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Open AccessArticle

Prenatal Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure and Longitudinal Weight Growth Trajectories in Early Childhood

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Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA
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Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA
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Biostatistics and Epidemiology Data Analytics Center, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA
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Department of Biostatistics, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Department of Environmental Health, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041444
Received: 6 February 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 20 February 2020 / Published: 24 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been associated with impaired fetal growth and postnatal weight gain, but few studies have examined the effect on weight growth trajectories. We examine the association between validated 1 km2 resolution particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, averaged over pregnancy, and sex-specific growth trajectories from birth to age six of participants in the Boston-based Children’s HealthWatch cohort (4797 participants, 84,283 measures). We compared weight trajectories, predicted using polynomial splines in mixed models, between prenatal PM2.5 above or below the median (9.5 µg/m3), and examined birth weight as an effect modifier. Females exposed to average prenatal PM2.5 ≥ 9.5 µg/m3 had higher weights compared to females exposed to < 9.5 µg/m3 throughout the study period (0.16 kg at 24 months, 0.61 kg at 60 months). In males, higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure was associated with significantly lower weights after 24 months of age, with differences increasing with time (−0.17 at 24 months, −0.72 kg at 60 months). Associations were more pronounced among low birth weight (<2500 g) females, but did not differ by birth weight status in males. Our findings demonstrate the complex association between air pollution exposures and childhood weight trajectories and emphasize the importance of sex-stratified analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; PM2.5; weight trajectories; in utero exposures; growth; childhood air pollution; PM2.5; weight trajectories; in utero exposures; growth; childhood
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Rosofsky, A.S.; Fabian, M.P.; Ettinger de Cuba, S.; Sandel, M.; Coleman, S.; Levy, J.I.; Coull, B.A.; Hart, J.E.; Zanobetti, A. Prenatal Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure and Longitudinal Weight Growth Trajectories in Early Childhood. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1444.

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