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Special Issue "Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sara Lal
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Neuroscience Research Unit, Centre for Health Technologies, School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, New South Wales 2007, Australia
Interests: safety; transport; fatigue/drowsiness/sleepiness; cardiovascular research; diabetes; neurophysiology and cognitive function and performance; health sensors and algorithms
Prof. Thomas Penzel
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Interdisciplinary Sleep Center, Department of Cardiology, Campus Mitte, Charité – Universitätsmedizin (Charite University Hospital) Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany
Interests: sleep medicine; sleep disorders; medical informatics; neurotelemedicine; biomedical signal processing and medical device development
Prof. Ann Simpson
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Centre for Health Technologies, School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Interests: diabetes; gene technology; gene therapy; biosafety; bioethics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health and safety in the workforce and general public domains continue to be crucial areas of concern for our ever-advancing technological and demanding society. Disease epidemics and public threats continue to rise. As we progress in the 21st century, worker and public health and safety concerns continue to escalate in many areas, including medical, transportation, security, defence, and other industries and services. Fatigue and sleepiness, diabetes and metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases, mental disorders, cognitive decline, cancer, musculoskeletal disorders, and the list is inclusive, are a few of many major health issues; and also adds to the socio-economic burden. For example, fatigue and sleep disorders are of major concern in transport, military, aviation, cleaning, mining, security and medical sectors. Additionally, shift workers have added vulnerability to multiple chronic diseases. The monotonous and demanding nature of many work environment are also linked to excessive sleepiness, stress, cognitive decline, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc., which contribute to detrimental human health, errors and accidents. The probability of these hazards increase rapidly over consecutive work hours; which can be catastrophic for the worker who may also be responsible for the safety of others. Further, the cleaning and security industries, are also burdened with musculoskeletal disorder, pain and other societal diseases. Moreover, environmental factors such as, heat, noise and pollutants, also affect health and safety. This Special Issue is targeted at research and reviews addressing all aspects of “Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Opinion and Research”. We invite submissions widely, from all fields of worker and public health and safety, of original and experimental manuscripts and reviews, including systematic reviews, case reports and commentaries. Topics, with respect to all areas of worker and general public health and safety, may include, but are not restricted to, sleepiness/fatigue, ageing-related cognitive disorders; chronic diseases, such as diabetes and other metabolic disorders, cancer, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders and stress; biomarkers for early detection of chronic diseases/health issues; environmental factors, noise and pollutants; security and counter-terrorism; ethics, economy, costs and compensation linked to societal diseases and errors and accidents; as well as safety measures, bio/technology and countermeasures to improve health and safety.

by Chief Guest Editor: Assoc. Prof. Sara Lal

Assoc. Prof. Sara Lal
Prof. Thomas Penzel
Prof. Ann Simpson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fatigue and sleepiness
  • sleep disorders
  • cardiovascular disease
  • diabetes
  • health and safety
  • mental and cognitive disorders
  • musculoskeletal disorders
  • environmental factors
  • counter-terrorism and security
  • work errors
  • accidents and costs

Published Papers (45 papers)

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Research

Article
Prevalence, Related Factors, and Levels of Burnout Syndrome Among Nurses Working in Gynecology and Obstetrics Services: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142585 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3322
Abstract
Background: Although burnout levels and the corresponding risk factors have been studied in many nursing services, to date no meta-analytical studies have been undertaken of obstetrics and gynecology units to examine the heterogeneity of burnout in this environment and the variables associated with [...] Read more.
