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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020294

E-Cigarettes Increase Candida albicans Growth and Modulate its Interaction with Gingival Epithelial Cells

Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Buccale, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Université Laval, 2420 de la Terrasse, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
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Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vapor comes in contact with the different constituents of the oral cavity, including such microorganisms as Candida albicans. We examined the impact of e-cigarettes on C. albicans growth and expression of different virulent genes, such as secreted aspartic proteases (SAPs), and the effect of e-cigarette vapor-exposed C. albicans on gingival epithelial cell morphology, growth, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. An increase in C. albicans growth was observed with nicotine-rich e-cigarettes compared with non-exposed cultures. Following exposure to e-cigarette vapor, C. albicans produced high levels of chitin. E-cigarettes also increased C. albicans hyphal length and the expression of SAP2, SAP3, and SAP9 genes. When in contact with gingival epithelial cells, e-cigarette-exposed C. albicans adhered better to epithelial cells than the control. Indirect contact between e-cigarette-exposed C. albicans and gingival epithelial cells led to epithelial cell differentiation, reduced cell growth, and increased LDH activity. Overall, results indicate that e-cigarettes may interact with C. albicans to promote their pathogenesis, which may increase the risk of oral candidiasis in e-cigarette users. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-cigarettes; C. albicans; growth; SAP genes; epithelial cells; LDH e-cigarettes; C. albicans; growth; SAP genes; epithelial cells; LDH
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Alanazi, H.; Semlali, A.; Chmielewski, W.; Rouabhia, M. E-Cigarettes Increase Candida albicans Growth and Modulate its Interaction with Gingival Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 294.

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