Curr. Oncol., Volume 28, Issue 3 (June 2021) – 27 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Psychosocial Distress in Adult Patients Awaiting Cancer Surgery during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1867-1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030173 (registering DOI) - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Cancer causes substantial emotional and psychosocial distress, which may be exacerbated by delays in treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased wait times for many patients with cancer. In this study, the psychosocial distress associated with waiting for cancer surgery during the [...] Read more.
Cancer causes substantial emotional and psychosocial distress, which may be exacerbated by delays in treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased wait times for many patients with cancer. In this study, the psychosocial distress associated with waiting for cancer surgery during the pandemic was investigated. This cross-sectional, convergent mixed-methods study included patients with lower priority disease during the first wave of COVID-19 at an academic, tertiary care hospital in eastern Canada. Participants underwent semi-structured interviews and completed two questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Qualitative analysis was completed through a thematic analysis approach, with integration achieved through triangulation. Fourteen participants were recruited, with cancer sites including thyroid, kidney, breast, prostate, and a gynecological disorder. Increased anxiety symptoms were found in 36% of patients and depressive symptoms in 14%. Similarly, 64% of patients experienced moderate or high stress. Six key themes were identified, including uncertainty, life changes, coping strategies, communication, experience, and health services. Participants discussed substantial distress associated with lifestyle changes and uncertain treatment timelines. Participants identified quality communication with their healthcare team and individualized coping strategies as being partially protective against such symptoms. Delays in surgery for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in extensive psychosocial distress. Patients may be able to mitigate these symptoms partially through various coping mechanisms and improved communication with their healthcare teams. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Oligometastatic Tumors versus Standard of Care
by , , and
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1857-1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030172 (registering DOI) - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 149
Abstract
Background: Recent clinical trial results reported that stereotactic radiotherapy (SABR) may improve survival for patients with oligometastatic (OM) cancer. Given that these results come from a phase II trial, there remains considerable uncertainty about this finding, and about the cost-effectiveness of SABR for [...] Read more.
Background: Recent clinical trial results reported that stereotactic radiotherapy (SABR) may improve survival for patients with oligometastatic (OM) cancer. Given that these results come from a phase II trial, there remains considerable uncertainty about this finding, and about the cost-effectiveness of SABR for patients with OM cancer. In this analysis, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of SABR for oligometastatic cancer patients. Methods: A probabilistic time-dependent Markov model was constructed to simulate treatment of oligometastatic cancer patients over five- and ten-year time horizons. The primary data source was the phase II, Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for the Comprehensive Treatment of Oligometastases (SABR-COMET )trial and supplemented with data from the literature. We estimated the effect of SABR and the standard of care (SoC) using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs were measured from a provincial payer perspective (2018 Canadian dollars). Results: In the reference case analysis (five-year time horizon), SABR was associated with additional incremental costs of CAD 38,487 and an incremental QALY gain of 0.84. This resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CAD 45,726 per QALY gained. Over a ten-year time horizon, the increased uncertainty in the long-term effectiveness of SABR resulted in an ICER of CAD 291,544 per QALY gained. Estimates from the probabilistic analysis indicated that at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of CAD 50,000 and CAD 100,000 per QALY gained, there is 54% and 78% probability (respectively) that SABR would be cost-effective using the five-year time horizon. Conclusions: The adoption of SABR therapy requires a considerable upfront capital investment. Our results suggest that the cost-effectiveness of SABR is contingent on the uncertainty in the evidence base. Further clinical trials to confirm the effectiveness of SABR and research into the real-world costs associated with this treatment could reduce the uncertainty around implementation of the technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of 12-Versus 4-Weekly Administration of Bone-Targeted Agents in Patients with Bone Metastases from Breast and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
by , , , , , , , , , , , and
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1847-1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030171 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 230
Abstract
A cost–utility analysis was performed based on the Rethinking Clinical Trials (REaCT) bone-targeted agents (BTA) clinical trial that compared 12-weekly (once every 12 weeks) (n = 130) versus 4-weekly (once every 4 weeks) (n = 133) BTA dosing for metastatic breast [...] Read more.
A cost–utility analysis was performed based on the Rethinking Clinical Trials (REaCT) bone-targeted agents (BTA) clinical trial that compared 12-weekly (once every 12 weeks) (n = 130) versus 4-weekly (once every 4 weeks) (n = 133) BTA dosing for metastatic breast and castration-resistant prostate (CRPC) cancer. Using a decision tree model, we calculated treatment and symptomatic skeletal event (SSE) costs as well as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for each treatment option. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the study findings. The total cost of BTA treatment in Canadian dollars (C$) and estimated QALYs was C$8965.03 and 0.605 QALY in the 4-weekly group versus C$5669.95 and 0.612 QALY in the 12-weekly group, respectively. De-escalation from 4-weekly to 12-weekly BTA reduces cost (C$3293.75) and improves QALYs by 0.008 unit, suggesting that 12-weekly BTA dominates 4-weekly BTA in breast and CRPC patients with bone metastases. Sensitivity analysis suggests high levels of uncertainty in the cost-effectiveness findings. De-escalation of bone-targeted agents is cost-effective from the Canadian public payer’s perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Re-Irradiation for Locally Recurrent Lung Cancer: A Single Center Retrospective Analysis
by , , , , , , , , , and
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1835-1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030170 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 211
Abstract
The treatment of locally recurrent lung cancer is a major challenge for radiation-oncologists, especially with data on high-dose reirradiation being limited to small retrospective studies. The aim of the present study is to assess overall survival (OS) for patients with locally recurrent lung [...] Read more.