Background: Although burnout levels and the corresponding risk factors have been studied in many nursing services, to date no meta-analytical studies have been undertaken of obstetrics and gynecology units to examine the heterogeneity of burnout in this environment and the variables associated with it. In the present paper, we aim to determine the prevalence, levels, and related factors of burnout syndrome among nurses working in gynecology and obstetrics services. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature were carried out using the following sources: CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Medline, ProQuest (Proquest Health and Medical Complete), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), and Scopus. Results: Fourteen relevant studies were identified, including, for this meta-analysis, n = 464 nurses. The following prevalence values were obtained: emotional exhaustion 29% (95% CI: 11–52%), depersonalization 19% (95% CI: 6–38%), and low personal accomplishment 44% (95% CI: 18–71%). The burnout variables considered were sociodemographic (age, marital status, number of children, gender), work-related (duration of the workday, nurse-patient ratio, experience or number of miscarriages/abortions), and psychological (anxiety, stress, and verbal violence). Conclusion: Nurses working in obstetrics and gynecology units present high levels of burnout syndrome. In over 33% of the study sample, at least two of the burnout dimensions considered are apparent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Video Display Operator Complaints: A 10-Year Follow-Up of Visual Fatigue and Refractive Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142501 - 13 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Visual fatigue and discomfort are very common complaints for video display operators (VDTs). The aim of our study was to study work-related visual symptoms in relation to refractive disorders and psychosocial factors in 3054 public employees by way of follow-ups for 10 years [...] Read more.
Visual fatigue and discomfort are very common complaints for video display operators (VDTs). The aim of our study was to study work-related visual symptoms in relation to refractive disorders and psychosocial factors in 3054 public employees by way of follow-ups for 10 years with periodic medical examinations with eye evaluation in the period 2000–2009. Factors related to visual fatigue were evaluated in the follow-up using generalized equation estimation. Visual fatigue was very common in VDT operators (64.03%). During the follow-up, no relationship between visual fatigue and age, sex, seniority of work, visual acuity and refractory disorders was found. Visual fatigue was significantly associated with anxiety perception in a dose-related matter (odds ratio (OR) 7.40, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.77–31.3), psychosocial factors (OR 1.03, CI 95% 1.01–1.07), use of lenses (OR 1.34, CI 95% 1.09–1.64) and time of VDT usage (OR 1.27, CI 95% 1.04–1.53). This study confirmed that visual fatigue is common in VDT users and is related to anxiety perception, time of VDT usage, use of lenses and stress. No relationship was found between visual fatigue and refractory disorders or visual acuity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Psychosocial Risk Prevention in a Global Occupational Health Perspective. A Descriptive Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142470 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 2819
Abstract
This study aimed to find out which countries around the world require psychosocial hazards and workplace violence to be assessed by employers through a mandatory occupational risk assessment process and to compare the type of legislation between countries. We systematically searched the International [...] Read more.
This study aimed to find out which countries around the world require psychosocial hazards and workplace violence to be assessed by employers through a mandatory occupational risk assessment process and to compare the type of legislation between countries. We systematically searched the International Labour Office (ILO) “LEGOSH” database for documents published during the period between December 2017 and February 2018. The search included 132 countries, of which 23 were considered as developed and 109 as developing according to the United Nations. Our review showed that most countries (85, i.e., 64%) have not included mandatory psychosocial risk assessment and prevention in their national occupational safety and health legislation. Moreover, we found differences between developed and developing countries, showing that developed countries more frequently have legislative measures. Within developed countries, we also found differences between countries following the Scandinavian model of workplace health and safety culture and other countries. Moreover, in many countries, workplace violence was prohibited only if it involves an offence to moral or religious customs. In conclusion, the marked difference in psychosocial hazards and workplace violence regulations among countries leads to unequal levels of workers’ protection, with adverse effects on global health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Temporary Workers’ Skipping of Meals and Eating Alone in South Korea: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013–2016
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132319 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Available evidence suggests that social disadvantages are inextricably linked to unhealthy eating behaviors. Given that temporary workers face insecure employment and uncertainty in their work’s terms and conditions, issues relevant to maintaining healthy eating behavior are likely to be affected. This study investigated [...] Read more.
