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Curr. Oncol., Volume 28, Issue 1 (February 2021) – 98 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, largely due to late stage at diagnosis. Approximately 70% of lung cancer patients in Canada are diagnosed with late-stage disease, emphasizing a need to detect lung cancer earlier. International literature has shown long diagnostic delays in primary care; however, in Canada, little is known about how lung cancer patients move through primary care to get to a respiratory specialist for definitive diagnosis. In this issue, authors identify and describe common lung cancer diagnostic pathways in primary care from first presentation to specialist referral and suggest sources of diagnostic delay combined with potential improvement strategies. View this paper.
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Article
Medical and Nonmedical Information during Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in Cancer Care
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 1008-1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010098 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Background: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings provide treatment recommendations based on available information and collective decision-making in teams with complementary professions, disciplines and skills. We aimed to map ancillary medical and nonmedical patient information during case presentations and case discussions in MDT meetings in [...] Read more.
Background: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings provide treatment recommendations based on available information and collective decision-making in teams with complementary professions, disciplines and skills. We aimed to map ancillary medical and nonmedical patient information during case presentations and case discussions in MDT meetings in cancer care. Methods: Through a nonparticipant, observational approach, we mapped verbal information on medical, nonmedical and patient-related characteristics and classified these based on content. Data were collected from 336 case discussions in three MDTs for neuro-oncology, sarcoma and hepato-biliary cancer. Results: Information on physical status was presented in 48.2% of the case discussions, psychological status in 8.9% and comorbidity in 48.5% of the cases. Nonmedical factors, such as family relations, occupation, country of origin and abode were referred to in 3.6–7.7% of the cases, and patient preferences were reported in 4.2%. Conclusions: Provision of information on comorbidities in half of the cases and on patient characteristics and treatment preferences in <10% of case discussions suggest a need to define data elements and develop reporting standards to support robust MDT decision-making. Full article
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Article
Evolution of Public Health Human Papillomavirus Immunization Programs in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 991-1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010097 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
Background: Since 2007, all Canadian provinces and territories have had a publicly funded program for vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of these vaccination programs. Methods: This was a targeted literature [...] Read more.
Background: Since 2007, all Canadian provinces and territories have had a publicly funded program for vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of these vaccination programs. Methods: This was a targeted literature review of public HPV vaccination programs and vaccination coverage rates, based on information provided by jurisdictional public health authorities. Results: HPV vaccination of schoolgirls began in school years 2007/08 to 2010/11 with three doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in all provinces except Quebec, which started with two doses. By 2018/19, all jurisdictions were vaccinating with two doses of the nonavalent vaccine in both girls and boys, except Quebec, which used a mixed vaccination schedule with one dose of the nonavalent and one dose of the bivalent vaccines. Public HPV vaccination programs in most provinces include after-school catch-up vaccination. Immunocompromised or other high-risk individuals are eligible for the HPV public vaccination program in most provinces, but policies vary by jurisdiction. In 2017/18, vaccination coverage rates in provincial HPV school-based programs varied from 62% in Ontario to 86% in Prince Edward Island in girls and from 58% in Ontario to 86% in Prince Edward Island in boys. Conclusions: Since their introduction, Canadian school-based HPV public vaccination programs have evolved from a three-dose to a two-dose schedule, from a quadrivalent to a nonavalent vaccine, and from a girls-only to a gender-neutral policy. Vaccination coverage rates have varied markedly and only Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland/Labrador have maintained rates exceeding 80%. Full article
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Article
Incidence and Mortality of Prostate Cancer in Canada during 1992–2010
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 978-990; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010096 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
In Canada, prostate cancer is the most common reportable malignancy in men. We assessed the temporal trends of prostate cancer to gain insight into the geographic incidence and mortality trends of this disease. Three independent population-based cancer registries were used to retrospectively analyze [...] Read more.
In Canada, prostate cancer is the most common reportable malignancy in men. We assessed the temporal trends of prostate cancer to gain insight into the geographic incidence and mortality trends of this disease. Three independent population-based cancer registries were used to retrospectively analyze demographic data on Canadian men diagnosed with prostate cancer and men who died of prostate cancer between the years of 1992 and 2010. The incidence and mortality rates were calculated at the provincial, city, and forward sortation area (FSA) postal code levels by using population counts that were obtained from the Canadian Census of Population. The Canadian average incidence rate was 113.57 cases per 100,000 males. There has been an overall increasing trend in crude prostate cancer incidence between 1992 and 2010 with three peaks, in 1993, 2001, and 2007. However, age-adjusted incidence rates showed no significant increase over time. The national mortality rate was calculated to be 24.13 deaths per 100,000 males per year. A decrease was noted in crude and age-adjusted mortality rates between 1992 and 2010. Several provinces, cities, and FSAs had higher incidence/mortality rates than the national average. Several of the FSA postal codes with the highest incidence/mortality rates were adjacent to one another. Several Canadian regions of high incidence for prostate cancer have been identified through this study and temporal trends are consistent with those reported in the literature. These results will serve as a foundation for future studies that will seek to identify new regional risk factors and etiologic agents. Full article
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Article
Predictors of Complete Response in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Trans-Arterial Radioembolization
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 965-977; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010095 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Background: Trans-arterial radioembolization (TARE) has shown promising results in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We identified independent predictors of radiological complete response (CR) in patients with intrahepatic HCC who were treated with TARE. Methods: Patients with intrahepatic HCC treated with TARE between 2011 and [...] Read more.