The treatment of locally recurrent lung cancer is a major challenge for radiation-oncologists, especially with data on high-dose reirradiation being limited to small retrospective studies. The aim of the present study is to assess overall survival (OS) for patients with locally recurrent lung cancer after high-dose thoracic reirradiation. Thirty-nine patients who were re-irradiated for lung cancer relapse between October 2013 and February 2019 were eligible for the current retrospective analysis. All patients were re-irradiated with curative intent for in-field tumor recurrence. The diagnostic work-up included a mandatory 18F-FDG-PET-CT scan and—if possible—histological verification. The ECOG was ≤2, and the interval between initial and second radiation was at least nine months. Thirty patients (77%) had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), eight (20%) had small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and in one patient (3%) histological confirmation could not be obtained. More than half of the patients (20/39, 51%) received re-treatment with dose differentiated accelerated re-irradiation (DART) at a median interval of 20.5 months (range: 6–145.3 months) after the initial radiation course. A cumulative EQD2 of 131 Gy (range: 77–211 Gy) in a median PTV of 46 mL (range: 4–541 mL) was delivered. Patients with SCLC had a 3 mL larger median re-irradiation volume (48 mL, range: 9–541) compared to NSCLC patients (45 mL, range: 4–239). The median cumulative EQD2 delivered in SCLC patients was 84 Gy (range: 77–193 Gy), while NSCLC patients received a median cumulative EQD2 of 135 Gy (range: 98–211 Gy). The median OS was 18.4 months (range: 0.6–64 months), with tumor volume being the only predictor (p < 0.000; HR 1.007; 95%-CI: 1.003–1.012). In terms of toxicity, 17.9% acute and 2.6% late side effects were observed, with a toxicity grade >3 occurring in only one patient. Thoracic high dose reirradiation plays a significant role in prolonging survival, especially in patients with small tumor volume at recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnostic Performance of PI-RADS v2, Proposed Adjusted PI-RADS v2 and Biparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer Detection: A Preliminary Study
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1823-1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030169 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of PI-RADS v2, proposed adjustments to PI-RADS v2 (PA PI-RADS v2) and biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate cancer detection. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 224 patients with suspected prostate cancer was included from January 2016 [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of PI-RADS v2, proposed adjustments to PI-RADS v2 (PA PI-RADS v2) and biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate cancer detection. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 224 patients with suspected prostate cancer was included from January 2016 to November 2018. All the patients underwent a multi-parametric MR scan before biopsy. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MR examinations using PI-RADS v2, PA PI-RADS v2, and a biparametric MRI protocol, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the three different protocols were drawn. Results: In total, 90 out of 224 cases (40.18%) were pathologically diagnosed as prostate cancer. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) for diagnosing prostate cancers by biparametric MRI, PI-RADS v2, and PA PI-RADS v2 were 0.938, 0.935, and 0.934, respectively. For cancers in the peripheral zone (PZ), the diagnostic sensitivity was 97.1% for PI-RADS v2/PA PI-RADS v2 and 96.2% for biparametric MRI. Moreover, the specificity was 84.0% for biparametric MRI and 58.0% for PI-RADS v2/PA PI-RADS v2. For cancers in the transition zone (TZ), the diagnostic sensitivity was 93.4% for PA PI-RADS v2 and 88.2% for biparametric MRI/PI-RADS v2. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.4% for biparametric MRI/PI-RADS v2 and 78.0% for PA PI-RADS v2. Conclusions: The overall diagnostic performance of the three protocols showed minimal differences. For lesions assessed as being category 3 using the biparametric MRI protocol, PI-RADS v2, or PA PI-RADS v2, it was thought prostate cancer detection could be improved. Attention should be paid to false positive results when PI-RADS v2 or PA PI-RADS v2 are used. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current Landscape of Targeted Therapy in Hormone Receptor-Positive and HER2-Negative Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1803-1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030168 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Background: Hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer (HR + BC) is the most prevalent breast cancer. Endocrine therapy is the mainstay of treatment, however, due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, resistance to endocrine therapy is not uncommon. Over the past [...] Read more.
Background: Hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer (HR + BC) is the most prevalent breast cancer. Endocrine therapy is the mainstay of treatment, however, due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, resistance to endocrine therapy is not uncommon. Over the past decades, the emergence of novel targeted therapy in combination with endocrine therapy has shown improvement in outcomes of HR + BC. This paper reviews available data of targeted therapy and the results of pivotal clinical trials in the management of HR + BC. Methods: A literature search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed using keywords related to HR + BC and targeted therapy. Major relevant studies that were presented in international cancer research conferences were also included. Results: Endocrine therapy with tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors are backbone treatments for women with early-stage HR + BC leading to a significant reduction in mortality. They can also be used for primary prevention in women with a high risk of breast cancer. Preliminary data has shown the efficacy of adjuvant cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor, abemaciclib, in high-risk disease in combination with aromatase inhibitors. For most women with advanced HR + BC, endocrine therapy is the primary treatment. Recent evidence has shown that the use of CKD 4/6 inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, and PI3K inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapy has been associated with better outcomes and delays initiation of chemotherapy. Several novel agents are under study for HR + BC. Discussion: Targeted treatment options for HR + BC have evolved. The future of overcoming resistance to targeted therapy, novel compounds, and predictive markers are key to improving HR + BC outcomes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cost Analysis of Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection vs. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery for Rectal Neoplasms
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1795-1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030167 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Despite the increasing application of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for rectal lesions, the cost of the equipment may play a role in a hospital’s hesitancy to invest in the platform. This study compares the cost of TEM to laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR). [...] Read more.