Available evidence suggests that social disadvantages are inextricably linked to unhealthy eating behaviors. Given that temporary workers face insecure employment and uncertainty in their work’s terms and conditions, issues relevant to maintaining healthy eating behavior are likely to be affected. This study investigated the association between temporary employments and, specifically, the status and frequency of meal skipping and of eating alone among temporary and permanent Korean workers. We used data from the 2013–2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5912 working people were included as the study population. We classified them as temporary workers (n = 3036) and permanent workers (n = 2876). Eating behaviors included meal skipping and eating alone. The rate and frequency of meal skipping and eating alone were higher in temporary workers. After adjustment for potential confounders, the likelihoods for temporary workers’ skipping lunch was twice as high (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.45–2.63) as for permanent workers. In particular, temporary workers had four-fold-increased odds (OR = 4.12, 95% CI 2.29–7.41) of eating alone three times per day relative to permanent workers. We found that temporary workers were more likely to skip meals and eat alone than were permanent workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Sociodemographic Associations of Physical Activity in People of Working Age
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122134 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify relationships between the physical activity and sociodemographic status of respondents aged 18–64 years. The research was conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Wrocław, Poland. The study group comprised 4460 people. The sample selection was random [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify relationships between the physical activity and sociodemographic status of respondents aged 18–64 years. The research was conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Wrocław, Poland. The study group comprised 4460 people. The sample selection was random and stratified. The research tool was the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Short Form. Levels of physical activity declared by respondents were compared with the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Data on respondents’ sociodemographic status was also obtained. The Mann–Whitney U test for samples, Kruskal–Wallis test by ranks, and total and binary logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Among the respondents, the ACSM health recommendations were met by 43.7% in total (43.2% women and 44.3% men). All analyzed sociodemographic variables differentiated respondents’ physical activity. The youngest respondents were found to be the most physically active. Wrocław residents with a secondary education declared the highest level of physical activity. Among the respondents, manual workers revealed the highest, and the unemployed the lowest odds of meeting the ACSM standards of health-related physical activity. The level of physical activity of unmarried respondents was higher than that of married respondents. The highest percentage of respondents (50.9% women and 54.2% men) with sufficient physical activity levels was found among people living alone. Measures aimed at reducing hypokinesia should be addressed primarily in vulnerable groups, i.e., the unemployed and oldest men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Burnout and Metabolic Syndrome in Female Nurses: An Observational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111993 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Nurses are at risk of having burnout due to workload and job stress—studies have reported that chronic stress is associated with metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to assess the association between burnout and metabolic syndrome in a sample of female nurses. Data were [...] Read more.
Nurses are at risk of having burnout due to workload and job stress—studies have reported that chronic stress is associated with metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to assess the association between burnout and metabolic syndrome in a sample of female nurses. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study from 2016 to 2018 in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City. All nurses that work in the hospital were invited to participate. Information pertaining to sociodemographic (age, education level), work (labor seniority, service area, shift work), anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, blood pressure) and biochemical (glucose, serum lipids) variables were collected. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory test, and metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. A total of 168 nurses participated with a median age of 44 years. The prevalence of burnout and metabolic syndrome was 19.6% and 38.7%, respectively. There was no association between burnout and metabolic syndrome (p = 0.373). However, associations of emotional exhaustion (aOR: 14.95; 95% CI: 1.5–148.7), personal accomplishment (aOR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01–0.99), and night shift (aOR: 12.39; 95% CI: 1.02–150.5) with increased waist circumference were found. Strategies are needed to prevent burnout and metabolic syndrome in nurses, especially in those who work at night shift. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Association between Occupational and Radiological Factors and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Lung Infection in Workers with Prior Dust Exposure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111966 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors that promote the risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung infection in subjects with prior occupational dust exposure. All consecutive patients with a history of occupational dust exposure whose expectorated sputum, bronchial wash, or [...] Read more.
