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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 2 (January-2 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Dissipation Dynamics and Residue of Four Herbicides in Paddy Fields Using HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020236 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
The dissipation dynamics and residue of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, acetochlor, and butachlor in paddy fields at Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) condition were carefully investigated in this study. The four herbicides’ residues were determined based on a quick, easy, cheap, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) method coupled
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The dissipation dynamics and residue of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, acetochlor, and butachlor in paddy fields at Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) condition were carefully investigated in this study. The four herbicides’ residues were determined based on a quick, easy, cheap, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The limit of detection (LOD) for pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, acetochlor, and butachlor in all matrices ranged from 0.04–1.0 ng. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the four herbicides ranged from 0.01–0.1 mg/kg. Moreover, the average recoveries of the four herbicides ranged from 78.9–108% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 15% at three different fortified levels for different matrices. The dissipation results indicated that the average half-lives (t1/2) of the four herbicides in soil were in the range of 3.5–17.8 days, and more than 95% of the four herbicides dissipated within 5 days in water. Furthermore, the final residues of the four herbicides were all below the LOQ at harvest time. Such results highlight the dissipation dynamics and residue of the four herbicides in a rice cropping system and contribute to risk assessment as well as scientific guidance on the proper and safe application of herbicides in paddy fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Effects of Psychological Symptoms after Occupational Injury on Return to Work: A 6-Year Follow-Up
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020235 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Psychological factors may compromise return to work among workers with occupational injuries, and little is known about the long-term consequences of psychological symptoms relating to return to work. The study examined the impact of psychological symptoms on return to work as well as
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Psychological factors may compromise return to work among workers with occupational injuries, and little is known about the long-term consequences of psychological symptoms relating to return to work. The study examined the impact of psychological symptoms on return to work as well as exploring factors associated with return to work among injured workers. A total of 572 workers who experienced occupational injuries were recruited in this prospective cohort study. Surveys of the psychological symptoms using the 5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5) were conducted at 3 and 12 months after the injury. All of the workers were invited to join the study at year 6 after the injury. Sociodemographic factors, psychological symptoms, injury severity, and return-to-work status were collected. Approximately 10% of injured workers could not return to work even 6 years after the injury. Severe psychological symptoms within 1 year after the injury presented a significant risk factor for not returning to work 6 years after the injury (adjusted OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5–0.8). Furthermore, age, education level, length of hospitalization, and injury-induced changes in appearance had significant independent influence on return to work as well. These findings highlight the importance of the effects of mental health within 1 year post injury on return to work, and support the concept of early screening, detection, and intervention in at-risk occupational injured workers with severe psychological symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle Active School Transportation in Winter Conditions: Biking Together is Warmer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020234 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
There has been a decline in children’s use of active school transportation (AST) while there is also limited research concerning AST in winter conditions. This study aimed to explore the prerequisites and experiences of schoolchildren and parents participating in an empowerment- and gamification-inspired
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There has been a decline in children’s use of active school transportation (AST) while there is also limited research concerning AST in winter conditions. This study aimed to explore the prerequisites and experiences of schoolchildren and parents participating in an empowerment- and gamification-inspired intervention to promote students’ AST in winter conditions. Methods: Thirty-five students, who were aged 12–13 years, and 34 parents from the north of Sweden participated in the study. Data were collected using photovoice and open questions in a questionnaire and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The results show that involvement and togetherness motivated the students to use AST. In addition, during the project, the parents changed to have more positive attitudes towards their children’s use of AST. The students reported that using AST during wintertime is strenuous but rewarding and imparts a sense of pride. Conclusion: Interventions for increasing students’ AST in winter conditions should focus on the motivational aspects for both children and parents. For overcoming parental hesitation with regards to AST during winter, addressing their concerns and empowering the students are key factors. To increase the use of AST all year around, targeting the challenges perceived during the winter is especially beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Physical Activity and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Association between Continuity of Care and the Onset of Thyroid Disorder among Diabetes Patients in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020233 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Objectives: As the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction is well known, it is important to investigate the factors influencing this association. Continuity of care is associated with better quality of care and outcomes, such as reduced complications, among diabetes patients.