Despite the increasing application of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for rectal lesions, the cost of the equipment may play a role in a hospital’s hesitancy to invest in the platform. This study compares the cost of TEM to laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR). Patients who underwent laparoscopic LAR (n = 24) for rectal neoplasm between 2006 and 2014 were case-matched based on sex, age, comorbidities, lesion size and location to patients who underwent TEM at a busy secondary care urban hospital. Procedure-related costs and costs associated with readmissions for complications and related subsequent surgeries in the first 3 years were calculated. There were 42 hospital admissions for 24 LAR patients, totalling 326 hospital days. For 24 TEM patients, there were 25 hospital admissions, totalling 56 hospital days. Subsequent operations for LAR patients included 2 washout and diverting ileostomies (8%), 2 adhesionolysis (8%), 4 ventral hernia repairs (16%) and 11 ileostomy reversals (46%). In the TEM group, there was one operation for recurrence (4%). The mean cost of LAR, including all related hospital costs in the subsequent 3 years, was CAD 14,851 (95% CI: CAD 10,124–19,579). The mean cost of TEM was CAD 2449 (95% CI: CAD 2133–2767; p < 0.0001), with a savings of CAD 12,402 per patient. TEM for rectal neoplasm is associated with significantly lower hospital costs, which far outweigh the costs of acquiring and maintaining the technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
Open AccessBrief Report
Leukemia Cell Lines: In Vitro Models for the Study of Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1790-1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030166 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm that is genetically characterized by the absence of both the Philadelphia chromosome and BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and the high prevalence of mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R). Additional disease-modifying mutations have been [...] Read more.
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm that is genetically characterized by the absence of both the Philadelphia chromosome and BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and the high prevalence of mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R). Additional disease-modifying mutations have been recognized in CNL samples, portraying a distinct mutational landscape. Despite the growing knowledge base on genomic aberrations, further progress could be gained from the availability of representative models of CNL. To address this gap, we screened a large panel of available leukemia cell lines, followed by a detailed mutational investigation with focus on the CNL-associated candidate driver genes. The sister cell lines CNLBC-1 and MOLM-20 were derived from a patient with CNL and carry CNL-typical molecular hallmarks, namely mutations in several genes, such as CSF3R, ASXL1, EZH2, NRAS, and SETBP1. The use of these validated and comprehensively characterized models will benefit the understanding of the pathobiology of CNL and help inform therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Urgent Cancer Care Clinic and Emergency Department Visits for Individuals Diagnosed with Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1773-1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030165 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 195
Abstract
In 2013, CancerCare Manitoba (CCMB) launched an urgent cancer care clinic (UCC) to meet the needs of individuals diagnosed with cancer experiencing acute complications of cancer or its treatment. This retrospective cohort study compared the characteristics of individuals diagnosed with cancer that visited [...] Read more.
In 2013, CancerCare Manitoba (CCMB) launched an urgent cancer care clinic (UCC) to meet the needs of individuals diagnosed with cancer experiencing acute complications of cancer or its treatment. This retrospective cohort study compared the characteristics of individuals diagnosed with cancer that visited the UCC to those who visited an emergency department (ED) and determined predictors of use. Multivariable logistic mixed models were run to predict an individual’s likelihood of visiting the UCC or an ED. Scaled Brier scores were calculated to determine how greatly each predictor impacted UCC or ED use. We found that UCC visits increased up to 4 months after eligibility to visit and then decreased. ED visits were highest immediately after eligibility and then decreased. The median number of hours between triage and discharge was 2 h for UCC visits and 9 h for ED visits. Chemotherapy had the strongest association with UCC visits, whereas ED visits prior to diagnosis had the strongest association with ED visits. Variables related to socioeconomic status were less strongly associated with UCC or ED visits. Future studies would be beneficial to planning service delivery and improving clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Activity and Safety of NAB-FOLFIRI and NAB-FOLFOX as First-Line Treatment for metastatic Pancreatic Cancer (NabucCO Study)
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1761-1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030164 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 147
Abstract
Background: Relevant improvement in first-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) was provided by FOLFIRINOX and by gemcitabine (gem) plus nab-paclitaxel (Nab-p) regimens. Regardless of the first-line treatment survival benefit, most patients survive less than 1 year. Aim: The objectives of this multicenter [...] Read more.
