E-Cigarettes Increase Candida albicans Growth and Modulate its Interaction with Gingival Epithelial Cells
AbstractElectronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vapor comes in contact with the different constituents of the oral cavity, including such microorganisms as Candida albicans. We examined the impact of e-cigarettes on C. albicans growth and expression of different virulent genes, such as secreted aspartic proteases (SAPs), and the effect of e-cigarette vapor-exposed C. albicans on gingival epithelial cell morphology, growth, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. An increase in C. albicans growth was observed with nicotine-rich e-cigarettes compared with non-exposed cultures. Following exposure to e-cigarette vapor, C. albicans produced high levels of chitin. E-cigarettes also increased C. albicans hyphal length and the expression of SAP2, SAP3, and SAP9 genes. When in contact with gingival epithelial cells, e-cigarette-exposed C. albicans adhered better to epithelial cells than the control. Indirect contact between e-cigarette-exposed C. albicans and gingival epithelial cells led to epithelial cell differentiation, reduced cell growth, and increased LDH activity. Overall, results indicate that e-cigarettes may interact with C. albicans to promote their pathogenesis, which may increase the risk of oral candidiasis in e-cigarette users. View Full-Text
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Alanazi, H.; Semlali, A.; Chmielewski, W.; Rouabhia, M. E-Cigarettes Increase Candida albicans Growth and Modulate its Interaction with Gingival Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 294.
Alanazi H, Semlali A, Chmielewski W, Rouabhia M. E-Cigarettes Increase Candida albicans Growth and Modulate its Interaction with Gingival Epithelial Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(2):294.Chicago/Turabian Style
Alanazi, Humidah; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chmielewski, Witold; Rouabhia, Mahmoud. 2019. "E-Cigarettes Increase Candida albicans Growth and Modulate its Interaction with Gingival Epithelial Cells." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 2: 294.
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