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Objectives: As the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction is well known, it is important to investigate the factors influencing this association. Continuity of care is associated with better quality of care and outcomes, such as reduced complications, among diabetes patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between continuity of care and the onset of thyroid dysfunction among diabetes patients. Methods: We used Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort data from 2002 to 2013. Our final study population included 16,806 newly diagnosed diabetes patients who were older than 45 years of age. Continuity of care was measured using the Continuity of Care index. The dependent variable was the onset of thyroid disorder. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for statistical analyses. Results: Diabetes patients with low continuity of care were at increased risk of the onset of thyroid disorder compared with those with high continuity of care (hazard ratio (HR): 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.54). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was significant within patients with type 2 diabetes (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01–1.52) or whose main attending site was a local clinic (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07–1.64). Conclusions: Our results show that diabetes patients with low continuity of care are more likely to experience the onset of thyroid disorder. Therefore, improving continuity of care could be a reasonable method of preventing complications or comorbidities, including thyroid disorder, among diabetes patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of a Multidimensional Physical Activity Intervention on Body Mass Index, Skinfolds and Fitness in South African Children: Results from a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020232 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Obesity-related conditions impose a considerable and growing burden on low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. We aimed to assess the effect of twice a 10-week multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention on children’s health in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. A cluster-randomised controlled trial
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Obesity-related conditions impose a considerable and growing burden on low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. We aimed to assess the effect of twice a 10-week multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention on children’s health in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was implemented from February 2015 to May 2016 in grade 4 classes in eight disadvantaged primary schools. Interventions consisted of physical education lessons, moving-to-music classes, in-class activity breaks and school infrastructure enhancement to promote physical activity. Primary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness. Explanatory variables were socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity, stunting, anaemia and parasite infections. Complete data were available from 746 children. A significantly lower increase in the mean BMI Z-score (estimate of difference in mean change: −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.24 to −0.09; p < 0.001) and reduced increase in the mean skinfold thickness (difference in mean change: −1.06; 95% CI: −1.83 to −0.29; p = 0.007) was observed in intervention schools. No significant group difference occurred in the mean change of cardiorespiratory fitness (p > 0.05). These findings show that a multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention can reduce the increase in specific cardiovascular risk factors. However, a longer and more intensive intervention might be necessary to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
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Open AccessArticle Barriers to the Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in the Community of Southwestern China: A Qualitative Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020231 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Objective viral hepatitis is a big challenge in China. However, few studies have focused on mapping the difficulties from a broader view. This study aimed to identify the barriers to the prevention and control of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in communities from
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Objective viral hepatitis is a big challenge in China. However, few studies have focused on mapping the difficulties from a broader view. This study aimed to identify the barriers to the prevention and control of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in communities from the perspectives of hepatitis patients, residents, and healthcare providers. A total of 26 participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were collected by in-depth face-to-face interviews from September 2015 to May 2016 in two communities from Chongqing and Chengdu, China. A thematic framework was applied to analyze the qualitative data from the interviews. The critical factors of barriers to hepatitis prevention and control in the districts included poor cognition of residents regarding hepatitis B and hepatitis C, severe stigma in society, inadequate health education, and the provision of unsatisfactory medical services. Strengthening health education and improving services for treating patients with hepatitis are suggested to make further progress. A substantial gap remains between the need and currently available services for hepatitis patients and residents. Delivering quality prevention and control health services, improving health education, and reducing stigma in society are recommended to improve the prevention and control program for hepatitis B and C in communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Trust in the Work Environment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Findings from the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020230 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
This study examined associations between trust, an important aspect of workplace social capital, with seven cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7 (LS7)): smoking, obesity, low physical activity, poor diet, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Data are
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This study examined associations between trust, an important aspect of workplace social capital, with seven cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7 (LS7)): smoking, obesity, low physical activity, poor diet, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Data are from the U.S. Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index (2010–2012), a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. workers (n = 412,884). The independent variable was the response to a work environment (WE) question as to whether their supervisor always creates an open and trusting environment. Regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics with each of the LS7 CVD risk factors as dependent variables. Twenty-one percent of workers reported that their supervisor did not create an open and trusting environment. Trust was associated with increased adjusted odds of having many of the LS7 CVD risk factors. Among those workers whose supervisor created a mistrustful environment, the odds ratios were greatest (>20%) for having four or more of the LS7 CVD risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Total Worker Health to Advance Worker Health and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Walking in a Forest on Young Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020229 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
The effects of forest activities on health promotion have received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and psychological effects of brief walks in forests on young women. The experiments were conducted in 6 forests (test) and 6