Background: Relevant improvement in first-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) was provided by FOLFIRINOX and by gemcitabine (gem) plus nab-paclitaxel (Nab-p) regimens. Regardless of the first-line treatment survival benefit, most patients survive less than 1 year. Aim: The objectives of this multicenter phase I/II study were to evaluate as first-line chemotherapy (CT) two modified regimens of FOLFIRINOX, replacing either oxaliplatin (Oxa) or irinotecan with Nab-p, in patients with mPC. Methods: The primary objectives of phase 1 were the definition of the dose limit binations, while for phase II they were the characterization of safety and activity of Nab-FOLFIRI and Nab-FOLFOX in mPC. Results: Sixty-three patients received Nab-FOLFIRI or Nab-FOLFOX in phase I. We defined MTD at 120 mg/m2 for Nab-p with FOLFIRI and 160 mg/m2 with FOLFOX. In phase II, we randomized 42 patients for each arm with the following results: (1) overall response rate (ORR) was 31% for both schedules; (2) a clinical benefit rate (CBR) of 69% and 71%; (3) 1-year survival was 41% and 50%; (4) progression free survival (PFS) was 6 months and 5.6 months; (5) median overall survival (OS) was 10.2 and 10.4 months for Nab-FOLFIRI and Nab-FOLFOX, respectively. (6) Neutropenia was the most common grade ≥3 adverse event in our regimens, significantly lower than that reported for the FOLFIRINOX triplet. Conclusion: Nab-FOLFIRI and Nab-FOLFOX might be hopeful first-line CT options for mPC patients, with promising activity and a good safety profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of an Augmented Reality Navigation System (SIRIO) on Bone Percutaneous Procedures: A Comparative Analysis with Standard CT-Guided Technique
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1751-1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030163 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of an augmented reality navigation system (SIRIO) for percutaneous biopsies and ablative treatments on bone lesions, compared to a standard CT-guided technique. (2) Methods: Bioptic and ablative procedures on bone lesions [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of an augmented reality navigation system (SIRIO) for percutaneous biopsies and ablative treatments on bone lesions, compared to a standard CT-guided technique. (2) Methods: Bioptic and ablative procedures on bone lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All procedures were divided into SIRIO and Non-SIRIO groups and in <2 cm and >2 cm groups. Number of CT-scans, procedural time and patient’s radiation dose were reported for each group. Diagnostic accuracy was obtained for bioptic procedures. (3) Results: One-hundred-ninety-three procedures were evaluated: 142 biopsies and 51 ablations. Seventy-four biopsy procedures were performed using SIRIO and 68 under standard CT-guidance; 27 ablative procedures were performed using SIRIO and 24 under standard CT-guidance. A statistically significant reduction in the number of CT-scans, procedural time and radiation dose was observed for percutaneous procedures performed using SIRIO, in both <2 cm and >2 cm groups. The greatest difference in all variables examined was found for procedures performed on lesions <2 cm. Higher diagnostic accuracy was found for all SIRIO-assisted biopsies. No major or minor complications occurred in any procedures. (4) Conclusions: The use of SIRIO significantly reduces the number of CT-scans, procedural time and patient’s radiation dose in CT-guided percutaneous bone procedures, particularly for lesions <2 cm. An improvement in diagnostic accuracy was also achieved in SIRIO-assisted biopsies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment of Bone Metastasis)
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Open AccessCase Report
Stereotactic Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Paraneoplastic Vasculitis in Oligometastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1744-1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030162 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Approximately 20% of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is diagnosed because of paraneoplastic manifestations. RCC has been associated with a large variety of paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), but it is rarely associated with PNS vasculitis. We present a case of a previously healthy male who [...] Read more.
Approximately 20% of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is diagnosed because of paraneoplastic manifestations. RCC has been associated with a large variety of paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), but it is rarely associated with PNS vasculitis. We present a case of a previously healthy male who presented with systemic vasculitis; bitemporal headaches, diplopia, polyarthritis, palpable purpura, tongue lesion, peri-orbital edema, scleritis, chondritis and constitutional symptoms. He was subsequently found to have oligometastatic RCC. Both his primary lesion and site of oligometastasis were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) and resulted in the resolution of his vasculitis, as well as sustained oncologic response. This is the first case to demonstrate that effective sustained treatment for PNS vasculitis due to oligometastatic RCC is possible with SBRT. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cancer Screening Interventions in Indigenous Populations: A Rapid Review
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1728-1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030161 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Cancer screening is an important component of a cancer control strategy. Indigenous people in Canada have higher incidence rates for many types of cancer, including those that can be detected early or prevented through organized screening programs. Increased participation and retention in cancer [...] Read more.
