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Volume 17, February-1

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 17, Issue 4 (February-2 2020) – 310 articles

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Open AccessReview
Lesson from Ecotoxicity: Revisiting the Microbial Lipopeptides for the Management of Emerging Diseases for Crop Protection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041434 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
: Microorganisms area treasure in terms of theproduction of various bioactive compounds which are being explored in different arenas of applied sciences. In agriculture, microbes and their bioactive compounds are being utilized in growth promotion and health promotion withnutrient fortification and its acquisition. [...] Read more.
: Microorganisms area treasure in terms of theproduction of various bioactive compounds which are being explored in different arenas of applied sciences. In agriculture, microbes and their bioactive compounds are being utilized in growth promotion and health promotion withnutrient fortification and its acquisition. Exhaustive explorations are unraveling the vast diversity of microbialcompounds with their potential usage in solving multiferous problems incrop production. Lipopeptides are one of such microbial compounds which havestrong antimicrobial properties against different plant pathogens. These compounds are reported to be produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, and few other microorganisms; however, genus Bacillus alone produces a majority of diverse lipopeptides. Lipopeptides are low molecular weight compounds which havemultiple industrial roles apart from being usedas biosurfactants and antimicrobials. In plant protection, lipopeptides have wide prospects owing totheirpore-forming ability in pathogens, siderophore activity, biofilm inhibition, and dislodging activity, preventing colonization bypathogens, antiviral activity, etc. Microbes with lipopeptides that haveall these actions are good biocontrol agents. Exploring these antimicrobial compounds could widen the vistasof biological pest control for existing and emerging plant pathogens. The broader diversity and strong antimicrobial behavior of lipopeptides could be a boon for dealing withcomplex pathosystems and controlling diseases of greater economic importance. Understanding which and how these compounds modulate the synthesis and production of defense-related biomolecules in the plants is a key question—the answer of whichneeds in-depth investigation. The present reviewprovides a comprehensive picture of important lipopeptides produced by plant microbiome, their isolation, characterization, mechanisms of disease control, behavior against phytopathogens to understand different aspects of antagonism, and potential prospects for future explorations as antimicrobial agents. Understanding and exploring the antimicrobial lipopeptides from bacteria and fungi could also open upan entire new arena of biopesticides for effective control of devastating plant diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms in the Environment)
Open AccessBrief Report
Relationship between Serum Vitamin D and Leg Strength in Older Adults with Pre-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Preliminary Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041433 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
Active vitamin D (calcitriol, or 1.25 (OH) 2 D) is associated with muscle weakness, falls, and fracture in community-dwelling older people. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a serum active vitamin D level and lower extremity muscle strength in elderly patients [...] Read more.
Active vitamin D (calcitriol, or 1.25 (OH) 2 D) is associated with muscle weakness, falls, and fracture in community-dwelling older people. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a serum active vitamin D level and lower extremity muscle strength in elderly patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study included 231 patients with CKD treated conservatively as outpatients. We analyzed patient background factors, including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, calcium, albumin, serum calcitriol level as an indicator of active vitamin D, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) collected from medical records. As an index of lower extremity muscle strength, the isometric knee extension muscle strength-to-weight ratio (kgf/kg) was calculated. The mean patient age was 75.9 ± 6.1 years (68.8% male), and the BMI was 24.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2. A significant correlation was observed between knee extensor muscle strength and serum calcitriol level (r = 0.32, p < 0.01), age (r = –0.30, p < 0.01), BMI (r = −0.31, p < 0.01), intact PTH (r = −0.22, p < 0.01), phosphorus (r = −0.29, p < 0.01), albumin (r = −0.28, p < 0.01), and eGFR (r = 0.25, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed calcitriol to be significantly associated with knee extensor muscle strength (β: 0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0–0.002, p = 0.04) after adjustment for covariates. These results suggest that the serum active vitamin D level is associated with lower extremity muscle strength in older adults with pre-dialysis CKD. It is necessary to verify whether vitamin D supplementation increases lower extremity muscle strength in pre-dialysis CKD patients. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Multidimensional Assessment of Eco-Innovation Implementation: Evidence from Spanish Agri-Food Sector
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041432 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
Understanding eco-innovation is an essential endeavor to achieve global sustainable development. In this sense, further research on implementation is needed to expand knowledge beyond current boundaries. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this debate by conducting an original multidimensional analysis [...] Read more.
Understanding eco-innovation is an essential endeavor to achieve global sustainable development. In this sense, further research on implementation is needed to expand knowledge beyond current boundaries. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this debate by conducting an original multidimensional analysis using Spanish agri-food sector data. The empirical methodology applies a combination of descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and the chi-squared test. Two groups of well-differentiated eco-innovative firms are identified, those with high and low eco-innovation implementation levels. Quality certifications, environmental consulting and cooperation with stakeholders are the variables that contribute most to distinguishing these two groups. The results also reveal that operating income volume, number of employees and commercialization volume are key factors to become more eco-innovative. In this sense, larger firms are found to have a higher level of eco-innovation implementation than small- and medium-sized enterprises. The main contributions of this work are fourfold. Firstly, it presents a comprehensive framework of eco-innovation implementation in its four dimensions (product, process, organizational and marketing). Secondly, it fills existing gaps in the literature by analyzing green organizational and marketing eco-practices. Thirdly, it expands the sectorial scope of eco-innovation research primarily focused on high-tech sectors. Finally, this study makes it possible to design certain policies for public and private decision makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Innovation in The Agri-Food Sector)
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness and Safety in Remote Monitoring of Patients with Pacemakers Five Years after an Implant: The Poniente Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041431 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional capacity values immediately after pacemaker (PM) implantation have been well established; however, not much has been known about its long-term effects. The present study compared the long-term effectiveness and safety of remote monitoring plus a clinic [...] Read more.