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The effects of forest activities on health promotion have received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and psychological effects of brief walks in forests on young women. The experiments were conducted in 6 forests (test) and 6 city areas (control). Overall, 12 participants in each area (60 participants in total, mean age: 21.0 ± 1.3 years) were instructed to walk in a forest and a city area for approximately 15 min; simultaneously, their heart rate variability, heart rate, blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured to quantify their physiological responses to walking. The modified semantic differential method, Profile of Mood States (POMS), and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to determine their psychological responses. Walking in a forest was associated with significantly higher parasympathetic nervous activity and lower sympathetic nervous activity and heart rate. In addition, scores for the comfortable, relaxed, and natural parameters and vigor subscale of POMS were significantly higher, whereas scores for negative feelings, such as tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, anger–hostility, fatigue, and confusion, were significantly lower, as were the total mood disturbance of POMS and the anxiety dimension of the STAI. The subjective evaluations were generally in accordance with the physiological responses. A brief walk in a forest resulted in physiological and psychological relaxation effects in young women. Full article
Open AccessArticle Health Emergency Disaster Risk Management of Public Transport Systems: A Population-Based Study after the 2017 Subway Fire in Hong Kong, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020228 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Background: Literature on health emergency disaster risk management (Health-EDRM) for urban public transport safety is limited. This study explored: (i) the confidence in public transport safety, (ii) the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and risk perception of transport safety and (iii) the association between
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Background: Literature on health emergency disaster risk management (Health-EDRM) for urban public transport safety is limited. This study explored: (i) the confidence in public transport safety, (ii) the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and risk perception of transport safety and (iii) the association between previous first-aid training and response knowledge. Method: This is a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey conducted in March 2017, one month after a major subway incident in Hong Kong. Respondents were randomly selected with the Random Digit Dialing method among Cantonese-speaking population ≥15 years. Sociodemographic information, type of transport used and the corresponding worries, response knowledge and previous first-aid training experience (as a proxy for individual skills in Health-EDRM training proxy) were collected. Results: Among the 1000 respondents, 87% used public transport daily. The self-reported confidence in subway safety was 85.6% even after a subway fire accident. Female, those with lower income and people unmarried were more likely to express worry about transport safety. About 46.1–63.2% respondents had the correct fire related health response knowledge. Previous first-aid training (32%) was found to be associated with fire response knowledge in a mixed pattern. Conclusions: Despite inadequacy in fire response knowledge, previous first-aid training appeared to be a beneficial factor for emergency response knowledge. Emergency responses education should be provided to the public to reduce health losses during emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of β-Glucan and Black Tea in a Functional Bread on Short Chain Fatty Acid Production by the Gut Microbiota in a Gut Digestion/Fermentation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020227 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
β-Glucan and black tea are fermented by the colonic microbiota producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and phenolic acids (PA). We hypothesized that the addition of β-glucan, a dietary fiber, and tea polyphenols to a food matrix like bread will also affect starch
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β-Glucan and black tea are fermented by the colonic microbiota producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and phenolic acids (PA). We hypothesized that the addition of β-glucan, a dietary fiber, and tea polyphenols to a food matrix like bread will also affect starch digestion in the upper gut and thus further influence colonic fermentation and SCFA production. This study investigated SCFA and PA production from locally developed breads: white bread (WB), black tea bread (BT), β-glucan bread (βG), β-glucan plus black tea bread (βGBT). Each bread was incubated in an in vitro system mimicking human digestion and colonic fermentation. Digestion with α-amylase significantly (p = 0.0001) increased total polyphenol and polyphenolic metabolites from BT bread compared with WB, βG, and βGBT. Total polyphenols in βGBT remained higher (p = 0.016; 1.3-fold) after digestion with pepsin and pancreatin compared with WB. Fermentations containing βG and βGBT produced similar propionate concentrations ranging from 17.5 to 18.6 mmol/L and total SCFA from 46.0 to 48.9 mmol/L compared with control WB (14.0 and 37.4 mmol/L, respectively). This study suggests that combination of black tea with β-glucan in this functional bread did not impact on SCFA production. A higher dose of black tea and β-glucan or in combination with other fibers may be needed to increase SCFA production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiome and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional Status of Elderly Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020226 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Surgical trauma can result in immobilization of biological material, degradation of muscle proteins, synthesis of acute-phase proteins in the liver, occurrence of catabolism phase and anabolism simultaneously, and as a consequence weight loss and nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to
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Surgical trauma can result in immobilization of biological material, degradation of muscle proteins, synthesis of acute-phase proteins in the liver, occurrence of catabolism phase and anabolism simultaneously, and as a consequence weight loss and nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with ischemic heart disease subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery and physical activity and postoperative complications. The analysis among 96 men included total number of lymphocytes (TNL), body mass index (BMI), case history of a patient and results of laboratory tests. The activities of daily living (ADL) and the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaires were used. According to TNL, before the procedure malnutrition occurred in 46% of patients. BMI revealed overweight in 62.5% and obesity in 26.0%. After the surgery, no changes were observed. According to MNA, 59% of patients before the surgery were at risk of malnutrition. After the operation, the number of people at risk of malnutrition increased by 50% (p < 0.0001). The correlation was noted between BMI and patients’ efficiency in the fifth day after the surgery (p = 0.0031). Complications after the surgery occurred in 35.4% of patients. After the surgery, the risk of malnutrition increased, decreased activity and complications occurred more frequently in people with underweight, obesity, and overweight than in people with normal BMI. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatial Accessibility to Healthcare Services in Metropolitan Suburbs: The Case of Qingpu, Shanghai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020225 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Spatial accessibility is an important factor for planning healthcare services to maintain a quality life for the metropolitan area. The metropolitan suburb is a special area for its location and rapidly changing population during urbanization. Taking Qingpu district, a suburb of Shanghai as