This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors that promote the risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung infection in subjects with prior occupational dust exposure. All consecutive patients with a history of occupational dust exposure whose expectorated sputum, bronchial wash, or bronchial lavage was subjected to acid-fast Bacilli culture in a tertiary hospital between 2011 and 2016 were identified. The patients who were infected with NTM were identified according to the bacteriological criteria of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) statement. Pneumoconiosis-associated radiological findings were graded according to the International Labor Organization guidelines. Of the 1392 patients with prior dust exposure, NTM was isolated from 82. Logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors for NTM lung infection were a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.82, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.03–3.16). Moreover, the unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) were higher when both small-opacity profusion and the large-opacity grades increased. Even after adjustment, the ORs for the A, B, and C large-opacity grades were 2.32 (95% CI = 1.01–4.99), 2.68 (95% CI = 1.35–5.24), and 7.58 (95% CI = 3.02–17.95). Previous tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, and especially extensive small-opacity profusion, and high large-opacity grade associated significantly with NTM lung infection in dust-exposed workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Associations between Fitness Measures and Change of Direction Speeds with and without Occupational Loads in Female Police Officers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111947 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Female police officers may be required to pursue offenders on foot while wearing occupational loads. The aim of this study was to determine relationships between fitness measures and change of direction speed (CODS) in female police officers and the influence of their occupational [...] Read more.
Female police officers may be required to pursue offenders on foot while wearing occupational loads. The aim of this study was to determine relationships between fitness measures and change of direction speed (CODS) in female police officers and the influence of their occupational loads. Retrospective data were provided for 27 female police officers (age = 32.19 ± 5.09 y, height = 162.78 ± 5.01 cm, and mass = 71.31 ± 13.42 kg) and included fitness measures of: lower-body power (standing long jump (SLJ)), upper-body and trunk muscle endurance (push-up (PU) and sit-up (SU)), aerobic power (estimated VO2max), and CODS (Illinois agility test). The CODS test was performed without and with occupational load (10 kg). Paired sample t-tests (between-load conditions) and Pearson’s correlations (relationships between measures) were performed with linear regression analysis used to account for the contribution of measures to unloaded and loaded CODS performance. CODS was significantly slower when loaded (unloaded = ~23.17 s, loaded = ~24.14 s, p < 0.001) with a strong, significant relationship between load conditions (r = 0.956, p < 0.001). Moderate to strong, significant relationships were found between all fitness measures ranging from estimated VO2max (r = −0.448) to SU (r = −0.673) in the unloaded condition, with the strength of these relationships increasing in the loaded condition accounting for 61% to 67% of the variance, respectively. While unloaded agility test performance was strongly associated with loaded performance, female police officer CODS was significantly reduced when carrying occupational loads. A variety of fitness measures that influence officer CODS performances become increasingly important when occupational loads are carried. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Chinese Public Response to Occupational Safety and Health Problems—A Study Based on Psychological Distance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111944 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Background: The effective governance of occupational safety and health problems is inseparable from public participation and response. Methods: Based on the perspective of psychological distance, this paper adopted a quadratic response surface regression analysis method to investigate cognitive, emotional, expected and behavioral distances [...] Read more.
Background: The effective governance of occupational safety and health problems is inseparable from public participation and response. Methods: Based on the perspective of psychological distance, this paper adopted a quadratic response surface regression analysis method to investigate cognitive, emotional, expected and behavioral distances to occupational safety and health topics and their corresponding responses. Results: As demonstrated by the data statistics and response surface regression analysis results for 2386 valid samples, the relatively close psychological distance dimensions of the public with regard to occupational safety and health problems indicated the high endogenous tendency of the public to pay attention to occupational safety and health problems. The consistency between public cognitive and emotional distance with regard to occupational safety and health presented a “progressive decrease” in response towards behavioral distance, whereas the consistency between cognitive and expected distance reflected “convex” changes towards behavioral distance. Finally, the consistency between emotional and expected distance generally presented a “progressive increase” response towards behavioral distance. Conclusions: This research provides information regarding the public awareness of and response to occupational safety and health issues and how to promote occupational safety and health issues in order to improve them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Manual Cultivation Operations in Poplar Stands: A Characterization of Job Difficulty and Risks of Health Impairment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111911 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Short rotation poplar forests are a viable alternative in producing high quality wood for industrial applications. Their success depends on timely and high-quality implementation of a series of operations. Weed control operations are implemented to favor the trees in their competition for soil [...] Read more.