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional capacity values immediately after pacemaker (PM) implantation have been well established; however, not much has been known about its long-term effects. The present study compared the long-term effectiveness and safety of remote monitoring plus a clinic visit versus clinic visits alone during follow-up of adults implanted with PMs. This study was a single-centre, controlled, non-randomised, non-blinded clinical trial. Data were collected pre-implantation and after 60 months. The patients in the PONIENTE study were assigned to two different groups: remote monitoring (RM) and conventional monitoring (CM). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire was used to assess HRQoL and Duke Activity Status Index was used for the functional capacity. After five years, 55 patients completed the study (RM = 21; CM = 34). EuroQol-5D and functional capacity values were improved; however, significant differences were observed only in the EQ5D visual analogue scale (p < 0.001). Remote monitoring was equally feasible, reliable, safe, and clinically useful as CM. The frequencies of rehospitalisations and emergency visits did not differ between the groups. RM was found to be safe and effective in early detection and treatment of medical- and device-related events and in reducing hospital visits. Improved HRQoL was described not only immediately after PM implantation but also extended over a long time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Communication and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
On Time: A Qualitative Study of Swedish Students’, Parents’ and Teachers’ Views on School Attendance, with a Focus on Tardiness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041430 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
Tardiness is a common problem in many schools. It can be understood as an individual risk for future problematic behavior leading to absenteeism, school dropout, exclusion and later health problems. Tardiness can also be examined in relation to a broader social-ecological perspective on [...] Read more.
Tardiness is a common problem in many schools. It can be understood as an individual risk for future problematic behavior leading to absenteeism, school dropout, exclusion and later health problems. Tardiness can also be examined in relation to a broader social-ecological perspective on health. The aim of this study was to analyze students’, school staff’s and parents’ views on students’ tardiness in two Swedish schools. A focus group interview design was used with 21 school personnel, 21 students in grade nine and two parents. The data were analyzed by using thematic content analysis. The results illustrated the main theme—It depends on…—regarding what will happen if a student arrives late to school lessons. This finding is further explained by the subthemes about teachers’ signals and reactions and the responses from teachers and students. The conclusion showed the importance of organizing the school day more predictably for the students. Late arrival is a sign of shortcomings in a school organization. It is necessary to develop guidelines related to how to handle students’ late arrival based on predictable viewpoints but even more so on how to promote students’ sense of belonging and their interest in and motivation for going to school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
Open AccessArticle
An Exploration of Differences Between Deliberate Self-Harm with and without Suicidal Intent Amongst a Clinical Sample of Young People in Singapore: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041429 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
This study examined differences between young people with mental illness who engage in deliberate self-harm with and without suicidal intent, as well as socio-demographic and clinical factors that are related to the increased likelihood of suicide attempt amongst self-harming young people. A total [...] Read more.
This study examined differences between young people with mental illness who engage in deliberate self-harm with and without suicidal intent, as well as socio-demographic and clinical factors that are related to the increased likelihood of suicide attempt amongst self-harming young people. A total of 235 outpatients with mental illness who had engaged in deliberate self-harm were recruited from a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which collected information on their socio-demographic background, self-harm history, diagnosis, depressive symptoms and childhood trauma. A total of 31.1% had reported a history of attempted suicide. Multiple logistic regression conducted found that engaging in self-harm ideation between 1 and 7 days (OR = 4.3, p = 0.30), and more than 1 week (OR = 10.5, p < 0.001) (versus no engagement in any self-harm ideation at all), were significantly associated with greater likelihood of attempted suicide. This study reports a relatively high prevalence rate of reported suicide attempts amongst young people with mental illness who engaged in self-harm. Identifying self-harm behaviors and treating it early could be the first step in managing potential suicidal behaviors among those who engage in self-harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Mental Health Research in Asia Pacific Region)
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Financial Development on Energy Consumption: Worldwide Evidence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041428 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the influence of overall financial development and its components on energy consumption using the panel data of 120 countries and the generalized method of moments (GMM). By dividing the sample into developed and developing countries, we further examined [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the influence of overall financial development and its components on energy consumption using the panel data of 120 countries and the generalized method of moments (GMM). By dividing the sample into developed and developing countries, we further examined the national differences of the impact of financial development on energy consumption. The empirical results indicate that the overall financial development significantly positively impacts energy consumption from a worldwide perspective, and its two components (financial institution and the financial market) have the same effect. The analysis of national differences indicates that the financial development also positively impacts energy consumption in developing countries but with no obvious effect in developed countries. The results also suggest that financial development cannot be used to restrain the increase in energy consumption from the global perspective, and policymakers in developing countries must balance the relationship between the development of the financial sector and energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
Environmental Regulation, Technological Innovation, and Export Competitiveness: An Empirical Study Based on China’s Manufacturing Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041427 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
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Abstract
A current and universal challenge, particularly in developing nations, is the establishment of effective environmental regulation policies that protect the ecological environment without adversely affecting the international competitiveness of the domestic manufacturing industry. To deal with this dilemma, this study investigates the export [...] Read more.