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Spatial accessibility is an important factor for planning healthcare services to maintain a quality life for the metropolitan area. The metropolitan suburb is a special area for its location and rapidly changing population during urbanization. Taking Qingpu district, a suburb of Shanghai as a case, this study evaluated the spatial accessibility to healthcare services of 203 villages and neighborhoods based on the Two-Step Floating Catchment Area (2SFCA) method by ArcGIS software. The result shows that the spatial accessibility in the whole district is quite uneven under lower thresholds, and the spatial differences are beyond the traditional zoning of East Qingpu, New City and West Qingpu. The worst accessibility was mainly distributed at the edges of Jinze, Liantang and Zhujiajiao, while the best accessibility was mainly distributed in the New City and the region close around it. The average value of the spatial accessibility in Qingpu is 2.84, with a reach equal under 90 min threshold by bus index of 2.85, or an under 60 min threshold by self-driving index of 2.70. Secondly, the difference shows a new pattern, that is the spatial accessibility could be affected by both the New City and the Central City. Thirdly, the transportation mode, urbanization, the density of road network and bus lines, as well as the number of doctors in each healthcare service would directly affect the spatial accessibility. Lastly, in order to improve the spatial accessibility in metropolitan suburbs, greater effort is needed in increasing the numbers of bus stations and doctors, especially the areas which are farthest from the New City or the Central City, such as Jinze, and Lian Tang town in Qingpu. We acknowledge that the public transportation is vital to the accessibility to healthcare services. We also emphasize that healthcare services should be planned based on the anticipated future trends of population agglomeration. Our results for Shanghai are applicable to other big cities that are experiencing similar rapid urbanization in China, or other developing countries in Southeast Asia, South Asia, South America and Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
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Open AccessArticle Sex-Specific Lifestyle and Biomedical Risk Factors for Chronic Disease among Early-Middle, Middle and Older Aged Australian Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020224 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Evidence suggests age and sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease. This study examined lifestyle and biomedical risk factors among men (m) and women (w) in early-middle (25–51 years), middle (52–64) and older (65+) adulthood. Cross-sectional data from the 2011–2012 Australian Health
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Evidence suggests age and sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease. This study examined lifestyle and biomedical risk factors among men (m) and women (w) in early-middle (25–51 years), middle (52–64) and older (65+) adulthood. Cross-sectional data from the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey (n = 3024) were analysed. Self-reported dietary, activity, sleep behaviours and collected biomedical data were analysed. Early-middle adults failed to meet fruit, vegetable (95.3%) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB, 34.9%) recommendations. Older adults had higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (70%), high blood pressure (38.0%) and fewer met physical activity guidelines (36.3%). Prior to older adulthood, more men consumed SSBs (early-middle m 45.6%, w 24.4%; middle m 26.0%, w 19.3%), and fewer met sedentary behaviour recommendations (early-middle m 43.2%, w 62.1%; middle m 46.4%, w 63.9%). Differences in overweight/obese women in early-middle (44.8%) to middle adulthood (64.7%) were significant. Biomedical risk was greatest in middle age; abnormal cholesterol/lipids increased specifically for women (total cholesterol early-middle 24.9% middle 56.4%; abnormal LDL-cholesterol early-middle 23.1% middle 53.9%). Adherence to lifestyle guidelines was low; particularly among men. While men exhibited greater clinical risk overall, this significantly increased among women in middle-adulthood. Public health strategies to improve lifestyle, monitor and intervene among middle-aged women are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Health Behaviors, Risk Factors, NCDs and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Serial Multiple Mediation Analyses: How to Enhance Individual Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response to Environmental Disasters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020223 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Recent environmental disasters have revealed the government’s limitations in real-time response and mobilization to help the public, especially when disasters occur in large areas at the same time. Therefore, enhancing the ability to prepare for public health emergencies at the grassroots level and
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Recent environmental disasters have revealed the government’s limitations in real-time response and mobilization to help the public, especially when disasters occur in large areas at the same time. Therefore, enhancing the ability to prepare for public health emergencies at the grassroots level and extend public health emergency response mechanisms to communities, and even to individual families, is a research question that is of practical significance. This study aimed to investigate mechanisms to determine how media exposure affects individual public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) to environmental disasters; specifically, we examined the mediating role of knowledge and trust in government. The results were as follows: (1) knowledge had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between media exposure and PHEP; (2) trust in government had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between media exposure and PHEP; (3) knowledge and trust in government had significant multiple mediating effects on the relationship between media exposure and PHEP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Roles of Different Transport Modes in the Spatial Spread of the 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic in Mainland China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020222
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
There is increasing concern about another influenza pandemic in China. However, the understanding of the roles of transport modes in the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic spread across mainland China is limited. Herein, we collected 127,797 laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in mainland China
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There is increasing concern about another influenza pandemic in China. However, the understanding of the roles of transport modes in the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic spread across mainland China is limited. Herein, we collected 127,797 laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in mainland China from May 2009 to April 2010. Arrival days and peak days were calculated for all 340 prefectures to characterize the dissemination patterns of the pandemic. We first evaluated the effects of airports and railway stations on arrival days and peak days, and then we applied quantile regressions to quantify the relationships between arrival days and air, rail, and road travel. Our results showed that early arrival of the virus was not associated with an early incidence peak. Airports and railway stations in prefectures significantly advanced arrival days but had no significant impact on peak days. The pandemic spread across mainland China from the southeast to the northwest in two phases that were split at approximately 1 August 2009. Both air and road travel played a significant role in accelerating the spread during phases I and II, but rail travel was only significant during phase II. In conclusion, in addition to air and road travel, rail travel also played a significant role in accelerating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 spread between prefectures. Establishing a multiscale mobility network that considers the competitive advantage of rail travel for mid to long distances is essential for understanding the influenza pandemic transmission in China. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impacts of Lean Construction on Safety Systems: A System Dynamics Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020221
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Lean construction has been viewed as an effective management approach for reducing the occurrence of no-value or destructive activities, such as wasting resources and safety-related accidents. However, few studies have systematically addressed how and to what extent lean construction practices influence construction safety.