Background: Trans-arterial radioembolization (TARE) has shown promising results in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We identified independent predictors of radiological complete response (CR) in patients with intrahepatic HCC who were treated with TARE. Methods: Patients with intrahepatic HCC treated with TARE between 2011 and 2017 were recruited. CR was defined according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Cox regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of CR. Results: The median age of study participants (83 men and 19 women) was 64.3 years. The mean survival after TARE was 55.5 months, and 21 (20.6%) patients died during the study period. Patients who achieved CR (14 patients, 13.7%) had significantly higher serum albumin level (median 4.1 vs. 3.9 g/dL), lower total bilirubin level (median 0.6 vs. 0.7 mg/dL), lower aspartate aminotransferase level (median 30.0 vs. 43.0 IU/L), lower alkaline phosphatase level (median 79.0 vs. 103.0 IU/L), lower alpha-fetoprotein level (median 12.7 vs. 39.9 ng/mL), lower des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin level (median 575.5 vs. 2772.0 mAU/mL), lower model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (median 6.0 vs. 7.0), and smaller maximal tumor diameter (median 6.3 vs. 9.0 cm) compared to those who did not achieve CR (all p < 0.005). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that lower MELD score (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.436, p = 0.015) and maximal tumor size < 9 cm (HR = 11.180, p = 0.020) were independent predictors of an increased probability of radiological CR after TARE. Conclusions: Low MELD score and small maximal tumor size were independently associated with an increased probability of CR after TARE in patients with intrahepatic HCC. Full article
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Case Report
Not COVID-19, Don’t Overlook Pneumocystis in Patients on Gefitinib!
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 961-964; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010094 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
An 82-year-old woman treated for advanced lung cancer with gefitinb was admitted to the emergency unit complaining of dyspnea. Chest computed tomography found abnormalities classified as possible diffuse COVID-19 pneumonia. RT-PCR for Sars-Cov-2 was twice negative. PCR for Pneumocystis jirovecii was positive on [...] Read more.
An 82-year-old woman treated for advanced lung cancer with gefitinb was admitted to the emergency unit complaining of dyspnea. Chest computed tomography found abnormalities classified as possible diffuse COVID-19 pneumonia. RT-PCR for Sars-Cov-2 was twice negative. PCR for Pneumocystis jirovecii was positive on bronchoalveolar lavage. The final diagnosis was Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Therefore, physicians must be careful not to misdiagnose COVID-19, especially in cancer patients on small-molecule therapeutics like gefitinib and corticosteroids. Full article
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Article
A Critical Appraisal of Evidence- and Consensus-Based Guidelines for Actinic Keratosis
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 950-960; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010093 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Actinic keratoses (AK) are common lesions of the skin that can be effectively treated with several lesion- and field-directed treatments. Clinical practice guidelines assist physicians in choosing the appropriate treatment options for their patients. Here, we aimed to systematically identify and evaluate the [...] Read more.
Actinic keratoses (AK) are common lesions of the skin that can be effectively treated with several lesion- and field-directed treatments. Clinical practice guidelines assist physicians in choosing the appropriate treatment options for their patients. Here, we aimed to systematically identify and evaluate the methodological quality of currently available guidelines for AK. Guidelines published within the last 5 years were identified in a systematic search of guideline databases, Medline and Embase. Then, six independent reviewers evaluated the methodological quality using the tools “Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation” (AGREE II) and “Recommendation EXcellence” (AGREE-REX). The Kruskal–Wallis (H) test was used to explore differences among subgroups and Spearman’s correlation to examine the relationship between individual domains. Three guidelines developed by consortia from Canada, Germany and the United Kingdom were eligible for the evaluation. The German guideline achieved the highest scores, fulfilling 65 to 92% of the criteria in AGREE II and 67 to 84% in AGREE-REX, whereas the Canadian guideline scored 31 to 71% of the criteria in AGREE II and 33 to 46% in AGREE-REX. The domains “stakeholder involvement“ and “values and preferences“ were identified as methodological weaknesses requiring particular attention and improvement in future guideline efforts. Full article
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Article
Thoracic Surgeon Impressions of the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Lung Cancer Care—Lessons from the First Wave in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 940-949; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010092 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
Background: COVID-19 has invariably changed the way lung cancer surgical care is provided in Canada. Despite relevant management guidelines, the way in which cancer care has been affected has yet to be described for thoracic surgical populations. Routine lung cancer physiologic and staging [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-19 has invariably changed the way lung cancer surgical care is provided in Canada. Despite relevant management guidelines, the way in which cancer care has been affected has yet to be described for thoracic surgical populations. Routine lung cancer physiologic and staging assessments are unique in that they are droplet producing and aerosolizing procedures. Our objective was to quantify the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgical lung cancer care as perceived by practicing thoracic surgeons during the first wave of the pandemic in Canada. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed to members of the Canadian Association of Thoracic Surgeons. The survey was designed to determine surgeon perception of lung cancer preoperative care during the Canadian pandemic-instilled period of resource reallocation compared to standard care. Planned analyses were exploratory in nature; with count and frequency distributions of responses quantified. Results: Fifty-three thoracic surgeons completed the survey. Responses were collected from all Canadian provinces. Little change in access to preoperative imaging was noted. However, a significant decrease in access to lung function and bronchoscopy testing occurred. Pulmonary surgery was perceived to be lengthier with reduced operating theater availability. Despite decreased OR access, only 40% of surgeons were aware of respective institutional mitigation strategies. Summary: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on standard lung cancer care preoperative workup. Further inquiry using institutional data is warranted to quantify its impact on cancer patient outcomes. Assessing the extent and effects of newly present barriers to standard lung cancer care is essential in forming appropriate mitigation strategies and planning for future pandemic waves. Full article
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Article
A Histone Acetylation Modulator Gene Signature for Classification and Prognosis of Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 928-939; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010091 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Regulators of histone acetylation are promising epigenetic targets for therapy in breast cancer. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the expression of histone acetylation modulator genes in breast cancer using TCGA data sources. A gene signature composed of eight histone acetylation modulators (HAMs) [...] Read more.