A current and universal challenge, particularly in developing nations, is the establishment of effective environmental regulation policies that protect the ecological environment without adversely affecting the international competitiveness of the domestic manufacturing industry. To deal with this dilemma, this study investigates the export competitiveness of China’s manufacturing industry from the viewpoint of export value added. The Porter hypothesis is applied for an empirical investigation of the effect of environmental regulation on export competitiveness and to determine the presence of intra-industry heterogeneity. Furthermore, this study seeks to understand the mechanisms through which environmental regulation affects export competitiveness by exploring the two main approaches to technological innovation. The findings reveal that environmental regulation has a promotion effect of approximately 2% on the export competitiveness of China’s manufacturing industry; however, this effect is non-linear and displays a “U-shaped” tendency, indicating that certain prerequisites must be fulfilled to validate the Porter hypothesis. In addition, the effect of environmental regulation displays significant intra-industry heterogeneity, which is evident primarily in heavily polluting sub-industries and to a lesser extent in moderately polluting sub-industries but insignificant in lightly polluting sub-industries. Environmental regulation also differs significantly in the mechanisms through which it affects different approaches to technological innovation. Independent research and development is affected by environmental regulation through the compliance cost effect, which limits export competitiveness, while technology introduction is affected by the innovation offset effect, which favors export competitiveness. These findings offer political implications for the sustainable development of the ecological environment and foreign trade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Remediation and Management)
Open AccessReview
Oral Health and Molecular Aspects of Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Patients: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041426 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Viewed by 78
Abstract
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It occurs only occasionally in oral soft tissues, and knowledge about its characteristics is based on a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma belongs [...] Read more.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It occurs only occasionally in oral soft tissues, and knowledge about its characteristics is based on a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma belongs to the group of soft tissue sarcomas and makes up less than 10% of soft tissue sarcomas. For therapeutic purposes, complete exeresis of the lesion (macroscopic and microscopic) is performed because they have frequent recurrences. As for complementary therapy in addition to surgery, neither radiotherapy nor chemotherapy have been shown to reduce the risk of death related to the disease. Often patients complain of a swelling that grows in a short period of time. It is quite common for patients to report trauma in the area, which is not the cause, but rather the event that allows diagnosis. The mass usually does not cause pain unless it compresses an adjacent nerve structure. The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific literature in order to identify the most recent studies concerning malignant fibrous histiocytomas localized in oral soft tissues and report their main data. The main outcomes of this study concern the immunohistochemical, molecular, and clinical aspects of this pathology. A systematic review of articles in the electronic databases pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science was performed. After the selection process, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The mean age of the patients was 50.8 years old. The lesions affected various parts of the oral cavity, showing predominantly storiform–pleomorphic patterns. All cases except one were treated with surgical resection and radiation therapy. Although some data emerged from this review, they remain limited to a few case reports. Further studies are necessary in order to standardize the approach to patients affected by oral malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Discrimination on Presenteeism among Aging Workers in the United States: Moderated Mediation Effect of Positive and Negative Affect
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041425 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
This study aimed to examine how perceived everyday discrimination influences presenteeism and how conscientiousness moderates the relationship between discrimination and positive affect among older workers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the mediating effect. The moderated mediation model was examined by [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine how perceived everyday discrimination influences presenteeism and how conscientiousness moderates the relationship between discrimination and positive affect among older workers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the mediating effect. The moderated mediation model was examined by PROCESS. The results of the final SEM model showed that discrimination was directly positively associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, positive affect was significantly inversely correlated with discrimination and presenteeism. In addition, negative affect was significantly positively correlated with discrimination and presenteeism. The significant indirect effect between perceived everyday discrimination and positive affect was significantly mediated by positive and negative affect. In addition, the results of the moderated mediation model indicate that positive affect was more likely to be influenced by perceived everyday discrimination among older workers with less conscientiousness, as compared with those with greater conscientiousness. To enhance work outcomes of aging workers in the United States, managers should foster highly conscientious aging workers, award those who are hardworking and goal-oriented, and combine personal goals and organizational goals through bonuses, holidays, and benefits. Policymakers should be mindful of the negative impact of discrimination on presenteeism and should target lowly conscientious older workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Ageing and the Labour Market)
Open AccessArticle
Perfectionism and Prospective Near-Term Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: The Mediation of Fear of Humiliation and Suicide Crisis Syndrome
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041424 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Background: Perfectionism has been linked to suicide. According to the Narrative-Crisis Model of suicide, individuals with trait vulnerabilities are prone to develop a certain mindset, known as a Suicidal Narrative, which may precipitate the Suicide Crisis Syndrome (SCS), culminating in suicide. The purpose [...] Read more.
Background: Perfectionism has been linked to suicide. According to the Narrative-Crisis Model of suicide, individuals with trait vulnerabilities are prone to develop a certain mindset, known as a Suicidal Narrative, which may precipitate the Suicide Crisis Syndrome (SCS), culminating in suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between perfectionism (trait vulnerability), fear of humiliation (component of the Suicidal Narrative), SCS, and prospective near-term suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB). Methods: Adult psychiatric outpatient participants (N = 336) were assessed at baseline with the Suicidal Narrative Inventory for perfectionism and fear of humiliation. The questions used to assess perfectionism were adapted from the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. The severity of the SCS was calculated using the Suicide Crisis Inventory. STB were assessed at baseline and after one month using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Serial mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS version 3.3 in SPSS. Results: While the direct effect of perfectionism on prospective STB was not significant (b = 0.01, p = 0.19), the indirect effect of perfectionism on STB, through serial mediation by fear of humiliation and the SCS, was significant (indirect effect p = 0.007, 95% CI [0.003,0.013]). The indirect effect was not significant for models that did not include both mediators. Limitations: Variables were assessed at one time only. Conclusion: Perfectionism did not directly modulate STB. Perfectionism may be related to suicidal behavior through fear of humiliation, leading to the SCS. These results support the Narrative-Crisis Model of suicide and clarify the role of perfectionism in the etiology of suicide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers: New Trends in Suicide Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Methodology to Improve Health Status Utility Values Derivation Using EQ-5D-5L and Advanced Multi-Criteria Techniques
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041423 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 177
Abstract
This paper presented a new approach to the calculation of quality-adjusted life years (QALY) based on multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods and using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. The health status utility values were calculated through a hybrid methodology. We combined the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), [...] Read more.