Short rotation poplar forests are a viable alternative in producing high quality wood for industrial applications. Their success depends on timely and high-quality implementation of a series of operations. Weed control operations are implemented to favor the trees in their competition for soil resources, and cultivation is an option typically used in many European countries. For the moment, a complete mechanization of such operations is virtually impossible, and they still require an intensive use of manual labor. Since information on work difficulty and risks in manual cultivation operations is limited, this study aimed to characterize this job. Evaluation was made in terms of work efficiency, cardiovascular workload, work intensity and postural risks by implementing a time and motion study combined with heart rate measurements, accelerometry and whole-body postural analysis. Work efficiency was particularly low even if the share of effective work time was high (70% of the observation time). Job was characterized as moderate to high intensity, which resulted into a moderate to high cardiovascular strain. While the postural analysis indicated rather small risks, the main problem was found for the back postures assumed during the work. Improvements should aim to extend mechanization, train the workers and appropriately design rest breaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Organisational Climate, Role Stress, and Public Employees’ Job Satisfaction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101792 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2975
Abstract
The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model is an integrative theoretical framework for monitoring workplaces with the aim to increase job engagement and prevent burnout. This framework is of great interest since the management of job resources and demands can negatively affect employees, especially in [...] Read more.
The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model is an integrative theoretical framework for monitoring workplaces with the aim to increase job engagement and prevent burnout. This framework is of great interest since the management of job resources and demands can negatively affect employees, especially in organisational contexts characterised by high job demands. This study uses the job demands-resources model to investigate the relationships between organisational climate, role stress, and employee well-being (burnout and job satisfaction) in public organisations. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The research participants are 442 public employees. A structural equation model was developed (organisational climate, job satisfaction, burnout, role stress). These confirm that organisational climate is correlated with role stress (−0.594), job satisfaction (0.746), and burnout (−0.408), while role stress is correlated with burnout (0.953) and job satisfaction (−0.685). Finally, there is a correlation between burnout and job satisfaction that is negative and significant (−0.664). The study confirms that a positive organisational climate could lead to less stressed and burned-out workers and, at the same time, to more satisfied employees with improved well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Determinants of Parental Satisfaction with Nursing Care in Paediatric Wards—A Preliminary Report
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101774 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Background: The quality of medical services for a child and their parents are tantamount to a sense of satisfaction with care. Purpose: The assessment of determinants of parental satisfaction with nursing care in paediatric wards. Methods: The study covered 336 parents [...] Read more.
Background: The quality of medical services for a child and their parents are tantamount to a sense of satisfaction with care. Purpose: The assessment of determinants of parental satisfaction with nursing care in paediatric wards. Methods: The study covered 336 parents of children hospitalised in paediatric departments and was based on the “EMPHATIC” questionnaire, standardized and adapted to Polish conditions. Results: The mean score of the overall parental satisfaction was high, amounting to 4.19 points. The lower level of satisfaction with nursing care was reported in parents of children under the age of 6 years, admitted in an emergency mode with a diagnosed post-trauma condition and those with higher education. The duration of hospitalisation, sex and age of parents did not have an influence on the satisfaction with care. Conclusions: The age of the child, admission mode and education of respondents are determinants of parental satisfaction with nursing care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Exercise Program in Managing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms for Low-Skilled Workers in the Low-Income Community: A Pre-Post-Follow-Up Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091548 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Studies on work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WRMSs) have been conducted mainly on different types of workforce but not many on low-skilled workers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary exercise program in decreasing the number of body parts [...] Read more.