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Lean construction has been viewed as an effective management approach for reducing the occurrence of no-value or destructive activities, such as wasting resources and safety-related accidents. However, few studies have systematically addressed how and to what extent lean construction practices influence construction safety. To bridge this gap, a conceptual model is developed and validated using a system dynamics approach. The construction system in this model comprises four sub-systems (i.e., environment system, equipment system, management system, and employee system). Data were collected from 448 projects in China. Simulations were conducted to determine the correlations between five types of lean tools and the four construction sub-systems. The results show that: (a) 5S management has significant positive impacts on the control of key locations and facilities at construction sites, and contributes to the mitigation of environmental impacts; (b) visual management can significantly improve safety compliance and safety management; (c) just-in-time management has significantly positive influences on the safety facilities layout and formulation of the safety plan; and (d) the Last Planner® System and conference management are effective in improving safety training and the implementation of the safety plan. These findings provide new insights into the use of lean construction for improving construction safety through the implementation of a targeted lean approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Safety, Health, and Wellbeing in Construction)
Open AccessReview Are Parent-Held Child Health Records a Valuable Health Intervention? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020220
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Parent-held child health record (PHCHR), a public health intervention for promoting access to preventive health services, have been in use in many developed and developing countries. This review aimed to evaluate the use of the records toward promoting child health/development. We searched PubMed,
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Parent-held child health record (PHCHR), a public health intervention for promoting access to preventive health services, have been in use in many developed and developing countries. This review aimed to evaluate the use of the records toward promoting child health/development. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles, of which 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Due to considerable heterogeneity, findings were narratively synthesised. Outcomes with sufficient data were meta-analysed using a random-effects model. Odds Ratio (OR) was used to compute the pooled effect sizes at 95% confidence interval (CI). The pooled effect of the PHCHR on the utilisation of child/maternal healthcare was not statistically significant (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.92–1.88). However, parents who use the record in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were approximately twice as likely to adhere to child vaccinations (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.01–3.70), utilise antenatal care (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.23–2.08), and better breastfeeding practice (OR = 2.82, 95% CI 1.02–7.82). Many parents (average-72%) perceived the PHCHR as useful/important and majority (average-84%) took it to child clinics. Health visitors and nurses/midwives were more likely to use the record than hospital doctors. It is concluded that parents generally valued the PHCHR, but its effect on child health-related outcomes have only been demonstrated in LMIC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Health Intervention to Reduce Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Spatial Autocorrelation and Spillover Effects in Freeway Crash-Frequency Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020219
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
This study attempts to investigate spatial autocorrelation and spillover effects in micro traffic safety analysis. To achieve the objective, a Poisson-based count regression with consideration of these spatial effects is proposed for modeling crash frequency on freeway segments. In the proposed hybrid model,
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This study attempts to investigate spatial autocorrelation and spillover effects in micro traffic safety analysis. To achieve the objective, a Poisson-based count regression with consideration of these spatial effects is proposed for modeling crash frequency on freeway segments. In the proposed hybrid model, the spatial autocorrelation and the spillover effects are formulated as the conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior and the exogenous variables of adjacent segments, respectively. The proposed model is demonstrated and compared to the models with only one kind of spatial effect, using one-year crash data collected from Kaiyang Freeway, China. The results of Bayesian estimation conducted in WinBUGS show that significant spatial autocorrelation and spillover effects simultaneously exist in the freeway crash-frequency data. The lower value of deviance information criterion (DIC) and more significant exogenous variables for the hybrid model compared to the other alternatives, indicate the strength of accounting for both spatial autocorrelation and spillover effects on improving model fit and identifying crash contributing factors. Moreover, the model results highlight the importance of daily vehicle kilometers traveled, and horizontal and vertical alignments of targeted segments and adjacent segments on freeway crash occurrences. Full article
Open AccessArticle Doxing: What Adolescents Look for and Their Intentions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020218
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Doxing is a form of cyberbullying in which personal information on others is sought and released, thereby violating their privacy and facilitating further harassment. This study examined adolescents’ doxing participation using a representative sample of 2120 Hong Kong secondary school students. Just over
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Doxing is a form of cyberbullying in which personal information on others is sought and released, thereby violating their privacy and facilitating further harassment. This study examined adolescents’ doxing participation using a representative sample of 2120 Hong Kong secondary school students. Just over one in 10 had engaged in doxing, and doxing behavior significantly increased the probability of disclosing personal information on others (odds ratio ranged between 2.705 and 5.181). Social and hostile doxing were the two most common forms of doxing. Girls were significantly more likely to conduct social doxing (χ2 = 11.84, p < 0.001), where their target was to obtain social information (χ2 = 4.79, p = 0.029), whereas boys were more likely to engage in hostile doxing aimed at obtaining personally identifiable information (χ2 = 4.31, p = 0.038) and information on others’ current living situations (χ2 = 4.17, p = 0.041). Students who had perpetrated doxing acts were more likely to have experienced information disclosure as victims, perpetrators, or bystanders. Future studies should examine doxing’s impacts and its relationship with other forms of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Because doxing may lead to on- and off-line harassment, family, adolescents, schools, and communities must work together to develop effective approaches for combating it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020217
