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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020272

Different Trends in Microbial Contamination between Two Types of Microfiltered Water Dispensers: From Risk Analysis to Consumer Health Preservation

1
Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, via San Giacomo 12, 40126 Bologna (BO), Italy
2
Department of Medical and Surgical Science, University of Bologna, via San Giacomo 12, 40126 Bologna (BO), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Field of Human Health and Environment)
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Abstract

The use of microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) for treatment of municipal water is increasing rapidly, however, the water quality produced by MWDs has not been widely investigated. In this work a large-scale microbiological investigation was conducted on 46 MWDs. In accordance with Italian regulations for drinking water, we investigated the heterotrophic plate counts at 36 and 22 °C for indicator bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, such as Enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Two different MWDs were compared: Type A with Ag+ coated carbon filter and two ultraviolet (UV) lamps, and Type B with a carbon filter and one UV lamp. For each type, the contamination of the input and output points was analyzed. Our findings showed that MWDs are a source of bacteria growth, with output being more contaminated than the input point. Type B was widely contaminated for all parameters tested in both sampling points, suggesting that water treatment by Type A is more effective in controlling bacterial contamination. MWDs are critical devices for water treatment in term of technologies, intended use, and sanitization procedures. The adoption of an appropriate drinking water safety plan associated with clear maintenance procedures and periodic environmental monitoring can ensure the safe and healthy operation of these devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiological contamination; microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs); sanitation measures; drinking water safety plan (DWSP) microbiological contamination; microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs); sanitation measures; drinking water safety plan (DWSP)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Girolamini, L.; Lizzadro, J.; Mazzotta, M.; Iervolino, M.; Dormi, A.; Cristino, S. Different Trends in Microbial Contamination between Two Types of Microfiltered Water Dispensers: From Risk Analysis to Consumer Health Preservation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 272.

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