This paper presented a new approach to the calculation of quality-adjusted life years (QALY) based on multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods and using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. The health status utility values were calculated through a hybrid methodology. We combined the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the AHP with a D-number extended fuzzy preference relation (D-AHP), the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (F-AHP), and the technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution (TOPSIS) to obtain individual and aggregated utility values. The preference data were elicited using a sample of individuals from a Colombian university. In all tested methods, the ordinal preferences were consistent, and the weights were compared using the Euclidean distance criterion (EDC). We identified F-AHP-TOPSIS as the optimal method; its benefits were associated with modeling the response options of the EQ-5D in linguistic terms, it gave the best approximation to the initial preferences according to EDC, and it could be used as an alternative to the known prioritization method. This hybrid methodology was particularly useful in certain medical decisions concerned with understanding how a specific person values his or her current health or possible health outcomes from different interventions in small population samples and studies carried out in low- and middle-low-income countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
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Open AccessArticle
Smart Glasses-Based Personnel Proximity Warning System for Improving Pedestrian Safety in Construction and Mining Sites
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041422 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 168
Abstract
A smart glasses-based wearable personnel proximity warning system (PWS) was developed for pedestrian safety in construction and mining sites. The smart glasses receive signals transmitted by Bluetooth beacons attached to heavy equipment or vehicles, with the proximity determined by the signal strength. A [...] Read more.
A smart glasses-based wearable personnel proximity warning system (PWS) was developed for pedestrian safety in construction and mining sites. The smart glasses receive signals transmitted by Bluetooth beacons attached to heavy equipment or vehicles, with the proximity determined by the signal strength. A visual alert is displayed to the wearer when in close proximity. The media access control address of the Bluetooth beacon provides information on the approaching equipment or vehicle, which is displayed to the wearer so that they can respond appropriately. There was a detection distance of at least 10 m regardless of the direction the pedestrian was looking and the alert was successful in all 40 trials at ≥10 meters. The subjective workload was evaluated using the NASA task load index on ten subjects, either without a personal PWS, with a smartphone-based PWS, or with the smart glasses-based PWS. The mental, temporal, and physical stresses were lowest when using the smart glasses-based PWS. Smart glasses-based PWSs can improve work efficiency by freeing both hands of the pedestrians, and various functions can be supported through application development. Therefore, they are particularly useful for pedestrian safety in construction and mining sites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors Associated with Carious Lesions in Permanent First Molars in Children: A Seven-Year Retrospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041421 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 129
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with the occurrence of caries in permanent teeth (PT) and in the permanent first molar (PFM) seven years after their eruption. Children born in 2005 who were enrolled in a Community [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with the occurrence of caries in permanent teeth (PT) and in the permanent first molar (PFM) seven years after their eruption. Children born in 2005 who were enrolled in a Community Dental Program were included. A total of 278 children were enrolled. Evaluated risk factors were parental caries experience, educational level of the mother, routine medications, systemic diseases, dietary habits, toothbrushing frequency, existence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in the PT, and caries in the temporary teeth (TT). Associations between independent variables and the DMF-T (decayed, missing, and filled teeth in PT) and DMF-M (DMF in PFM) indices, only considering cavitated and non-cavitated carious lesions or cavitated carious lesions as outcomes, were evaluated by Poisson regression with robust variance analysis. A cariogenic diet (sweets and soft drinks), toothbrushing frequency of <1 a day, a presence of df-t (decayed and filled temporary teeth) score of >0, low educational level of the mother, and existence of MIH were associated with high DMF-T or DMF-M values (p < 0.05). We can conclude that the intake of sweets and soft drinks, toothbrushing frequency, the presence of caries in TT, and MIH in PT were the best predictors of the occurrence of caries in PT and PFM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Diseases)
Open AccessProject Report
The Submissive Relationship of Public Health to Government, Politics, and Economics: How Global Health Diplomacy and Engaged Followership Compromise Humanitarian Relief
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041420 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 139
Abstract
This paper describes efforts by public health practitioners to address a health crisis caused by economic development policies that are unrestrained by either environmental, public health, or human rights mandates. Economic development projects funded by international funding institutions like the Inter-American Development Bank [...] Read more.
This paper describes efforts by public health practitioners to address a health crisis caused by economic development policies that are unrestrained by either environmental, public health, or human rights mandates. Economic development projects funded by international funding institutions like the Inter-American Development Bank that reduce poverty when measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the transborder region between Suriname and French Guiana harm minority populations where commercial activities destroy, alter, and remove the resources upon which local communities depend. In this study, the structural causes of a community health crisis affecting Indigenous people in the transborder region between Suriname and French Guiana was addressed by seeking gatekeepers in government who have access to policy-making processes. We found that deeply rooted economic development policies structured social, economic, and political alliances and made them resistant to feedback and reform. We concluded that work must be focused beyond the simple exchange of public health information. Public health practitioners must become politically active to create new policy commitments and new patterns of governance that advance development as well as improve health outcomes. Failure to do so may result in public health practitioners becoming ‘engaged followers’ that are complicit in the inhumanity that springs from their acquiescence to the authority of government officials when their policies are the cause of preventable death, disease, and disability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health and Well-Being of Indigenous People)
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Open AccessArticle
Establishment of Regional Concentration–Duration–Frequency Relationships of Air Pollution: A Case Study for PM2.5
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041419 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Poor air quality usually leads to PM2.5 warnings and affects human health. The impact of frequency and duration of extreme air quality has received considerable attention. The extreme concentration of air pollution is related to its duration and annual frequency of occurrence [...] Read more.