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Although the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) is the most widely used multidimensional burden instrument for assessing perceived burden of caregivers, there is no data on its psychometric properties in Spanish, nor on caregivers of dependent persons with various diseases. The objective of this
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Although the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) is the most widely used multidimensional burden instrument for assessing perceived burden of caregivers, there is no data on its psychometric properties in Spanish, nor on caregivers of dependent persons with various diseases. The objective of this study was to translate the CBI into Spanish and validate it in caregivers of dependent persons with various diseases. Trained evaluators administered the CBI and assessed emotional distress and probable mental disorder in 201 caregivers (87.1% women, mean age 56.2 years). The internal consistency of the CBI was 0.89 (0.74–0.83 among the subscales). There was a significant correlation of emotional distress with both the total burden and each subscale (p < 0.001 in all cases). A total score of 39 and scores of 16, 9, 8, 4, and 2 in burden per time dedicated to care, personal life burden, physical burden, social burden, and emotional burden were suitable cut-off points to discriminate caregivers with probable mental disorder (sensitivity = 63.0%–75.6%, specificity = 63.4%–74.4%). To achieve a greater goodness of fit, the model was re-specified, resulting in a shortened (15-item) instrument. The internal consistency reliability coefficients of the 15-item CBI were satisfactory (Cronbach α = 0.83; 0.77–0.86 among the subscales). Within the 15-item CBI, emotional distress was significantly correlated with the total burden, personal life burden, physical burden, social burden (p < 0.001 in all those cases), and emotional burden (p = 0.001). A total score of 25 and scores of 12, 5, 5, 3, and 1, respectively, in the subscales were identified as cut-off points to discriminate caregivers with probable mental disorder (sensitivity = 46.2%–70.6%, specificity = 43.9%–79.3%). Therefore, the 15-item CBI validly measured caregiver burden with better fit and more parsimoniously than the original CBI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Health Risk Assessment of Inorganic Mercury and Methylmercury via Rice Consumption in the Urban City of Guiyang, Southwest China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020216
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Rice consumption is the main methylmercury (MeHg) exposure route for residents in mercury (Hg) mining areas. However, there is limited studies on mercury in commercial rice, which has high liquidity and can be directly consumed by urban residents. This study measured the total
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Rice consumption is the main methylmercury (MeHg) exposure route for residents in mercury (Hg) mining areas. However, there is limited studies on mercury in commercial rice, which has high liquidity and can be directly consumed by urban residents. This study measured the total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations in 146 rice samples purchased from the markets in Guiyang city, southwest China, and both the inorganic Hg (IHg) and MeHg estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated according to rice consumption. The THg concentrations in all rice samples (range: 0.97 to 13.10 μg·kg−1; mean: 3.88 μg·kg−1) were lower than the Chinese national standard (20 μg·kg−1). The average MeHg concentration in rice was 1.16 μg·kg−1. The total HQs (THQs) ranged from 0.0106 to 0.1048, with a mean of 0.0462, which was far lower than 1. This result suggests that there were low Hg exposure levels through consumption of commercial rice in residents of Guiyang. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Status and Morbidity Rate Inequality in China: Based on NHSS and CHARLS Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020215
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown there are no consistent and robust associations between socioeconomic status and morbidity rates. This study focuses on the relationship between the socioeconomic status and the morbidity rates in China, which helps to add new evidence for the fragmentary relationship
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Previous studies have shown there are no consistent and robust associations between socioeconomic status and morbidity rates. This study focuses on the relationship between the socioeconomic status and the morbidity rates in China, which helps to add new evidence for the fragmentary relationship between socioeconomic status and morbidity rates. The National Health Services Survey (NHSS) and China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) data are used to examine whether the association holds in both all-age cohorts and in older only cohorts. Three morbidity outcomes (two-week incidence rate, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and the number of sick days per thousand people) and two socioeconomic status indicators (income and education) are mainly examined. The results indicate that there are quadratic relationships between income per capita and morbidities. This non-linear correlation is similar to the patterns in European countries. Meanwhile, there is no association between education years and the morbidity in China, i.e., either two-week incidence rate or prevalence rate of chronic diseases has no statistically significant relationship with the education level in China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Parenting Styles and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020214
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine differences in parenting styles between mothers of children with type 1 diabetes and mothers of healthy children and to explore relationships between parenting styles and glycemic control of children with diabetes. Mothers of 63 children
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The purpose of this study is to examine differences in parenting styles between mothers of children with type 1 diabetes and mothers of healthy children and to explore relationships between parenting styles and glycemic control of children with diabetes. Mothers of 63 children with diabetes and mothers of 83 children without diabetes reported their parenting styles using the Blocks’ Child Rearing Practices Report, when their child was 9–10 years old. Glycemic control of the children with diabetes was evaluated 1 year after diagnosis (<6 years of age) and at the time of the study (at 9–10 years). Mothers of children with diabetes used more psychological control than mothers of healthy children. Among girls with diabetes, poorer early glycemic control was associated with mothers’ subsequent greater use of psychological control. Behavioral control was positively associated with poorer current glycemic control. In boys, psychological control was positively associated with poorer current glycemic control. Psychological control in families with diabetes needs attention, because it has shown to be associated with poorer diabetes care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting and Offspring Health and Well-Being)
Open AccessArticle Barriers and Facilitators for the Implementation and Evaluation of Community-Based Interventions to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Diet: A Mixed Methods Study in Argentina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020213