Studies on work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WRMSs) have been conducted mainly on different types of workforce but not many on low-skilled workers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary exercise program in decreasing the number of body parts with WRMSs for low-skilled workers. This study used a repeated-measures, single-group design. One hundred and five (105) workers participated in eight weekly 90-min sessions (including 45-min workshops and 45-min exercises) in low-income community settings. The exercise program involved a 21-movement stretching exercise and a 10-movement muscle-strengthening exercise. Questionnaire and health-assessment data were collected at the baseline (N = 105) and immediately after the 8-week program (n = 86). The average age of the 105 participants was 50.5 ± 8.7 years (ranging from 31 to 67). Over 80% (n = 87) of them were female, 68.6% (n = 72) were married, and 68.6% (n = 72) had completed secondary school. They reported an average of three body parts with WRMSs at baseline (T0). By the end of the eight weeks (T1), the participants had reduced the number of WRMS-affected body parts, job stress, and incidences of working through pain, and had improved spine flexibility and handgrip strength. The factors significantly affecting the reduction in the number of body parts with WRMSs were change in the workstyle of working through pain, and self-rated health status. Our study has demonstrated that a community-based multidisciplinary program can reduce the number of body parts affected by WRMSs in low-skilled workers in low-income communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
The Nature and Cost of Readmissions after Work-Related Traumatic Spinal Injuries in New South Wales, Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091509 - 29 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1813
Abstract
This study aimed to measure the subsequent health and health service cost burden of a cohort of workers hospitalised after sustaining work-related traumatic spinal injuries (TSI) across New South Wales, Australia. A record-linkage study (June 2013–June 2016) of hospitalised cases of work-related spinal [...] Read more.
This study aimed to measure the subsequent health and health service cost burden of a cohort of workers hospitalised after sustaining work-related traumatic spinal injuries (TSI) across New South Wales, Australia. A record-linkage study (June 2013–June 2016) of hospitalised cases of work-related spinal injury (ICD10-AM code U73.0 or workers compensation) was conducted. Of the 824 individuals injured during this time, 740 had sufficient follow-up data to analyse readmissions ≤90 days post-acute hospital discharge. Individuals with TSI were predominantly male (86.2%), mean age 46.6 years. Around 8% (n = 61) experienced 119 unplanned readmission episodes within 28 days from discharge, over half with the primary diagnosis being for care involving rehabilitation. Other readmissions involved device complications/infections (7.5%), genitourinary or respiratory infections (10%) or mental health needs (4.3%). The mean ± SD readmission cost was $6946 ± $14,532 per patient. Unplanned readmissions shortly post-discharge for TSI indicate unresolved issues within acute-care, or poor support services organisation in discharge planning. This study offers evidence of unmet needs after acute TSI and can assist trauma care-coordinators’ comprehensive assessments of these patients prior to discharge. Improved quantification of the ongoing personal and health service after work-related injury is a vital part of the information needed to improve recovery after major work-related trauma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Burnout Syndrome in Middle and Senior Management in the Industrial Manufacturing Sector of Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081467 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
Due to globalization and the accelerated growth of technology, ever more employees of companies are affected by burnout syndrome, the psychological nature of which requires a prolonged response to chronic interpersonal stressors in work environments. The present research aims to validate the operability [...] Read more.
Due to globalization and the accelerated growth of technology, ever more employees of companies are affected by burnout syndrome, the psychological nature of which requires a prolonged response to chronic interpersonal stressors in work environments. The present research aims to validate the operability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) using a sample of 378 professionals belonging to middle and senior management working in companies within the IMMEX sector (comprising the industrial-manufacturing, maquiladora and export services) located in the state of Baja California, Mexico. Firstly, an exploratory factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation was performed and the results revealed the existence of three factors representing more than 67 percent of the total variance. Secondly, a confirmatory factorial analysis was carried out performing appropriate results for the indices Chi-square goodness-of-fit model, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Relative Fit Index (RFI), Parsimony Ratio (PRATIO) and Parsimony Normed Fit Index (PNFI), which are highly recommended by literature in these types of studies. Additionally, construct validity was satisfactorily verified. The factorial solution coincided with the Maslach Burnout Inventory original proposal so that this instrument can be considered a valid and reliable option to analyze the burnout levels in people pertaining to middle and senior management in these types of industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
The Mediating Role of Job Strain in the Transformational Leadership–Safety Behavior Link: The Buffering Effect of Self-Efficacy on Safety
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081425 - 21 Apr 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Although some previous studies have examined the impact of transformational leadership on safety behavior, those works have paid relatively less attention to the intermediating role of employees’ job strain in the link as well as contingent variables that moderate the relationship. Considering that [...] Read more.