Cancer screening is an important component of a cancer control strategy. Indigenous people in Canada have higher incidence rates for many types of cancer, including those that can be detected early or prevented through organized screening programs. Increased participation and retention in cancer screening is critical to improved population health outcomes amongst Indigenous people. This rapid review evaluates cancer screening interventions published in the last six years. Included studies demonstrated increased participation in breast, colorectal, or cervical cancer screening programs in Indigenous populations or showed promise of increased participation based on the factors that influence people’s screening practices, such as knowledge, attitude, or intent to screen. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guided the search strategy. The review identified 85 articles with 12 meeting the specified criteria: seven studies reported an increase in cancer screening participation and five studies reported improved knowledge, attitude, or intent to screen. The use of multiple culturally appropriate strategies in co-designed studies were the most effective. This review will be used to inform First Nations (FN) populations and Screening Programs in Alberta of potential strategies to address disparities identified through a recent data analysis comparing cancer screening and outcomes between FN and non-FN people. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Malignant Skin Cancer Excision in Combined Therapy with Electro-Chemotherapy and Dermal Substitute
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1718-1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030160 (registering DOI) - 05 May 2021
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common malignancy skin cancer. It is characterized by abnormal, accelerated growth of squamous cells (SCs). SCC occurs when DNA damage from exposure to ultraviolet radiation or other damaging agents trigger abnormal changes in the SCs, [...] Read more.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common malignancy skin cancer. It is characterized by abnormal, accelerated growth of squamous cells (SCs). SCC occurs when DNA damage from exposure to ultraviolet radiation or other damaging agents trigger abnormal changes in the SCs, presenting as painless lesions on areas of high sun exposure, such as the dorsum of the hand and upper extremity. For most skin SCC, the surgical excision alone is standard practice. However, recent efforts in new treatment strategies have involved around adjuvant or concomitant electrochemotherapy (ECT). ECT is a non-thermal tumor ablation modality, safe and effective on any type of solid tumor. An 87-year-old patient affected by hand SCC with invasion of deep structures including tendons was treated with neoadjuvant intra-tumoral ECT sessions followed by a selective surgical removal and reconstruction of the substance loss with collagen dermal template (CDT). Two neoadjuvant intra-tumoral ECT procedures, at distance of 3 months, with the aim to reduce the tumor size before a selective surgery, were performed. This study shows that combined surgical selective excision with ECT and CDT is a valid technique for the extended-deep dorsal hand tumor lesions reconstruction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Time Trends Analysis of Cervical Cancer Incidence in Cluj County, Romania, Using Data from a Population-Based Cancer Registry
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1706-1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030159 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
(1) Background: Romania has one of the highest cervical cancer incidence rates in Europe. In Cluj County, the first screening program was initiated in 1998. We aimed to investigate the time trends of cervical cancer incidence in women from Cluj County and to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Romania has one of the highest cervical cancer incidence rates in Europe. In Cluj County, the first screening program was initiated in 1998. We aimed to investigate the time trends of cervical cancer incidence in women from Cluj County and to evaluate the data quality at the Cancer Registry. (2) Methods: We calculated time trends of standardized incidence rates in the period 1998–2014 and the Annual Percent Change (APC%). To assess data quality, we used the indicators: mortality/incidence ratio (M/I), percentage of cases declared only at death (DOD%), and percentage of cases with pathological confirmation (PC%). (3) Results: The standardized incidence rate increased steadily, from 23.74 cases/100,000 in 1998, to 32/100,000 in 2014, with an APC% of 2.49% (p < 0.05). The rise in incidence affected both squamous cell carcinoma (APC% 2.49%) (p < 0.05) and cervical adenocarcinoma (APC% 10.54%) (p < 0.05). The M/I ratio was 0.29, DOD% 2.66%, and MC% 94.8%. The last two parameters are within the silver standard concerning data quality. (4) Conclusions. Our study revealed an ascending trend of cervical cancer incidence, more consistent for adenocarcinoma, in the context of a newly introduced screening program and partially due to the improvement of the quality of case reporting at the Cancer Registry from Cluj. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with “Survivor Identity” in Men with Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1696-1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030158 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Cancer patients vary in their comfort with the label “survivor”. Here, we explore how comfortable males with breast cancer (BC) are about accepting the label cancer “survivor”. Separate univariate logistic regressions were performed to assess whether time since diagnosis, age, treatment status, and [...] Read more.
Cancer patients vary in their comfort with the label “survivor”. Here, we explore how comfortable males with breast cancer (BC) are about accepting the label cancer “survivor”. Separate univariate logistic regressions were performed to assess whether time since diagnosis, age, treatment status, and cancer stage were associated with comfort with the “survivor” label. Of the 70 males treated for BC who participated in the study, 58% moderately-to-strongly liked the term “survivor”, 26% were neutral, and 16% moderately-to-strongly disliked the term. Of the factors we explored, only a longer time since diagnosis was significantly associated with the men endorsing a survivor identity (OR = 1.02, p = 0.05). We discuss how our findings compare with literature reports on the comfort with the label “survivor” for women with BC and men with prostate cancer. Unlike males with prostate cancer, males with BC identify as “survivors” in line with women with BC. This suggests that survivor identity is more influenced by disease type and treatments received than with sex/gender identities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Health Resource and Cost Savings Achieved in a Multidisciplinary Lung Cancer Clinic
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1681-1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030157 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Background: Lung cancer (LC) care is resource and cost intensive. We launched a Multidisciplinary LC Clinic (MDC), where patients with a new LC diagnosis received concurrent oncology consultation, resulting in improved time to LC assessment and treatment. Here, we evaluate the impact [...] Read more.
Background: Lung cancer (LC) care is resource and cost intensive. We launched a Multidisciplinary LC Clinic (MDC), where patients with a new LC diagnosis received concurrent oncology consultation, resulting in improved time to LC assessment and treatment. Here, we evaluate the impact of MDC on health resource utilization, patient and caregiver costs, and secondary patient benefits. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients in a rapid assessment clinic with a new LC diagnosis pre-MDC (September 2016–February 2017) and post-MDC implementation (February 2017–December 2018). Data are reported as means; unpaired t-tests and ANOVA were used to assess for significance. We also conducted a cost analysis. Resource utilization, out-of-pocket costs, procedure-related costs, and indirect costs were evaluated from the societal perspective and presented in 2019 Canadian dollars (CAD); multi-way worst/best case and threshold sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results: We reviewed 428 patients (78 traditional model, 350 MDC). Patients in the MDC model required significantly fewer oncology visits from LC diagnosis to first LC treatment (1.62 vs. 2.68, p < 0.001), which was significant for patients with stage 1, 3, and 4 disease. Compared with the traditional model, there was no change in mean biopsies/patient (1.32 traditional vs. 1.17 MDC, p = 0.18) or staging investigations/patient (2.24 traditional vs. 2.02 MDC, p = 0.20). Post-MDC, there was an increase in invasive mediastinal staging for patients with stage 2/3 LC (15.0% vs. 60.0%, p < 0.001). Over 22 months, MDC resulted in savings of CAD 48,389 including CAD 24,167 CAD in direct patient out-of-pocket expenses. For the threshold analyses, MDC was estimated to cost CAD 25,708 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), considered to be below current willingness to pay thresholds (at CAD 80,000 per QALY). MDC also facilitated oncology assessment for 29 non-LC patients. Conclusions: An MDC led to a reduction in patient visits and direct patient and caregiver costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
Open AccessArticle
Distinct Outcomes of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients after Distant Failure According to p16 Status: Implication in Therapeutic Options
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1673-1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030156 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Introduction: Recent modifications in the epidemiology of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have led to the increase of Human papillomavirus (HPV) related metastatic head and neck cancer patients with high life expectancy even at advanced stage, low comorbidity and still restricted systemic therapy [...] Read more.