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Background: Obesogenic environments promote sedentary behavior and high dietary energy intake. The objective of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and impact evaluation of projects oriented to promote physical activity and healthy diet at community level. We
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Background: Obesogenic environments promote sedentary behavior and high dietary energy intake. The objective of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and impact evaluation of projects oriented to promote physical activity and healthy diet at community level. We analyzed experiences of the projects implemented within the Healthy Municipalities and Communities Program (HMCP) in Argentina. Methods: A mixed methods approach included (1) in-depth semi-structured interviews, with 44 stakeholders; and (2) electronic survey completed by 206 individuals from 96 municipalities across the country. Results: The most important barriers included the lack of: adequate funding (43%); skilled personnel (42%); equipment and material resources (31%); technical support for data management and analysis (20%); training on project designs (12%); political support from local authorities (17%) and acceptance of the proposed intervention by the local community (9%). Facilitators included motivated local leaders, inter-sectorial participation and seizing local resources. Project evaluation was mostly based on process rather than outcome indicators. Conclusions: This study contributes to a better understanding of the difficulties in the implementation of community-based intervention projects. Findings may guide stakeholders on how to facilitate local initiatives. There is a need to improve project evaluation strategies by incorporating process, outcome and context specific indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Health Behaviors, Risk Factors, NCDs and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Change in the Distribution of Phosphorus Fractions in Aggregates under Different Land Uses: A Case in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020212
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 1 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Phosphorus in agro-ecosystems has attracted much attention due to its impact on the nutrient supply of plants and the risk of loss of non-point source pollution. This study investigated the fraction distribution and release of phosphorus from soil aggregates structure under different land
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Phosphorus in agro-ecosystems has attracted much attention due to its impact on the nutrient supply of plants and the risk of loss of non-point source pollution. This study investigated the fraction distribution and release of phosphorus from soil aggregates structure under different land uses (rice, maize and soybean). The soil aggregates were characterized as large macro-aggregates (L-mac, >1 mm), small macro-aggregates (S-mac, 0.25–1 mm), micro-aggregates (MIC, 0.053–0.25 mm) and silt clay (SC, <0.053 mm) with the wet-sieving method. A sequential chemical extraction scheme was used to separate phosphorus into labile inorganic phosphorus (L-Pi), labile organic phosphorus (L-Po), moderately labile organic phosphorus (Ml-Po), iron-aluminum bound phosphorus (Fe.Al-P), calcium-magnesium bound phosphorus (Ca.Mg-P), humic phosphorus (Hu-P) and residual phosphorus (Re-P). Experimental results indicated that soil aggregates were mainly S-mac and MIC, followed by L-mac and SC, and they accounted for 52.16%, 25.20%, 14.23% and 8.49% in rice fields, 44.21%, 34.61%, 12.88% and 8.30% in maize fields, and 28.87%, 47.63%, 3.52% and 19.99% in soybean fields, respectively. Total nitrogen (TN), soil organic matter (SOM), Fe and Mn in soil aggregate fractions decreased with the reduction in soil aggregate grain-sizes. For phosphorus fractions (P-fractions), Fe.Al-P and Re-P tended to condense in L-mac and S-mac. MIC and SC were the primary carriers of Ca.Mg-P. Adsorption isotherm simulation results demonstrated that L-mac and S-mac have a strong capacity to retain phosphorus. In rice fields, phosphorus bioavailability and utilization rate were high. However, the P-fractions there were easily changed under aerobic-anaerobic conditions. Therefore, the risk of phosphorus loss during drainage should be given considerable attention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Primary Reason for Drinking Among Current, Former, and Never Flushing College Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020211
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
Alcohol consumption among individuals who experience a flushing response (reddening of the face, nausea, dizziness, headache, anxiety, and increased heartbeat) can result in serious health problems. However, studies on reasons for drinking among flushers, especially in the college context, are limited. Thus, this
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Alcohol consumption among individuals who experience a flushing response (reddening of the face, nausea, dizziness, headache, anxiety, and increased heartbeat) can result in serious health problems. However, studies on reasons for drinking among flushers, especially in the college context, are limited. Thus, this study investigated the association between primary reason for drinking and alcohol use among a nationally representative sample of current, former, and never flushing college students. The aim was to measure whether college students with current or former experience of facial flushing have different primary reasons for drinking compared to students with no experience of facial flushing. We surveyed and analyzed the data of 4590 students in a nationally representative sample of 82 colleges in South Korea. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the association between primary reason for drinking and alcohol intake. Alcohol intake was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Among 1537 current (33.5%), 152 former (3.3%), and 2901 (63.2%) never flushers, mean AUDIT scores were 7.715 ± 5.434, 11.039 ± 6.405, and 10.465 ± 5.779, respectively. Current flushers had significantly higher AUDIT scores when drinking for pleasure (β = 2.696, p < 0.0001) or stress/depression (β = 2.578, p < 0.0001). Primary reasons for drinking were not associated with alcohol intake for former flushers. Never flushers had significantly higher AUDIT scores when drinking for pleasure (β = 2.696, p < 0.0001), stress/depression (β = 2.578, p < 0.0001), or boredom (β = 0.740, p = 0.029) than peer pressure. Our results suggest that former and never flushers consume higher amounts of alcohol on average than never flushers. For current flushers, drinking for pleasure or stress/depression may increase alcohol intake, while for never flushers, drinking for pleasure, stress/depression, as well as boredom may have the same effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance Abuse, Environment and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle The Effectiveness of Laser-Assisted Surgical Excision of Leukoplakias and Hyperkeratosis of Oral Mucosa: A Case Series in A Group of Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020210
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
Introduction: In the different branches of dentistry, the use of laser to solve different clinical situations is increasing due to numerous advantages that have been studied in literature since the 70s. Leucoplakia and hyperkeratosis can benefit from laser-assisted treatment. In most cases