Regulators of histone acetylation are promising epigenetic targets for therapy in breast cancer. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the expression of histone acetylation modulator genes in breast cancer using TCGA data sources. A gene signature composed of eight histone acetylation modulators (HAMs) was found to be effective for the classification and prognosis of breast cancers, especially in the HER2-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The eight genes consist of two histone acetylation writers (GTF3C4 and CLOCK), two erasers (HDAC2 and SIRT7) and four readers (BRD4, BRD7, SP100, and BRWD3). Both histone acetylation writer genes and eraser genes were found to be differentially expressed between the two groups indicating a close relationship exists between overall histone acetylation level and prognosis of breast cancer in HER2-enriched and basal-like breast cancer. Full article
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Case Report
Primary Signet Ring Cell/Histiocytoid Carcinoma of the Eyelid: Somatic Mutations in CDH1 and Other Clinically Actionable Mutations Imply Early Use of Targeted Agents
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 918-927; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010090 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Primary signet ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid is a rare ocular malignancy and its diagnosis is often delayed. This neoplasm presents as an insidious, diffusely infiltrative mass in the periocular area that later infiltrates the orbit. An exenteration is usually indicated; however, [...] Read more.
Primary signet ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid is a rare ocular malignancy and its diagnosis is often delayed. This neoplasm presents as an insidious, diffusely infiltrative mass in the periocular area that later infiltrates the orbit. An exenteration is usually indicated; however, nearly one-third of patients develop local recurrence or metastasis. Morphologically, it resembles signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and breast, raising the possibility of mutations in CDH1, the gene encoding E-cadherin. To determine whether primary signet ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma harbors the CDH1 mutation or other actionable mutations, we analyzed the tumor tissue via next-generation sequencing. We identified only one case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the eyelid with adequate DNA quality for sequencing from the pathological archive during the period 2000 to 2020. A comprehensive evaluation including histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and next-generation sequencing assay was performed on tumor tissue. Immunohistochemically, the tumor exhibited E-cadherin membranous staining with the aberrant cytoplasmic staining of β-catenin. Using next-generation sequencing, we demonstrated the mutation in the CDH1 gene. In addition, other clinically actionable mutations including ERBB2 and PIK3CA were also detected. The alterations in other actionable genes indicate a need for larger studies to evaluate the pathogenesis and potential therapies for primary signet ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid. Full article
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Article
Total Body Irradiation for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: What Can We Agree on?
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 903-917; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010089 - 14 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Total body irradiation (TBI), used as part of the conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation, is the delivery of a relatively homogeneous dose of radiation to the entire body. TBI has a dual role, being cytotoxic and immunosuppressive. This [...] Read more.
Total body irradiation (TBI), used as part of the conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation, is the delivery of a relatively homogeneous dose of radiation to the entire body. TBI has a dual role, being cytotoxic and immunosuppressive. This allows it to eliminate disease and create “space” in the marrow while also impairing the immune system from rejecting the foreign donor cells being transplanted. Advantages that TBI may have over chemotherapy alone are that it may achieve greater tumour cytotoxicity and better tissue penetration than chemotherapy as its delivery is independent of vascular supply and physiologic barriers such as renal and hepatic function. Therefore, the so-called “sanctuary” sites such as the central nervous system (CNS), testes, and orbits or other sites with limited blood supply are not off-limits to radiation. Nevertheless, TBI is hampered by challenging logistics of administration, coordination between hematology and radiation oncology departments, increased rates of acute treatment-related morbidity and mortality along with late toxicity to other tissues. Newer technologies and a better understanding of the biology and physics of TBI has allowed the field to develop novel delivery systems which may help to deliver radiation more safely while maintaining its efficacy. However, continued research and collaboration are needed to determine the best approaches for the use of TBI in the future. Full article
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Case Report
Very Delayed Acute Hepatitis after Pembrolizumab Therapy for Advanced Malignancy: How Long Should We Watch?
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 898-902; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010088 - 14 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to major therapeutic advances in the management of malignancy. Despite promising outcomes for some cancers, ICIs are linked to unique side-effects known as immune-related adverse events (IrAEs). These may affect a wide array of organ systems. In [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to major therapeutic advances in the management of malignancy. Despite promising outcomes for some cancers, ICIs are linked to unique side-effects known as immune-related adverse events (IrAEs). These may affect a wide array of organ systems. In particular, ICI-induced hepatitis is diagnostically challenging given its variable natural history and clinical manifestations. The onset of ICI-induced hepatitis often occurs between 6 and 14 weeks after treatment initiation and rarely exhibits delayed presentations or manifests after treatment cessation. We present a case of very delayed-onset ICI-induced hepatitis, stressing the importance of long-term surveillance for immune-indued hepatitis in patients initiated on ICIs even long after treatment cessation. Full article
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Article
Longitudinal Symptom Burden Trajectories in a Population-Based Cohort of Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Group-Based Trajectory Modeling Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 879-897; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010087 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Understanding the symptom burden trajectory for metastatic breast cancer patients can enable the provision of appropriate supportive care for symptom management. The aim of this study was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of symptom burden for metastatic breast cancer patients at the population-level. [...] Read more.