Introduction: Recent modifications in the epidemiology of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have led to the increase of Human papillomavirus (HPV) related metastatic head and neck cancer patients with high life expectancy even at advanced stage, low comorbidity and still restricted systemic therapy opportunities. In the recent era of ablative therapies’ development, oligometastatic HPV OSCC patients are indubitably good candidates for intensified treatment. However, data related to outcomes after optimised management of metastatic sites are dramatically missing. Materials and patients: In our cohort of 186 unselected consecutive OSCC patients treated with curative intent at our institution between 2009 and 2013, we analysed the incidence, treatment and outcomes of distant metastatic (DM) failure according to p16 status. Results: After a median follow-up of 4.2 years (95% CI: 3.8–4.4) from primary diagnosis of OSCC, 21/95 p16− patients (22.1%) vs. 8/91 (8.8%) p16+ patients presented DM failure with a median interval of 11 (range 0–46) and 28 months (range 0–71), respectively (p = 0.10). Overall survival (OS) after DM failure was significantly higher in p16+ patients with a two-year OS rate of 75% and 15% for p16+ and p16−, respectively (p = 0.002). In eight HPV-related metastatic patients, three underwent ablative lung metastasis treatment and are still complete responders four to five years later. Conclusion: This study highlights distinct outcomes of metastatic HPV-related OSCC patients emphasised by three long-term complete responders after lung ablative treatment. In patients with high life expectancy and limited tumour burden, the question of ablative treatment such as metastasectomy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SBRT) should be addressed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Significance of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy as Primary Treatment in Patients with Metastatic Cervical Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1663-1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030155 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 277
Abstract
(1) This study investigated the prognostic impact of tumor size in patients with metastatic cervical cancer. (2) Methods: Seventy-three cervical cancer patients in our institute were stratified into two groups based on distant metastasis: para-aortic lymph node metastasis alone (IIIC2) or spread to [...] Read more.
(1) This study investigated the prognostic impact of tumor size in patients with metastatic cervical cancer. (2) Methods: Seventy-three cervical cancer patients in our institute were stratified into two groups based on distant metastasis: para-aortic lymph node metastasis alone (IIIC2) or spread to distant visceral organs with or without para-aortic lymph node metastasis (IVB) to identify primary tumor size and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. (3) Results: The overall survival (OS) for patients with a tumor >6.9 cm in size was significantly poorer than that for patients with a tumor ≤6.9 cm in the IVB group (p = 0.0028); the corresponding five-year OS rates in patients with a tumor ≤6.9 and >6.9 cm were 53.3% and 13.4%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, tumor size and primary treatment were significantly associated with survival in metastatic cervical cancer. (4) Conclusions: Tumor size ≤6.9 cm and concurrent chemoradiotherapy as the primary treatment were favorable prognostic factors for patients with metastatic cervical cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Prognostic Impact of APOBEC3B Expression in Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma and Its Association with Tumor-Infiltrating Cytotoxic T Cells
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1652-1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030154 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
APOBEC3B enzymes are endogenous carcinogenic mutagens. Metastatic urothelial carcinomas often harbor APOBEC3B-mediated mutations in which tCw to T or G substitution occurs. Here, we evaluated patient survival and CD8+ T-cell density according to APOBEC3B expression in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who underwent [...] Read more.
APOBEC3B enzymes are endogenous carcinogenic mutagens. Metastatic urothelial carcinomas often harbor APOBEC3B-mediated mutations in which tCw to T or G substitution occurs. Here, we evaluated patient survival and CD8+ T-cell density according to APOBEC3B expression in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective study on 94 patients with urothelial carcinoma who were treated with first line palliative chemotherapy. APOBEC3B expression and CD8+/CD3+ ratio of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were generated and the log-rank test was employed. The association between APOBEC3B expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was analyzed using Pearson’s chi-squared test. High APOBEC3B expression was detected in 71 of the 94 patients (75.5%). The median overall survival was longer in patients with high APOBEC3B expression (15 months) than in those with low expression (p = 0.045). The hazard ratio obtained based on the Cox regression analysis was 0.292 (95% confidence interval 0.118–0.723, p = 0.008). APOBEC3B expression was associated with the CD8+/CD3+ ratio (2.914, 95% confidence interval 1.030–8.249, p = 0.039). Collectively, APOBEC3B expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells were associated with APOBEC3B expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Trajectory of End-of-Life Pain and Other Physical Symptoms among Cancer Patients Receiving Home Care
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1641-1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030153 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Purpose: To describe the trajectory of physical symptoms among cancer decedents who were receiving home care in the six months before death. Patients and Methods: An observational cohort study of cancer decedents in Ontario, Canada, who received home care services between 2007 and [...] Read more.
