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Article

Cross-Lagged Associations between Depressive Symptoms and Response Style in Adolescents

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Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, GGZ Oost Brabant, P.O. Box 3, 5427 ZG Boekel, The Netherland
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Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Rotterdam, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Academic Anxiety Centre, Altrecht, P.O. Box 85314, 3508 AH Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Behavioral Science Institute, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041380
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2020 / Accepted: 19 February 2020 / Published: 21 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depressive Disorder)
Depressive disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence and they are a major concern for individuals and society. The Response Style Theory and the Scar Theory both suggest a relationship between response styles and depressive symptoms, but the theories differ in the order of the development of depressive symptoms. Longitudinal reciprocal prospective relationships between depressive symptoms and response styles were examined in a community sample of 1343 adolescents. Additionally, response style was constructed with the traditional approach, which involves examining three response styles separately without considering the possible relations between them, and with the ratio approach, which accounts for all three response styles simultaneously. No reciprocal relationships between depressive symptoms and response style were found over time. Only longitudinal relationships between response style and depressive symptoms were significant. This study found that only depressive symptoms predicted response style, whereas the response style did not emerge as an important underlying mechanism responsible for developing and maintaining depressive symptoms in adolescents. These findings imply that prevention and intervention programs for adolescents with low depressive symptoms should not focus on adaptive and maladaptive response style strategies to decrease depressive symptoms, but should focus more on behavioral interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; adolescents; response style; emotion regulation; cross-lagged model depression; adolescents; response style; emotion regulation; cross-lagged model
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MDPI and ACS Style

van Ettekoven, K.M.; Rasing, S.P.A.; Vermulst, A.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kindt, K.C.M.; Creemers, D.H.M. Cross-Lagged Associations between Depressive Symptoms and Response Style in Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041380

AMA Style

van Ettekoven KM, Rasing SPA, Vermulst AA, Engels RCME, Kindt KCM, Creemers DHM. Cross-Lagged Associations between Depressive Symptoms and Response Style in Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(4):1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041380

Chicago/Turabian Style

van Ettekoven, Kim M., Sanne P.A. Rasing, Ad A. Vermulst, Rutger C.M.E. Engels, Karlijn C.M. Kindt, and Daan H.M. Creemers. 2020. "Cross-Lagged Associations between Depressive Symptoms and Response Style in Adolescents" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 4: 1380. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041380

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