Poor air quality usually leads to PM2.5 warnings and affects human health. The impact of frequency and duration of extreme air quality has received considerable attention. The extreme concentration of air pollution is related to its duration and annual frequency of occurrence known as concentration–duration–frequency (CDF) relationships. However, the CDF formulas are empirical equations representing the relationship between the maximum concentration as a dependent variable and other parameters of interest, i.e., duration and annual frequency of occurrence. As a basis for deducing the extreme CDF relationship of PM2.5, the function assumes that the extreme concentration is related to the duration and frequency. In addition, the spatial pattern estimation of extreme PM2.5 is identified. The regional CDF identifies the regional extreme concentration with a specified duration and return period. The spatial pattern of extreme air pollution over 8 h duration shows the hotspots of air quality in the central and southwestern areas. Central and southwestern Taiwan is at high risk of exposure to air pollution. Use of the regional CDF analysis is highly recommended for efficient design of air quality management and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Modeling of Air Pollutant Variability)
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Open AccessArticle
Occupational and Individual Determinants of Work-life Balance among Office Workers with Flexible Work Arrangements
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041418 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Flexible work arrangements permitting workers to work anytime and anywhere are increasingly common. This flexibility can introduce both challenges and opportunities for the organisation, as well as for worker work-life balance (WLB). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the extent to which occupational [...] Read more.
Flexible work arrangements permitting workers to work anytime and anywhere are increasingly common. This flexibility can introduce both challenges and opportunities for the organisation, as well as for worker work-life balance (WLB). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the extent to which occupational factors (organizational, leadership and psychosocial) and individual work-related behaviours (over-commitment, overtime work and boundary management) are associated with WLB, and whether these associations are modified by the perceived level of flexibility at work (i.e., control over when, where, and how to do the work). In total, 2960 full-time office workers with flexible work arrangements at the Swedish Transport Administration participated. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses with adjustment for covariates. The strongest negative associations with WLB were found for over-commitment, quantitative job demands, expectations of availability, and overtime work. Strongest positive associations were found for boundary management, information about organizing work, social support, and relation-oriented leadership. Perceived flexibility was positively associated with WLB, and interacted with several of the examined factors, buffering their negative associations with WLB. Results suggest that WLB can be promoted by organizational initiatives focusing on minimizing excessive job demands, increasing psychosocial resources, supporting boundary management, and enhancing perceived flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Quality of Life in Patients before and after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG): A Prospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041417 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life and to report on the utility and QALY measures in patients before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); to investigate whether the SF-12 is comparable with the SF-36 for measuring [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life and to report on the utility and QALY measures in patients before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); to investigate whether the SF-12 is comparable with the SF-36 for measuring health-related quality of life of patients with CABG; and to determine the impact of individual predictors on poor quality of life assessment after rehabilitation. This prospective study was conducted between January 2017 and December 2018 at the University Hospital Center Osijek, at three time points: pre-operation, 1 month after surgery, and after rehabilitation. The study was conducted with the SF-36 and SF-12 health questionnaires on 47 participants. After rehabilitation, there was a significant improvement in all domains of quality of life. The highest score was given to the change in pain (BP); mean scores were 63.8 (95% CI 56.9 to 70.6) (p = 0.001). The lowest grade (the lowest quality) after rehabilitation was in the domain of limitations due to physical difficulties (RP); arithmetic mean was 48.5 (95% CI 41 to 55.9) (p < 0.001). Quality-adjusted life-year was 0.41 (95% CI 0.38–0.44) after the CABG. The results of this study show that patients with coronary heart disease have poor quality of life before surgery. One month after the surgery, the quality of life improved, but was still inadequate. One year after surgery, satisfactory results were obtained in almost all subscales. The SF-36, SF-12, and its components, can be used effectively in patients with CABG. Age, gender, lifestyle, and risk factors in our sample of participants are not predictors of poor quality of life assessment after rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Related Quality of Life in Health Care)
Open AccessArticle
Perfectionism Profiles and Anger Responses: The Relevant Role of Self-Esteem in Athletes of Professional Quarries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041416 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality trait characterized by effort and rigidity in setting high personal standards, accompanied by an excessive tendency toward critical assessments, which plays an important role in cognitive, behavioral, and emotional functioning. During adolescence, personality is built on a fundamental [...] Read more.
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality trait characterized by effort and rigidity in setting high personal standards, accompanied by an excessive tendency toward critical assessments, which plays an important role in cognitive, behavioral, and emotional functioning. During adolescence, personality is built on a fundamental pillar—self-esteem—which plays an important role in sports practice when it comes to achieving the best possible performance. Anger has an emotional component that, interpreted in an unadaptive way, interferes with sports performance. The aim of this study is to assess differences according to self-esteem and perfectionism indicators and anger expression and management in young athletes. The sample included 229 male athletes to the quarries of professional sports with ages between 13 and 17 years. They were administered the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory for Children and Adolescents, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Predictive analysis showed that low personal standards and high levels of organization (indicators of adaptive perfectionism) acted as predictors of state anger, while those showing high personal standards predicted high anger management in athletes with high self-esteem. High personal standards predicted lower indicators of trait anger in athletes with low self-esteem. The results revealed the influence of high self-esteem as a protective factor in the predictive relationship among anger traits and personal standards. The study describes the relationship of these variables in the belongings of young male footballers (under high sport pressure), showing the need to take care of the athletes’ self-esteem in sport environments through prevention programs that include psychological and social resources training systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Physical Education and Sport)
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Open AccessArticle
Personality, Behavior Characteristics, and Life Quality Impact of Children with Dyslexia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041415 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 174
Abstract
Dyslexia is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders. Children with dyslexia usually suffer from negative, behavior personality problems, and impacted life quality. We aimed to identify family environment factors for dyslexia, and to evaluate the personality, behavior characteristics and life quality of [...] Read more.