Although some previous studies have examined the impact of transformational leadership on safety behavior, those works have paid relatively less attention to the intermediating role of employees’ job strain in the link as well as contingent variables that moderate the relationship. Considering that not only job strain substantially affects employees’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors in an organization, but also there are some contextual factors that moderate the relationships, we investigated intermediating mechanisms (i.e., mediator and moderator) in the relationship between transformational leadership and safety behavior. Relying on the context-attitude-behavior framework, we conducted a structural equation modeling analysis with a moderated mediation model. Specifically, we hypothesized that the level of an employee’s job strain would mediate the transformational leadership–safety behavior link. We also hypothesized that an employee’s self-efficacy regarding safety would moderate the association between job strain and safety behavior. Using survey data from 997 South Korean employees, we found that all of our hypotheses were supported. The findings suggest that the level of an employee’s job strain mediates and elaborately explains the transformational leadership–safety behavior link. Moreover, an employee’s self-efficacy regarding safety is a buffering factor which decreases the harmful effects of job strain on safety behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Prevalence of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Tanzanian Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081367 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
Iron and steel factory workers in Tanzania are likely to develop noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) due to exposure to high sound levels. Studies on hearing status in this population are lacking. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence of NIHL among [...] Read more.
Iron and steel factory workers in Tanzania are likely to develop noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) due to exposure to high sound levels. Studies on hearing status in this population are lacking. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence of NIHL among iron and steel workers and compare hearing thresholds at different frequencies with a control group. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 221 iron and steel workers exposed to average noise level of 92 dB(A), compared with 107 primary school teachers recruited as controls and exposed to average noise level of 79.7 dB(A). We used a questionnaire-based interview to collect information on socio demographic characteristics and other confounding variables. Hearing loss was defined as hearing threshold levels ≥25 dB hearing loss in either ear at 3000, 4000 or 6000 Hz. The prevalence of hearing loss was significantly higher among the exposed group than among the controls, i.e. 48% and 31%, respectively. There were significant differences in hearing thresholds between the exposed and control groups at 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz. Hearing loss was more frequent among workers exposed to higher noise levels than among the controls suggesting that iron and steel workers run a higher risk of developing hearing loss. Full article
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Article
The Role of Motor Learning on Measures of Physical Requirements and Motor Variability During Repetitive Screwing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071231 - 06 Apr 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
We investigated whether physical requirements and motor variability decreased over days in novices during a repetitive screwing task. Fifty-seven subjects performed one hour of repetitive screwing and fastening on three days, separated by 2–7 days. The average physical requirement and relative cycle-to-cycle variability [...] Read more.
We investigated whether physical requirements and motor variability decreased over days in novices during a repetitive screwing task. Fifty-seven subjects performed one hour of repetitive screwing and fastening on three days, separated by 2–7 days. The average physical requirement and relative cycle-to-cycle variability (coefficient of variation, i.e., CV) were calculated from continuous recordings of electromyography of four arm muscles (biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum), forearm acceleration, and electrocardiography. Muscle activity levels, heart rate, and forearm acceleration decreased from day 1 to day 2 (range: ~4% to ~20%) and/or 3 (range: ~4% to ~28%). Not all muscles showed a similar pattern. Activity of the extensor digitorum and biceps brachii decreased already between days 1 and 2 (range: ~6% to ~13%), whereas activity of the flexor carpi radialis and triceps brachii decreased between days 1 and 3 (range: ~13% to ~20%). No changes in physical requirement were detected between days 2 and 3. Relative motor variability did not change across days, except that variability of forearm acceleration increased from day 1 to 3 (~5%). This study found consistent changes in physical requirements and indicated that several arm muscles show earlier decreases of muscular activity, like the extensor digitorum, compared to other body parts, like the flexor carpi radialis. Moreover, movement strategies may develop differently than muscle activation strategies, based on the different developments of physical requirements and motor variability. The development of physical requirements in industrial tasks is part of daily living and starts at task onset, highlighting the importance of task familiarization and the randomization of experimental conditions in scientific studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Time Spent Working in Custody Influences Work Sample Test Battery Performance of Deputy Sheriffs Compared to Recruits
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071108 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
This study determined the influence of years spent working in custody on fitness measured by a state-specific testing battery (Work Sample Test Battery; WSTB) in deputy sheriffs. Retrospective analysis was conducted on one patrol school class (51 males, 13 females) divided into three [...] Read more.