Purpose: To describe the trajectory of physical symptoms among cancer decedents who were receiving home care in the six months before death. Patients and Methods: An observational cohort study of cancer decedents in Ontario, Canada, who received home care services between 2007 and 2014. To be included, decedents had to use at least one home care service in the last six months of life. Outcomes were the presence of pain and several other physical symptoms at each week before death. Results: Our cohort included 27,295 cancer decedents (30,368 assessments). Forty-seven percent were female and 56% were age 75 years or older. The prevalence of all physical symptoms increased as one approached death, particularly in the last month of life. In the last weeks of life, 69% of patients reported having moderate–severe pain; however, only 20% reported that the pain was not controlled. Loss of appetite (63%), shortness of breath (59%), high health instability (50%), and self-reported poor health (44%) were also highly prevalent in the last week of life. Multivariate regression showed that caregiver distress, high health instability, social decline, uncontrolled pain, and signs of depression all worsened the odds of having a physical symptom in the last 3 months of life. Conclusion: In this large home care cancer cohort, trajectories of physical symptoms worsened close to death. While presence of moderate–severe pain was common, it was also reported as mostly controlled. Covariates, such as caregiver distress and social decline, were associated with having more physical symptoms at end of life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Early Reassessment of Total Metabolic Tumor Volume on FDG-PET/CT in Advanced Melanoma Patients Treated with Pembrolizumab Predicts Long-Term Outcome
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1630-1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030152 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
PD-1 Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as Pembrolizumab, can have a durable beneficial therapeutic effect in patients with advanced melanoma. However, not all patients will benefit equally from these therapies, and (potentially life-threatening) immune-related adverse events may occur. In this study, we investigate the [...] Read more.
PD-1 Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as Pembrolizumab, can have a durable beneficial therapeutic effect in patients with advanced melanoma. However, not all patients will benefit equally from these therapies, and (potentially life-threatening) immune-related adverse events may occur. In this study, we investigate the value of early response assessment by FDG-PET/CT as a biomarker for predicting survival. We identified all patients with advanced melanoma who were treated with Pembrolizumab in our medical center and underwent a baseline and at least one follow-up FDG-PET/CT. The total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) was calculated, and the evolution was compared to survival parameters. A total of 77 patients underwent a baseline and at least one follow-up FDG-PET/CT, 36 patients had follow-up imaging within 2–4 months, and 21 patients an FDG-PET/CT 5–6 months after baseline. When the TMTV evolution was categorized into two subgroups (stable/decrease versus increase), an association was found between stability or decrease in TMTV and better PFS and OS. A similar trend, however non-significant, was observed at 5–6 months. The evolution in TMTV as assessed by FDG-PET/CT 2–4 months after treatment initiation is associated with long-term outcomes in patients with advanced melanoma treated with Pembrolizumab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
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Open AccessPerspective
A Canadian Perspective on the Challenges for Delivery of Curative-Intent Therapy in Stage III Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1618-1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030151 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprises a highly heterogenous group of patients with regards to patient fitness and tumour size and distribution, resulting in a wide range of treatment goals and therapy options. Curative-intent multimodality treatment should be considered in all [...] Read more.
Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprises a highly heterogenous group of patients with regards to patient fitness and tumour size and distribution, resulting in a wide range of treatment goals and therapy options. Curative-intent multimodality treatment should be considered in all patients with stage III NSCLC. For patients with unresectable disease who are fit, have adequate lung function, and have a disease that can be encompassed within a radical radiation volume, concurrent chemoradiation therapy (cCRT) is the standard of care and can produce cure rates of 20–30%. Recently, consolidation immunotherapy with durvalumab has been recognized as the standard of care following cCRT based on significant improvement rates in overall survival at 4 years. The large heterogeneity of the stage III NSCLC population, along with the need for extensive staging procedures, multidisciplinary care, intensive cCRT, and now consolidation therapy makes the delivery of timely and optimal treatment for these patients complex. Several logistical, communication, and education factors hinder the delivery of guideline-recommended care to patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC. This commentary discusses the potential challenges patients may encounter at different points along their care pathway that can interfere with delivery of curative-intent therapy and suggests strategies for improving care delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
Open AccessArticle
HER2 Positive and HER2 Negative Classical Type Invasive Lobular Carcinomas: Comparison of Clinicopathologic Features
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1608-1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030150 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive (+) classical type invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) of the breast is extremely rare and its clinicopathologic features have not been well characterized. We compared features of HER2(+) and HER2 negative (−) cILCs. A total of [...] Read more.