Dyslexia is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders. Children with dyslexia usually suffer from negative, behavior personality problems, and impacted life quality. We aimed to identify family environment factors for dyslexia, and to evaluate the personality, behavior characteristics and life quality of children with dyslexia. A total of 60 children diagnosed with dyslexia and 180 normal children that were aged 7–12 who speak Chinese were recruited from four primary schools in Shantou City, China. Self-designed questionnaire, children’s edition of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Quality of Life scale for children and adolescents (QLSCA) were employed for investigation. Multiple logistic regressions show that antenatal training (OR = 0.36), higher household income, higher parents’ educational levels, and parents engaging in white-collar jobs were negatively associated with dyslexia; while, family members also suffering from dyslexia (OR = 12.17), lower frequency of communication between parents and children, and worse parent-child relationship were positively associated with dyslexia. Children with dyslexia scored higher in psychoticism and neuroticism (p = 0.040, 0.008), but lower in extroversion and dissimulation than normal children (p = 0.025, 0.007) in the EPQ test. They tended to be more introversion (68.3% vs. 43.0%), psychoticism (25.0% vs. 13.3%), and neuroticism (46.7% vs. 18.8%) than the controls. In addition, children with dyslexia had higher scores in conduct problem, learning problem, hyperactivity, and Conners’ index of hyperactivity (CIH) in CPRS test; and, lower scores of psychosocial function, physical and mental health, and satisfaction of living quality in QLSCA test (all p < 0.05). Several family environment and parenting factors were associated with children’s dyslexia significantly. Children with dyslexia had the personality of psychoticism, neuroticism, introversion, and more behavioral problems. Dyslexia significantly impacted the children’s quality of life. Our findings provide multiple perspectives for early intervention of dyslexia in children, particularly in family factors and the parenting environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Propane-1,3-sultone in Workplace Air for Occupational Exposure Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041414 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Propane-1,3-sultone (PS) is an alkylating substance used in the production of polymers, fungicides, insecticides, dyes, and detergents. It is absorbed into the human body by inhalation, digestion, and through the skin; it is also a possible carcinogen. Occupational exposure to this substance may [...] Read more.
Propane-1,3-sultone (PS) is an alkylating substance used in the production of polymers, fungicides, insecticides, dyes, and detergents. It is absorbed into the human body by inhalation, digestion, and through the skin; it is also a possible carcinogen. Occupational exposure to this substance may occur on industrial or laboratory contact. In Poland, the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for PS in workplace air is 7 µg/m3. The paper presents a method for determination of PS in workplace air using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Air containing PS is passed through a glass tube containing a glass fiber filter and two layers of silica gel. The substance is washed with acetonitrile and the solution obtained analysed using GC-MS. The measuring range for an air sample of 360 L is 0.7 14 µg/m3. The limit of detection (LOD) is 13 ng/m3, limit of quantification (LOQ) is 40 ng/m3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution: Occupational Exposure and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Space-Time Clustering Characteristics of Tuberculosis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, 2015–2019
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041413 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
The number of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Pakistan ranks fifth in the world. The National TB Control Program (NTP) has recently reported more than 462,920 TB patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan from 2002 to 2017. This study aims to identify spatial and [...] Read more.
The number of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Pakistan ranks fifth in the world. The National TB Control Program (NTP) has recently reported more than 462,920 TB patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan from 2002 to 2017. This study aims to identify spatial and space-time clusters of TB cases in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province Pakistan during 2015–2019 to design effective interventions. The spatial and space-time cluster analyses were conducted at the district-level based on the reported TB cases from January 2015 to April 2019 using space-time scan statistics (SaTScan). The most likely spatial and space-time clusters were detected in the northern rural part of the province. Additionally, two districts in the west were detected as the secondary space-time clusters. The most likely space-time cluster shows a tendency of spread toward the neighboring districts in the central part, and the most likely spatial cluster shows a tendency of spread toward the neighboring districts in the south. Most of the space-time clusters were detected at the start of the study period 2015–2016. The potential TB clusters in the remote rural part might be associated to the dry–cool climate and lack of access to the healthcare centers in the remote areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serological and Molecular Detection of Bovine Brucellosis at Institutional Livestock Farms in Punjab, Pakistan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041412 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 211
Abstract
Bovine brucellosis remains a persistent infection in ruminants in Pakistan. A total of 828 (409 buffaloes and 419 cattle) sera were collected from 11 institutional-owned livestock farms in Punjab, Pakistan. The samples were tested by rose bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and indirect [...] Read more.