Understanding the symptom burden trajectory for metastatic breast cancer patients can enable the provision of appropriate supportive care for symptom management. The aim of this study was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of symptom burden for metastatic breast cancer patients at the population-level. A cohort of 995 metastatic breast cancer patients with 16,146 Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) assessments was constructed using linked population-level health administrative databases. The patient-reported ESAS total symptom distress score (TSDS) was studied over time using group-based trajectory modeling, and covariate influences on trajectory patterns were examined. Cohort patients experienced symptom burden that could be divided into six distinct trajectories. Patients experiencing a higher baseline TSDS were likely to be classified into trajectory groups with high, uncontrolled TSDS within the study follow-up period (χ2 (1, N = 995) = 136.25, p < 0.001). Compared to patients classified in the group trajectory with the highest relative TSDS (Group 6), patients classified in the lowest relative TSDS trajectory group (Group 1) were more likely to not have comorbidities (97.34% (for Groups 1–3) vs. 91.82% (for Group 6); p < 0.05), more likely to receive chemotherapy (86.52% vs. 80.50%; p < 0.05), and less likely to receive palliative care (52.81% vs. 79.25%; p < 0.0001). Receiving radiotherapy was a significant predictor of how symptom burden was experienced in all identified groups. Overall, metastatic breast cancer patients follow heterogeneous symptom burden trajectories over time, with some experiencing a higher, uncontrolled symptom burden. Understanding trajectories can assist in establishing risk-stratified care pathways for patients. Full article
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Communication
Managing Opioids and Mitigating Risk: A Survey of Attitudes, Confidence and Practices of Oncology Health Care Professionals
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 873-878; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010086 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 828
Abstract
In response to Canada’s opioid crisis, national strategies and guidelines have been developed but primarily focus on opioid use for chronic noncancer pain. Despite the well-established utility of opioids in cancer care, and the growing emphasis on early palliative care, little attention has [...] Read more.
In response to Canada’s opioid crisis, national strategies and guidelines have been developed but primarily focus on opioid use for chronic noncancer pain. Despite the well-established utility of opioids in cancer care, and the growing emphasis on early palliative care, little attention has been paid to opioid risk in this population, where evidence increasingly shows a higher risk of opioid-related harms than was previously thought. The primary objective of this study was to assess oncology clinicians’ attitudes, confidence, and practices in managing opioids in outpatients with cancer. This was explored using pilot-tested, profession-specific surveys for physicians/nurse practitioners, nurses and pharmacists. Descriptive analyses were conducted in aggregate and separately based on discipline. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore relationships between confidence and practices within and across disciplines. The survey was distributed to approximately 400 clinicians in January 2019. Sixty-five responses (27 physicians/nurse practitioners, 31 nurses, 7 pharmacists) were received. Participants endorsed low confidence, differing attitudes, and limited and varied practice in managing and mitigating opioid risks in the cancer population. This study provides valuable insights into knowledge gaps and clinical practices of oncology healthcare professionals in managing opioids and mitigating associated risks for patients with cancer. Full article
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Article
Blood Cholesterol and Outcome of Patients with Cancer under Regular Cardiological Surveillance
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 863-872; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010085 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases and cancer share several similarities, including common risk factors. In the present investigation we assessed the relationship between cholesterol levels and mortality in a cardiooncological collective. In total, 551 patients receiving anticancer treatment were followed over a median of 41 [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases and cancer share several similarities, including common risk factors. In the present investigation we assessed the relationship between cholesterol levels and mortality in a cardiooncological collective. In total, 551 patients receiving anticancer treatment were followed over a median of 41 (95% CI 40, 43) months and underwent regular cardiological surveillance. A total of 140 patients (25.4%) died during this period. Concomitant cardiac diseases were more common in patients who deceased (53 (37.9%) vs. 67 (16.3%), p < 0.0001), as well as prior stroke. There were no differences in the distribution of classical CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes or nicotine consumption. While total cholesterol (mg/dL) was significantly lower in patients who deceased (157 ± 59 vs. 188 ± 53, p < 0.0001), both HDL and LDL cholesterol were not differing. In addition, cholesterol levels varied between different tumour entities; lowest levels were found in patients with tumours of the hepatopancreaticobiliary system (median 121 mg/dL), while patients with melanoma, cerebral tumours and breast cancer had rather high cholesterol levels (median > 190 mg/dL). Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in patients who died of cancer; lowest cholesterol levels were observed in patients who died of tumours with higher mitotic rate (mesenchymal tumours, cerebral tumours, breast cancer). Cox regression analysis revealed a significant mortality risk for patients with stem cell transplantation (HR 4.31) and metastasised tumour stages (HR 3.31), while cardiac risk factors were also associated with a worse outcome (known cardiac disease HR 1.58, prior stroke/TIA HR 1.73, total cholesterol HR 1.70), with the best discriminative performance found for total cholesterol (p = 0.002). Full article
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Commentary
Integrative Oncology Education: An Emerging Competency for Oncology Providers
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 853-862; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010084 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1251
Abstract
A growing number of cancer patients use complementary and alternative therapies during and after conventional cancer treatment. Patients are often reluctant to discuss these therapies with their oncologist, and oncologists may have limited knowledge and confidence on how to advise patients on the [...] Read more.