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive (+) classical type invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) of the breast is extremely rare and its clinicopathologic features have not been well characterized. We compared features of HER2(+) and HER2 negative (−) cILCs. A total of 29 cases were identified from the clinical database at our institution from 2011-2019; 9 were HER2(+) cILC tumors and 20 were HER2(−) cILC tumors. The results reveal that HER2(+) cILC group had significantly increased Ki-67 expression and reduced estrogen receptor (ER) expression compared to HER2(−) cILC group (both p < 0.05). In addition, HER2(+) cILCs tended to be diagnosed at a younger age and more common in the left breast, and appeared to have a higher frequency of nodal or distant metastases. These clinicopathologic features suggest HER2(+) cILC tumors may have more aggressive behavior than their HER2(−) counterpart although both groups of tumors showed similar morphologic features. Future directions of the study: (1) To conduct a multi-institutional study with a larger case series of HER2(+) cILC to further characterize its clinicopathologic features; (2) to compare molecular profiles by next generation sequencing (NGS) assay between HER2(+) cILC and HER2(−) cILC cases to better understand tumor biology of this rare subset of HER2(+) breast cancer; and (3) to compare molecular characteristics of HER2(+) cILC and HER2(+) high grade breast cancer in conjunction with status of tumor response to anti-HER2 therapy to provide insight to management of this special type of low grade breast cancer to avoid unnecessary treatment and related toxicity Full article
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Open AccessReview
Artificial Intelligence in Colorectal Cancer Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment. A New Era
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1581-1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030149 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 667
Abstract
The development of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms has permeated the medical field with great success. The widespread use of AI technology in diagnosing and treating several types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer (CRC), is now attracting substantial attention. CRC, which represents the third [...] Read more.
The development of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms has permeated the medical field with great success. The widespread use of AI technology in diagnosing and treating several types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer (CRC), is now attracting substantial attention. CRC, which represents the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy in both men and women, is considered a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Our review herein aims to provide in-depth knowledge and analysis of the AI applications in CRC screening, diagnosis, and treatment based on current literature. We also explore the role of recent advances in AI systems regarding medical diagnosis and therapy, with several promising results. CRC is a highly preventable disease, and AI-assisted techniques in routine screening represent a pivotal step in declining incidence rates of this malignancy. So far, computer-aided detection and characterization systems have been developed to increase the detection rate of adenomas. Furthermore, CRC treatment enters a new era with robotic surgery and novel computer-assisted drug delivery techniques. At the same time, healthcare is rapidly moving toward precision or personalized medicine. Machine learning models have the potential to contribute to individual-based cancer care and transform the future of medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Real World Clinical Experience of Biosimilar G-CSF (Grastofil) for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization: Single Center Experience in Canada Following Early Adoption
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1571-1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030148 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Introduction: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the first line treatment for mobilization, most commonly using a regimen of daily filgrastim. The use of biosimilars can provide substantial cost savings to the health care system while delivering comparable efficacy outcomes. In 2016, the Saskatchewan [...] Read more.
Introduction: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the first line treatment for mobilization, most commonly using a regimen of daily filgrastim. The use of biosimilars can provide substantial cost savings to the health care system while delivering comparable efficacy outcomes. In 2016, the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency was a leader in Canada, instituting formulary changed from a G-CSF originator product to a cost savings alternative biosimilar for stem cell mobilization prior to autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) and for engraftment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical comparability of biosimilar G-CSF to its reference product in a real-world clinical setting and to validate use of the biosimilar in mobilization and engraftment—an indication which had been granted by extrapolation. Methods: A retrospective chart review was completed including all patients diagnosed with a hematological malignancy between 2012 and 2018 who underwent ASCT. To assess real-world outcomes across a diverse population, successful CD34+ stem cell collection was compared between patients mobilized with originator filgrastim, Neupogen, and biosimilar filgrastim, Grastofil. Additional comparisons included the number of apheresis required, time to absolute neutrophil count (ANC) engraftment, platelet engraftment, length of hospital stay, and Plerixafor use. Results: 217 patients were mobilized and transplanted during the study period. There was no statistically significant difference in success rate between patients mobilized with biosimilar filgrastim and those who had received originator G-CSF (100% vs. 92.4%, p = 0.075). Neither disease type, nor concurrent chemomobilization regimen resulted in a detectable difference between the two G-CSF products in successful stem cell harvest. Engraftment was highly similar between groups, as demonstrated by ANC recovery (11.6 days Neupogen vs. 11.6 days Grastofil), platelet recovery (14.0 days Neupogen vs. 14.2 days Grastofil), and total length of hospital stay (22.4 days Neupogen vs. 22.3 days Grastofil). No statistically significant difference in adjunctive use of Plerixafor® was observed between Neupogen and Grastofil patients (25.9% vs. 23.4%, p = 0.72). Conclusion: Extrapolation of indications for biosimilars is justified. This real-world evidence builds upon registrational studies to confirm that no clinically meaningful differences were detected between originator Neupogen and biosimilar Grastofil in the setting of PBSC mobilization and engraftment post ASCT. Biosimilars are as safe and effective as originator products. Implementation across all approved indications without hesitation maximizes cost savings to the provincial system, allowing for more optimal allocation of health care resources. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Canadian Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines: Do They Need an Update Given Changing Incidence and Global Practice Patterns?
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(3), 1558-1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030147 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in Canada. Organized screening programs targeting Canadians aged 50 to 74 at average risk of developing the disease have contributed to decreased rates of CRC, improved [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in Canada. Organized screening programs targeting Canadians aged 50 to 74 at average risk of developing the disease have contributed to decreased rates of CRC, improved patient outcomes and reduced healthcare costs. However, data shows that recent incidence reductions are unique to the screening-age population, while rates in people under-50 are on the rise. Similar incidence patterns in the United States prompted the American Cancer Society and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force to recommend screening begin at age 45 rather than 50. We conducted a review of screening practices in Canada, framing them in the context of similar global health systems as well as the evidence supporting the recent U.S. recommendations. Epidemiologic changes in Canada suggest earlier screening initiation in average-risk individuals may be reasonable, but the balance of costs to benefits remains unclear. Full article
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