Bovine brucellosis remains a persistent infection in ruminants in Pakistan. A total of 828 (409 buffaloes and 419 cattle) sera were collected from 11 institutional-owned livestock farms in Punjab, Pakistan. The samples were tested by rose bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The seroprevalence along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was determined. Univariable and multivariable analysis of the epidemiological background data was conducted and odds ratio (OR) was calculated to understand any association between the risk factors and the seroprevalence. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (Positive/Tested = 32/828) and 3.3% (27/828) was detected by RBPT and iELISA, respectively. The seroprevalence of 5.6% (CI 3.6–8.3) and 4.7%, (CI 2.8–7.2) and the odds ratio of 2.63 (CI 1.20–5.77) and 2.50 (CI 1.08–5.78) for testing positive by RBPT and iELISA, respectively were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in buffaloes than in cattle. Breed, sex, history of abortion and retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in the animals were not found statistically significantly associated with the infection. RBPT and iELISA based results agreed almost perfect (k = 0.877). In total, Brucella abortus-DNA (9/27) was amplified from seropositive samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. This study identified for the first time the etiological agents of brucellosis at a molecular level at institutional-owned livestock farms in Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Attitudes of Teenage Mothers Towards Pregnancy and Childbirth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041411 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 128
Abstract
The problem of early motherhood is still a serious medical and social problem in many countries around the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes of teenage mothers towards pregnancy and childbirth. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with [...] Read more.
The problem of early motherhood is still a serious medical and social problem in many countries around the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes of teenage mothers towards pregnancy and childbirth. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with the use of an original questionnaire containing a test to measure attitudes on a five-point Likert scale and a Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) to assess dispositional optimism. The study involved 308 teenage mothers between 13 and 19 years of age. Attitudes of teenage mothers towards pregnancy and childbirth were more often positive (90.6%) than negative (9.4%). Sociodemographic features determining the attitudes of teenage mothers towards both their pregnancy and childbirth included their age, marital status, current occupation, and main source of income. The type of attitude adopted by teenage mothers towards pregnancy and childbirth was significantly related to the level of their dispositional optimism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Performance of Land Consolidation Projects in Different Modes: A Case Study in Jianghan Plain of Hubei Province, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041410 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 157
Abstract
Land consolidation is essential in China for improving land use efficiency and supporting rural public space governance. Previously, the implementation of land consolidation projects (LCPs) had been mainly led by governments in China. In recent years, the Chinese government vigorously promoted land consolidation, [...] Read more.
Land consolidation is essential in China for improving land use efficiency and supporting rural public space governance. Previously, the implementation of land consolidation projects (LCPs) had been mainly led by governments in China. In recent years, the Chinese government vigorously promoted land consolidation, and land consolidation in the corporation-leading mode (CLM) has emerged. This study focused on investigating the performance of CLM projects and the difference in performance levels between the CLM projects and the government-leading mode (GLM) projects. Based on the improved extensible matter–element model, the performance levels of 14 LCPs in GLM and CLM of Jianghan Plain, Hubei Province and related impact factors were analyzed. A set of evaluation indices was selected based on the “process-based thinking and logic”. Results showed that: (1) performance levels of the 14 LCPs are different, most of the projects in the GLM have ordinary or poor performance, while most of the projects in the CLM have excellent or good performance; (2) factors affecting the performance levels of LCPs are also different in the two modes. The main influencing factors in the CLM were the poor access to field roads, insufficient shelterbelt planting, and low land reclamation efficiency, while the insufficient shelterbelt planting, low annual output value of farmland and grain production capacity, low increase rate of agricultural labor production, and low land reclamation efficiency were the main influencing factors in the GLM; (3) comparative analysis of the two modes revealed that LCPs in the CLM have clear investment directions, high output benefits, and obvious advantages in the development of modern agriculture when compared with the GLM. To achieve improving the performance levels of LCPs, policy makers should actively innovate the implementation mode of LCPs and encourage all kinds of agricultural corporations to participate in land consolidation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Physical and Physiological Profiles of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacities in Young Basketball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041409 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Current trends in the analysis of the physical fitness of athletes are based on subjecting the athlete to requirements similar to those found in competition. Regarding physical fitness, a thorough study of the capacities that affect the development of team sports in different [...] Read more.
Current trends in the analysis of the physical fitness of athletes are based on subjecting the athlete to requirements similar to those found in competition. Regarding physical fitness, a thorough study of the capacities that affect the development of team sports in different ages and gender is required since the demands are not equivalent. The objective of this paper was to characterize the physical-physiological demands of athletes in an aerobic and anaerobic test specific to basketball players, as well as the evolution of the variables according to age and gender. The research was carried out in 149 players from different training categories (n = 103 male; n = 46 female). The athletes performed two field tests that evaluated both aerobic capacity and lactic anaerobic capacity. Each athlete was equipped with an inertial device during the tests. Sixteen variables (equal in both tests) were analyzed. Three of them evaluated technical-tactical aspects, four variables of objective internal load, six kinematic variables of objective external load (two related to distance and four related to accelerometry) and three neuromuscular variables of objective external load. The obtained results show significant differences in the variables analyzed according to the age and gender of the athletes. They are mainly due to factors related to the anthropometric maturation and development inherent in age and have an impact on the efficiency and technical and tactical requirements of the tests carried out and, therefore, on the obtained results in the tests. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Communicative and Social Skills among Medical Students in Spain: A Descriptive Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041408 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Effective risk communication in public health requires the development of social skills such as active listening and empathy. Communicative and social skills were evaluated in third-year medical students (n = 917) using the Active Listening Test and the Test of Cognitive and [...] Read more.
Effective risk communication in public health requires the development of social skills such as active listening and empathy. Communicative and social skills were evaluated in third-year medical students (n = 917) using the Active Listening Test and the Test of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. The results obtained revealed that our participants had equal or better-than-norm communication skills. Women scored higher in active listening whereas men scored higher on the General Empathy Scale. The students who preferred a clinical specialty obtained higher scores in active listening and empathetic abilities, as compared to students who chose a surgical specialty. In conclusion, the medical students who participated in the study exhibited good communicative and social skills. An association was observed between gender and specialty preference, and empathy and active listening skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies and Evidence in Health Communication)
Open AccessViewpoint
Spaceship Earth Revisited: The Co-Benefits of Overcoming Biological Extinction of Experience at the Level of Person, Place and Planet
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041407 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Extensive research underscores that we interpret the world through metaphors; moreover, common metaphors are a useful means to enhance the pursuit of personal and collective goals. In the context of planetary health—defined as the interdependent vitality of all natural and anthropogenic ecosystems (social, [...] Read more.