A growing number of cancer patients use complementary and alternative therapies during and after conventional cancer treatment. Patients are often reluctant to discuss these therapies with their oncologist, and oncologists may have limited knowledge and confidence on how to advise patients on the appropriate use. Integrative oncology is a patient-centered, evidence-informed field that utilizes mind–body practices, lifestyle modifications and/or natural products interwoven with conventional cancer treatment. It prioritizes safety and best available evidence to offer appropriate interventions alongside conventional care. There are few opportunities for oncologists to learn about integrative oncology. In this commentary, we highlight the Integrative Oncology Scholars (IOS) program as a means to increase competency in this growing field. We provide an overview of several integrative oncology modalities that are taught through this program, including lifestyle modifications, physical activity, and mind–body interventions. We conclude that as more evidence is generated in this field, it will be essential that oncology healthcare providers are aware of the prevalent use of these modalities by their patients and cancer centers include Integrative Oncology trained physicians and other healthcare professionals in their team to discuss and recommend evidence-based integrative oncology therapies alongside conventional cancer treatments to their patients. Full article
Case Report
Prolonged SARS-CoV-2-RNA Detection from Nasopharyngeal Swabs in an Oncologic Patient: What Impact on Cancer Treatment?
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 847-852; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010083 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious global challenge affecting millions of people worldwide. Cancer patients are at risk for infection exposure and serious complications. A prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for the timely adoption of isolation measures and the appropriate [...] Read more.
The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious global challenge affecting millions of people worldwide. Cancer patients are at risk for infection exposure and serious complications. A prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for the timely adoption of isolation measures and the appropriate management of cancer treatments. In lung cancer patients the symptoms of infection 19 may resemble those exhibited by the underlying oncologic condition, possibly leading to diagnostic overlap and delays. Moreover, cancer patients might display a prolonged positivity of nasopharyngeal RT-PCR assays for SARS-CoV-2, causing long interruptions or delay of cancer treatments. However, the association between the positivity of RT-PCR assays and the patient’s infectivity remains uncertain. We describe the case of a patient with non-small cell lung cancer, and a severe ab extrinseco compression of the trachea, whose palliative radiotherapy was delayed because of the prolonged positivity of nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2. The patient did not show clinical symptoms suggestive of active infection, but the persistent positivity of RT-PCR assays imposed the continuation of isolation measures and the delay of radiotherapy for over two months. Finally, the negative result of SARS-CoV-2 viral culture allowed us to verify the absence of viral activity and to rule out the infectivity of the patient, who could finally continue her cancer treatment. Full article
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Communication
The Quality of Online Information for an Uncommon Malignancy—Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs)
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 842-846; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010082 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Background: Patient information is critical in shared decision-making and patient-centred management for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Most adults search the internet for health issues, with over half considering such information to be credible. Therefore, we evaluated the quality of online information on NETs. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Patient information is critical in shared decision-making and patient-centred management for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Most adults search the internet for health issues, with over half considering such information to be credible. Therefore, we evaluated the quality of online information on NETs. Methods: Searching for “Neuroendocrine Tumours”, the top 20 websites from Google and top 10 from Yahoo and Bing were identified. Open-access websites written in English were included. Websites indicated as advertisements or directed towards healthcare providers were excluded. Each website was evaluated using the JAMA benchmarks, DISCERN instrument, and the Health on the Internet (HONCode) seal by two independent reviewers. Results: We included 16 unique websites after removing duplicates. Four were education pages from healthcare institutions, 10 were Cancer Society pages, and 2 were general information pages. The average score for JAMA benchmarks was 2.3, with 19% of websites receiving the highest score of 4. Specifically, 31% met the benchmark for authorship, 69% for attribution, 94% for disclosure, and 44% for currency. The average score for the DISCERN instrument was 46.5, with no website achieving the maximum of 80 points. The HONCode seal was present in 3 out of 16 websites (18%). Conclusions: We identified major issues with the quality of online information for NETs using validated instruments. The majority of websites identified through common search engines are low-quality. Patients should be informed of the limited quality of online information on NETs. High-quality online information is needed to ensure that patients can avoid misinformation and actively participate in their care. Full article
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Case Report
Cerebral Invasive Aspergillosis in a Case of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 837-841; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010081 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors have become an important therapy for untreated and previously treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Despite improved outcomes, rare adverse events, such as invasive fungal infections, have been reported with the use of first-generation BTK inhibitors. Invasive [...] Read more.
Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors have become an important therapy for untreated and previously treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Despite improved outcomes, rare adverse events, such as invasive fungal infections, have been reported with the use of first-generation BTK inhibitors. Invasive fungal infections carry a high morbidity and mortality risk. There have been several case reports describing the association between aspergillosis and ibrutinib treatment, but none with acalabrutinib, to our knowledge. In this case report, we describe a patient with CLL who developed an intracranial Aspergillus fumigatus infection while receiving acalabrutinib. Full article
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Article
Perceived Health among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 825-836; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010080 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Survivors of childhood cancer (SCCs) are at increased risk of late effects, which are cancer- and treatment-related side-effects that are experienced months to years post-treatment and encapsulate a range of physical, cognitive and emotional problems including secondary malignancies. Perceived health can serve as [...] Read more.