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Introduction: In the different branches of dentistry, the use of laser to solve different clinical situations is increasing due to numerous advantages that have been studied in literature since the 70s. Leucoplakia and hyperkeratosis can benefit from laser-assisted treatment. In most cases biopsy sampling, histological examination and, if no malignant cells are present, the follow-up is needed. However, even if the lesion is free of dysplasia patients often ask to eliminate these white spots that are always a cause of concern. Aim: From these numerous requests comes the idea of setting up a laser-assisted protocol as less invasive as possible to be offered to patients. The aim of the study is to find a laser-assisted protocol for the surgical excision of leucoplakia and hyperkeratosis that can both improve the clinical aspect of the lesion and be sustainable for patients. The null hypothesis has been identified in the following statement: the treatment is effective and efficient at the same time; where effectiveness was tested with the following criteria: size of the lesion, tactile perception, discomfort, pain; and efficiency with the following criteria: pain and discomfort perceived during the treatment. Materials and methods: To collect all data, a specially designed medical record was used. The diode laser was used with a pulsed mode and the maximum power corresponds to 1.8 W. No anaesthesia was used. Before laser-assisted treatment, the fibre was activated and was used with a contact overflowing. Results: Our results show a decrease in the size of the lesion statistically significant. No pain was referred during treatment, except for a slight burning sensation. Conclusion: In conclusion we can state that the treatment is both efficient and effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 15th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Carbamazepine on the Release of Chitobiase, Molting, and Reproduction in Daphnia similis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020209
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
As one of the most frequently detected pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic environments, carbamazepine (CBZ) has recently been shown to cause acute and chronic toxicity in a variety of non-target aquatic organisms. However, little is known about the ecotoxicological effects it has on the
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As one of the most frequently detected pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic environments, carbamazepine (CBZ) has recently been shown to cause acute and chronic toxicity in a variety of non-target aquatic organisms. However, little is known about the ecotoxicological effects it has on the molting and reproduction of crustaceans. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxic responses to CBZ in the crustacean Daphnia similis. After acute exposure (4 days), CBZ did not cause lethal toxicity at the tested concentrations. However, CBZ did inhibit the molting and release of chitobiase at concentrations higher than 6.25 μg/L, with 96 h EC50 (median effective concentration) values of 864.38 and 306.17 μg/L, respectively. The results of chronic exposure showed that the mean number of molts, size of the first brood, mean number of offspring per brood, mean number of broods per female, and total offspring per female decreased significantly with increasing CBZ concentrations. Significant effects of CBZ on the molting or fecundity in D. similis were observed even at concentrations as low as 0.03 μg/L. In conclusion, CBZ can cause inhibition of molting, delayed reproduction, and reduced fecundity in D. similis. CBZ toxicity to D. similis depends on the timing and duration of the exposure. Moreover, our results indicated that CBZ would act as an endocrine disrupter in D. similis, as with vertebrates (e.g., fish). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Synergistic Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals on Aliivibrio fischeri in Major River Basins in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020208
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
This work introduces the potential synergistic toxicity of binary mixtures of pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which have been detected in substantial amounts in major river basins in South Korea. Different dose-response curve functions were employed in each experimental toxicity dataset for Aliivibrio fischeri.
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This work introduces the potential synergistic toxicity of binary mixtures of pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which have been detected in substantial amounts in major river basins in South Korea. Different dose-response curve functions were employed in each experimental toxicity dataset for Aliivibrio fischeri. We tested the toxicity of 30 binary mixtures at two effect concentrations: high effect concentration [EC50] and low effect concentration (EC10) ranges. Thus, the toxicological interactions were evaluated at 60 effected concentration data points in total and based on model deviation ratios (MDRs) between predicted and observed toxicity values (e.g., three types of combined effects: synergistic (MDR > 2), additive (0.5 ≤ MDR ≤ 2), and antagonistic (MDR < 0.5)). From the 60 data points, MDRs could not be applied to 17 points, since their toxicities could not be measured. The result showed 48%-additive (n = 20), 40%-antagonistic (n = 17), and 12%-synergistic (n = 6) toxicity effects from 43 binaries (excluding the 17 combinations without MDRs). In this study, EC10 ratio mixtures at a low overall effect range showed a general tendency to have more synergistic effects than the EC50 ratio mixtures at a high effect range. We also found an inversion phenomenon, which detected three binaries of the combination of synergism at low concentrations and additive antagonism at high concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anthropometric Measures as Predictive Indicators of Metabolic Risk in a Population of “Holy Week Costaleros
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020207
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
Preventive measures are a priority in those groups that perform intense physical efforts without physical preparation and that can also be overweight or obese. One of the groups that reflect these characteristics is the costaleros of the Holy Week of Andalusia, Spain. This
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Preventive measures are a priority in those groups that perform intense physical efforts without physical preparation and that can also be overweight or obese. One of the groups that reflect these characteristics is the costaleros of the Holy Week of Andalusia, Spain. This paper aims to describe the effect of obesity on blood pressure. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 101 costaleros. The anthropometric measures were determined through segmental impedance. Cardiac recovery and anaerobic power were measured through the Ruffier–Dickson test and the Abalakov test, respectively. Blood pressure was measured when the individuals were at rest. The Kruskal–Wallis test was applied for of continuous parameters and the X2 test for dichotomous measures. Binary logistic regression models were used for the subsequent analysis with R-square and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The average population was 28 years of age, 173.7 cm tall, and 82.59 Kg weigh. The excess of body fat was 11.27 Kg and Body Mass Index was 27.33 Kg/m2. 72.3% showed abnormal blood pressure and 68.2% were overweight. 32.7% had a waist-hip ratio higher than 0.94. The probability of presenting abnormal blood pressure was higher among the subjects whose fat content was higher and muscle content was lower. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation Research in Chronic Disease Prevention and Control)
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