Extensive research underscores that we interpret the world through metaphors; moreover, common metaphors are a useful means to enhance the pursuit of personal and collective goals. In the context of planetary health—defined as the interdependent vitality of all natural and anthropogenic ecosystems (social, political and otherwise)—one enduring metaphor can be found in the concept of “Spaceship Earth”. Although not without criticism, the term “Spaceship Earth” has been useful to highlight both resource limitations and the beauty and fragility of delicate ecosystems that sustain life. Rene Dubos, who helped popularize the term, underscored the need for an exposome perspective, one that examines the total accumulated environmental exposures (both detrimental and beneficial) that predict the biological responses of the “total organism to the total environment” over time. In other words, how large-scale environmental changes affect us all personally, albeit in individualized ways. This commentary focuses the ways in which microbes, as an essential part of all ecosystems, provide a vital link between personal and planetary systems, and mediate the biopsychosocial aspects of our individualized experience—and thus health—over our life course journey. A more fine-grained understanding of these dynamics and our power to change them, personally and collectively, lies at the core of restoring “ecosystems balance” for person, place and planet. In particular, restoring human connectedness to the natural world, sense of community and shared purpose must occur in tandem with technological solutions, and will enhance individual empowerment for personal well-being, as well as our collective potential to overcome our grand challenges. Such knowledge can help shape the use of metaphor and re-imagine solutions and novel ways for restoration or rewilding of ecosystems, and the values, behaviors and attitudes to light the path toward exiting the Anthropocene. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cerebral Oxygenation Reserve: The Relationship Between Physical Activity Level and the Cognitive Load During a Stroop Task in Healthy Young Males
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041406 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Introduction: Many studies have reported that regular physical activity is positively associated with cognitive performance and more selectively with executive functions. However, some studies reported that the association of physical activity on executive performance in younger adults was not as clearly established [...] Read more.
Introduction: Many studies have reported that regular physical activity is positively associated with cognitive performance and more selectively with executive functions. However, some studies reported that the association of physical activity on executive performance in younger adults was not as clearly established when compared to studies with older adults. Among the many physiological mechanisms that may influence cognitive functioning, prefrontal (PFC) oxygenation seems to play a major role. The aim of the current study was to assess whether executive function and prefrontal oxygenation are dependent on physical activity levels (active versus inactive) in healthy young males. Methods: Fifty-six healthy young males (22.1 ± 2.4 years) were classified as active (n = 26) or inactive (n = 30) according to the recommendations made by the World Health Organization (WHO) and using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Bilateral PFC oxygenation was assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a computerized Stroop task (which included naming, inhibition, and switching conditions). Accuracy (% of correct responses) and reaction times (ms) were used as behavioural indicators of cognitive performances. Changes in oxygenated (∆HbO2) and deoxygenated (∆HHb) hemoglobin were measured to capture neural changes. Several two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (Physical activity level x Stroop conditions) were performed to test the null hypothesis of an absence of interaction between physical activity level and executive performance in prefrontal oxygenation. Results: The analysis revealed an interaction between physical activity level and Stroop conditions on reaction time (p = 0.04; ES = 0.7) in which physical activity level had a moderate effect on reaction time in the switching condition (p = 0.02; ES = 0.8) but not in naming and inhibition conditions. At the neural level, a significant interaction between physical activity level and prefrontal oxygenation was found. Physical activity level had a large effect on ΔHbO2 in the switching condition in the right PFC (p = 0.04; ES = 0.8) and left PFC (p = 0.02; ES = 0.96), but not in other conditions. A large physical activity level effect was also found on ΔHHb in the inhibition condition in the right PFC (p < 0.01; ES = 0.9), but not in the left PFC or other conditions. Conclusion: The results of this cross-sectional study indicate that active young males performed better in executive tasks than their inactive counterparts and had a larger change in oxygenation in the PFC during these most complex conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
Open AccessArticle
A Longitudinal Study of Authoritative Parenting, Juvenile Delinquency and Crime Victimization among Chinese Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041405 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 157
Abstract
Empirical research on the relationship between authoritative parenting and crime victimization has been sparse, although this style of parenting has been identified as an effective parenting practice for inhibiting offending behavior among children and adolescents. The current research aims at filling this gap [...] Read more.
Empirical research on the relationship between authoritative parenting and crime victimization has been sparse, although this style of parenting has been identified as an effective parenting practice for inhibiting offending behavior among children and adolescents. The current research aims at filling this gap by examining the influences of authoritative parenting on juvenile delinquency and crime victimization, as well as the mechanisms connecting the processes. Using two-wave survey data collected from a probability sample of 1066 Chinese adolescents, the current study employed a structural equation modeling analysis to test the relationships. The results indicated that authoritative parenting negatively predicted juvenile delinquency and crime victimization. Further, adolescent mental health problems and delinquent peer association partially mediated the influence of authoritative parenting on delinquency, while adolescent mental health problems, delinquent peer association, and juvenile delinquency fully mediated the relationship between authoritative parenting and crime victimization. The results also showed that juvenile delinquency positively predicted future crime victimization. Overall, this study demonstrated that authoritative parenting operated as a protective factor against juvenile delinquency and crime victimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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