Survivors of childhood cancer (SCCs) are at increased risk of late effects, which are cancer- and treatment-related side-effects that are experienced months to years post-treatment and encapsulate a range of physical, cognitive and emotional problems including secondary malignancies. Perceived health can serve as an indicator of overall health. This study aims to (1) understand how a patient reported outcome (PRO) of perceived health of SCCs compares to controls who have not had a cancer diagnosis and (2) examine the relationships between perceived health and demographic and clinical variables, and health behavior. A total of 209 SCCs (n = 113 (54.10%) males; median age at diagnosis = 6.50 years; median time off treatment = 11.10 years; mean age at study = 19.00 years) were included. SCCs completed annual assessments as part of Long-Term Survivor Clinic appointments, including a question on perceived health answered on a five-point Likert scale. Data were collected retrospectively from medical charts. Perceived health of SCCs was compared to a control group (n = 836) using data from the 2014 Canadian Community Health Survey. Most SCCs (67%) reported excellent or very good health. The mean perceived health of SCCs (2.15 ± 0.91) was not statistically different from population controls (2.10 ± 0.87). Pain (B = 0.35; p < 0.001), physical activity (B = −0.39; p = 0.013) and concerns related to health resources (B = 0.59; p = 0.002) were significant predictors of perceived health. Factors shown to influence SCCs’ perceived health may inform interventions. Exploration into how SCCs develop their conception of health may be warranted. Full article
Case Report
Novel Mutations in a Lethal Case of Lymphomatous Adult T Cell Lymphoma with Cryptic Myocardial Involvement
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 818-824; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010079 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
The autopsy of a 65-year-old diabetic African American male revealed significant left myocardial involvement by adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) despite normal pre-mortem fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Due to pre-existing diabetic cardiomyopathy with reduced ejection fraction (EF) and compatible [...] Read more.
The autopsy of a 65-year-old diabetic African American male revealed significant left myocardial involvement by adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) despite normal pre-mortem fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Due to pre-existing diabetic cardiomyopathy with reduced ejection fraction (EF) and compatible imaging studies, cardiac lymphomatous involvement was not suspected. While peripheral blood was negative for leukemia, next-generation sequencing of a lymph node revealed at least eight novel mutations (AXIN1, R712Q, BARD1 R749K, CTNNB1 I315V, CUX1 P102T, DNMT3A S199R, FGFR2 S431L, LRP1B Y2560C and STAG2 I771M). These findings underscore a diagnostic pitfall in a rare lymphomatous variant of ATLL infiltrating myocardium and contribute to its molecular characterization. Full article
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Brief Report
Gemcitabine-Containing Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Metastatic Myxofibrosarcoma Refractory to Doxorubicin: A Case Series
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 813-817; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010078 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
Background: Myxofibrosarcoma is a type of soft-tissue sarcoma that is associated with high rates of local recurrence and distant metastases. The first-line treatment for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma has conventionally been doxorubicin-based. Recent evidence suggests that myxofibrosarcoma may be molecularly similar to undifferentiated pleomorphic [...] Read more.
Background: Myxofibrosarcoma is a type of soft-tissue sarcoma that is associated with high rates of local recurrence and distant metastases. The first-line treatment for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma has conventionally been doxorubicin-based. Recent evidence suggests that myxofibrosarcoma may be molecularly similar to undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), which is particularly sensitive to gemcitabine-based therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the activity of gemcitabine-containing regimens for the treatment of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma refractory to doxorubicin. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated seven consecutive cases of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma at our institution treated with gemcitabine-based therapy in the second-line setting, after progression on doxorubicin. Baseline clinical and baseline characteristics were collected. Primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: After progression on first-line doxorubicin, a partial, or complete radiological response was observed in four of seven patients who received gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 14 months, median progression-free and overall survival were 8.5 months and 11.4 months, respectively. Conclusions: Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was associated with encouraging response rates in this cohort, similar to those seen in UPS. Both entities could be studied together for novel gemcitabine-based regimens. Full article
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Article
How Canadian Oncologists Use Oncotype DX for Treatment of Breast Cancer Patients
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 800-812; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010077 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Background: The literature suggests that medical oncologists differ on how they use the Oncotype DX (ODX) genomic assay for making decisions about systemic therapy in breast cancer patients. Given the emergence of data supporting the use of genomic profiling for the prognosis and [...] Read more.
Background: The literature suggests that medical oncologists differ on how they use the Oncotype DX (ODX) genomic assay for making decisions about systemic therapy in breast cancer patients. Given the emergence of data supporting the use of genomic profiling for the prognosis and predicting benefit of chemotherapy, we surveyed medical oncologists in Canada to assess their usage and perception of the ODX assay. Methods: A 34-item survey was distributed to Canadian medical oncologists via the Canadian Association of Medical Oncologists. Data was collected on physician demographics, ODX usage patterns, and physicians’ perception of the impact clinical and pathologic characteristics make on ODX utilization. Results: Response rate was 20.6% with 47 responses received from 228 survey sent. Forty-five responses were eligible for analysis. Sixty-two percent (28/45) of respondents treated predominantly breast cancer, and 60% (27/45) have been in practice for at least 10 years. The most cited reason for using ODX was to avoid giving patients unnecessary chemotherapy (64%; 29/45). Sixty-seven percent (30/45) deferred making treatment decisions until ODX testing was completed. Factors most strongly impacting ODX utilization included: patient request, medical comorbidities and tumor grade. In clinical scenarios, ODX was more frequently selected for patients aged 40–65 (vs. <40 or >65), grade 2 tumors (vs. grade 1 or 3), and Ki-67 index of 10–20% (vs. <10% or >20%). Conclusions: This survey demonstrated that Canadian medical oncologists are preferentially using ODX to avoid giving patients unnecessary chemotherapy. The utilization of ODX is mainly in patients with intermediate clinical and pathologic features. Full article
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Review
Proton Pump Inhibitors and Oncologic Treatment Efficacy: A Practical Review of the Literature for Oncologists
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 783-799; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010076 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most commonly used anti-acid drugs worldwide, including among cancer patients. However, drug-drug interactions between PPIs and other agents may lead to decreased drug absorption with possible reduced therapeutic benefit, or even increased toxicity. Unfortunately, only scarce data [...] Read more.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most commonly used anti-acid drugs worldwide, including among cancer patients. However, drug-drug interactions between PPIs and other agents may lead to decreased drug absorption with possible reduced therapeutic benefit, or even increased toxicity. Unfortunately, only scarce data exist regarding the safety of concomitant PPI use with anti-cancer agents. We aim at reviewing current evidence on this possible interaction by dividing anti-cancer agents by class. Until further data is available, we encourage healthcare providers to limit unnecessary PPI overuse. Full article
Article
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Implement Personalized Breast Cancer Treatment and Care Plans
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 767-782; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010075 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Implementation of survivorship care plans remain a challenge. This quality improvement initiative aims to integrate personalized treatment plans (PTP) and care plans (PCP) into the existing workflow for breast cancer (BC) patients. Methods: Phase 1 was to identify multidisciplinary team members to generate [...] Read more.
Implementation of survivorship care plans remain a challenge. This quality improvement initiative aims to integrate personalized treatment plans (PTP) and care plans (PCP) into the existing workflow for breast cancer (BC) patients. Methods: Phase 1 was to identify multidisciplinary team members to generate and deliver PTP and PCP. Concurrently, Phase 2 was to deliver PTP and PCP to newly diagnosed invasive BC patients at chemotherapy initiation and completion, respectively. Iterative plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles were applied to refine the process. The proportion of information completed for PTP and PCP generation and its delivery by the care team were measured. Patient and provider satisfaction were also assessed. Implementation Process and Results: The care transfer facilitator (CTF) was identified to complete and deliver PTP, and their data entry increased from 0% to 76%, 80%, 92% consecutively during the last 4 PDSA cycles. PTP and PCP were provided to 85% of eligible BC patients. Patients agreed that PTP helped them to actively participate in their care (88%) and communicate with the oncology care team (86%). Primary care physicians agreed that PTP and PCP had the information needed to “stay in the loop” (80%), and oncologists agreed they should be incorporated into oncology clinics (100%). Conclusions: Integrating PTP and PCP generation and delivery into existing workflow has led to an increase in uptake, sustainability and provider buy-in. With limited resources, it remains difficult to find care team members to complete the forms. A dedicated personnel or survivorship clinic is required to successfully implement PTP and PCP as the standard of care. Full article
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Case Report
Immune Checkpoint Inhibition as Primary Adjuvant Therapy for an IDH1-Mutant Anaplastic Astrocytoma in a Patient with CMMRD: A Case Report—Usage of Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in CMMRD
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 757-766; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010074 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary cancer syndrome due to biallelic germline mutation involving one of the four DNA mismatch repair genes. Here we present a case of a young female with CMMRD, homozygous for the c.2002A>G mutation [...] Read more.
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary cancer syndrome due to biallelic germline mutation involving one of the four DNA mismatch repair genes. Here we present a case of a young female with CMMRD, homozygous for the c.2002A>G mutation in the PMS2 gene. She developed an early stage adenocarcinoma of the colon at the age of 14. Surveillance MRI of the brain at age 18 resulted in the detection of an asymptomatic brain cancer. On resection, this was diagnosed as an anaplastic astrocytoma. Due to emerging literature suggesting benefit of immunotherapy in this patient population, she was treated with adjuvant dual immune checkpoint inhibition, avoiding radiation. The patient remains stable with no evidence of progression 20 months after resection. The patient’s clinical course, as well as the rational for considering adjuvant immunotherapy in patients with CMMRD are discussed in this report. Full article
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Case Report
CSF Rhinorrhea: A Rare Clinical Presentation of Choroid Plexus Papilloma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 750-756; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010073 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a rare brain tumour occurring mostly in infants and children. Most CPPs are intraventricular and present with symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This case report describes a middle-aged female who presented with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid [...] Read more.
Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a rare brain tumour occurring mostly in infants and children. Most CPPs are intraventricular and present with symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This case report describes a middle-aged female who presented with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea from a tumour located in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). She underwent craniotomy with subtotal tumour resection and remained progression and rhinorrhea-free for several years. Upon clinical progression, the patient was treated with Cyberknife stereotactic radiosurgery. The patient clinically improved and demonstrated a favourable radiologic response to radiosurgery. Full article
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Article
A Scoping Review of Radiation Oncology Educational and Career-Planning Interventions in Undergraduate Medical Education
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 740-749; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010072 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Radiation oncology (RO) teaching in undergraduate medical education (UME) is lacking worldwide with potentially detrimental effects on medical student career choices and patient care. The objective of this scoping review is to examine the extent of published literature describing RO educational and career-planning [...] Read more.
Radiation oncology (RO) teaching in undergraduate medical education (UME) is lacking worldwide with potentially detrimental effects on medical student career choices and patient care. The objective of this scoping review is to examine the extent of published literature describing RO educational and career-planning interventions in UME. Online databases were searched from respective dates of inception to June 2020 for articles that reported outcomes from RO educational and career-planning interventions in UME. Two independent reviewers screened entries for inclusion. Following full-text reviews, 25 articles were analyzed. Most interventions were a single session, involved clinical medical students, and were based in North America. Didactic teaching was most commonly used, though a majority included interactive learning in addition to or in place of didactic teaching. As expected, there was a heterogeneity of outcomes reported, and most studies collected data using surveys alone. Recurring topics included the multidisciplinary nature of oncology and psychosocial oncology. There was a paucity of studies reporting on formal mentorship programs and research programs. The data collated in this study can help develop new initiatives based on what has succeeded in the past. Areas that may benefit from future studies include mentorship programs, research programs, and interventions from outside North America. Full article
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Study Protocol
Rationale and Design of BeatNF2 Trial: A Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Bevacizumab in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Related Vestibular Schwannoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 726-739; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010071 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) causes bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs), leading to deafness. VS is treated by surgery or radiation, but neither treatments prevent hearing loss. Bevacizumab was found to be effective in suppressing the tumor’s growth and may help to improve hearing. We [...] Read more.
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) causes bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs), leading to deafness. VS is treated by surgery or radiation, but neither treatments prevent hearing loss. Bevacizumab was found to be effective in suppressing the tumor’s growth and may help to improve hearing. We are conducting a randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial to verify the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in NF2-related VS. The primary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of bevacizumab in improving hearing in the affected ear. One of the secondary objectives is to evaluate bevacizumab’s efficacy in rechallenge treatment in relapsed cases. Sixty patients will randomly receive either bevacizumab or a placebo and will be clinically observed for 48 weeks in the initial intervention phase. In the first half (24 weeks), they will receive either 5 mg/kg of bevacizumab or a placebo drug. In the second half, all patients will receive 5 mg/kg of bevacizumab. If hearing function deteriorated in a patient who had shown improvement during the first phase, a rechallenge dose with bevacizumab would be offered. Full article
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Article
Cost Minimization Analysis of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 716-725; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010070 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 780
Abstract
Early-stage breast cancer patients comprise a large proportion of patients treated with radiotherapy in Canada. Proponents have suggested that five-fraction hypofractionated radiotherapy for these patients would result in significant cost savings. An assessment of this argument is thus warranted. The FAST-Forward and UK [...] Read more.
Early-stage breast cancer patients comprise a large proportion of patients treated with radiotherapy in Canada. Proponents have suggested that five-fraction hypofractionated radiotherapy for these patients would result in significant cost savings. An assessment of this argument is thus warranted. The FAST-Forward and UK FAST clinical trials each demonstrated that their respective hypofractionated regimens provided equivalent outcomes compared with standard regimens. Thus, a cost-minimization analysis was performed to quantify the potential savings associated with these regimens, which were designated as FAST-Forward 1 (26 Gy/5 fractions/1 week) and FAST-Forward 2 (27 Gy/5 fractions/1 week), and UK FAST 1 (28.5 Gy/5 fractions/5 weeks) and UK FAST 2 (30 Gy/5 fractions/5 weeks). A standard regimen of 42.5 Gy/16 fractions/5 weeks was also included. A comprehensive model of radiotherapy costs for a Canadian cancer centre was created. Time, labour costs, and capital costs were calculated for each regimen and applied using established measures. The total costs per patient for the FAST-Forward trials were $851.77 for FAST-Forward 1 and $874.77 for FAST-Forward 2, providing a total savings of $487.99 and $464.99, respectively. Similarly, the total costs per patient for the FAST trials were $979.75 for UK FAST 1 and $1017.70 for UK FAST 2, providing savings of $360.01 and $322.06, respectively. Following the FAST-Forward 1 regimen results in the greatest reduction of infrastructure and human resources costs at 36.42% compared with the standard. Sensitivity analysis shows a maximum per-patient costs savings ranging from $474.60 to $508.53 for the FAST-Forward 1 trial, which translates to an annual savings of $174,700/year locally and $2.06 million/year province-wide, based on a moderate-to-large size department workload. Compared with a standard radiotherapy regimen, all FAST-Forward and UK FAST hypofractionated regimens provide cost savings for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The cost savings associated with each of these equivalent regimens can be directly calculated; activities in this model can easily be adjusted to account for cost variations, allowing other centres to calculate cost impacts specific to their own centres. Full article
Article
Prophylactic Surgery in the BRCA+ Patient: Do Women Develop Breast Cancer While Waiting?
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(1), 702-715; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010069 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) mutation carriers have an increased risk of breast cancer. Mitigation of this risk can be achieved via surveillance or prophylactic mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction. Those that choose surgery expect to reduce their chance of developing cancer. [...] Read more.
Breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) mutation carriers have an increased risk of breast cancer. Mitigation of this risk can be achieved via surveillance or prophylactic mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction. Those that choose surgery expect to reduce their chance of developing cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of patients developing breast cancer prior to surgery and to identify modifiable contributing factors within the patient journey. This is a historical cohort study of all BRCA mutation carriers identified through the British Columbia Cancer Hereditary Cancer Program between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into two groups: surveillance (S) and prophylactic mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (PM/IBR). The incidence of cancer, time to PM/IBR and patient journeys were analyzed. A total of 333 women were identified. The time to surgery from mutation disclosure was a median of 31 (5.3, 75.7) months. During this period, 6% of patients developed breast cancer compared with a 14% incidence of breast cancer in patients choosing surveillance. The majority of time to surgery was attributed to the period between mutation disclosure and the decision to proceed with surgery. Strategies to facilitate decision-making as well as wait list prioritization and dedicated operative time should be targeted to this population to decrease the number of women developing an interval cancer prior to surgery. Full article
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