This study determined the influence of years spent working in custody on fitness measured by a state-specific testing battery (Work Sample Test Battery; WSTB) in deputy sheriffs. Retrospective analysis was conducted on one patrol school class (51 males, 13 females) divided into three groups depending on time spent working in custody: DS24 (<24 months; n = 20); DS2547 (25–47 months; n = 23); and DS48+ (≥48 months; n = 21). These groups were compared to a recruit class (REC; 219 males, 34 females) in the WSTB, which comprised five tasks completed for time: 99-yard (90.53-m) obstacle course (99OC); 165-pound (75-kg) dummy drag; six-foot (1.83-m) chain link fence (CLF) and solid wall (SW) climb; and 500-yard (457.2-m) run (500R). A univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (controlling for sex and age) with Bonferroni post hoc determined significant between-group differences. DS48+ were slower in the 99OC compared to the REC (p = 0.007) and performed the CLF and SW slower than all groups (p ≤ 0.012). DS24, DS2547, and DS48+ were all slower than REC in the 500R (p ≤ 0.002). Physical training should be implemented to maintain fitness and job-specific task performance in deputy sheriffs working custody, especially considering the sedentary nature of this work. Full article
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Article
Significant Impacts of Work-Related Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular Diseases among Young Workers: A Nationwide Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060961 - 18 Mar 2019
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Background: While occupational factors linked to the onset of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported among workers, much remains unknown about the impacts that occupation has on the onset of CVDs in various age groups. We attempted to describe temporal [...] Read more.
Background: While occupational factors linked to the onset of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported among workers, much remains unknown about the impacts that occupation has on the onset of CVDs in various age groups. We attempted to describe temporal trends in total and work-related CVDs (WRCVDs) rates stratified by age and year and explore the relative contributions of work to the CVD risk. Methods: This study was conducted using two populations from the Labor Insurance Database as the working population and the National Health Insurance Research Database as the general population. We included all people aged 15–75 years from 2006 to 2013. All CVD events and WRCVD events were identified. A Poisson regression was used to estimate the morbidity rate ratio (RR) stratified by age and period, and an RR adjusted for residual confounding was also used. Results: Incident CVD rates increased with aging in the general population (from 1113.55 to 1853.32 per 100,000 persons), and WRCVD rates increased in the working population over time (from 2.10 in 2006 to 8.60 in 2013 per 100,000 persons). In the age and period analysis, CVD attacks showed disparities in different populations. The RR of the WRCVD risk was mainly in the working population aged >45 years, and the RR of the CVD risk occurred in the oldest group (aged 55–64 years) of the general population. The population-attributable risk of working exposure was 13.5%. After eliminating residual confounding factors, higher population attributed risk (PAR) work-related excessive CVD risk mainly occurred in workers aged 25–34 and 35–44 years. A decreasing PAR trend was found in the age groups as follows: 15–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years, with percentages of 17.64%, 16.89%, 16.46%, 10.6%, and 0.65%, respectively. Conclusions: There is evidence that period and age trends of CVD rates differed between the working population and general population. Relative effects attributed to work were more severe in younger workers, particularly in workers aged <55 years. Full article
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Article
Behaviors and Attitudes of Polish Health Care Workers with Respect to the Hazards from Blood-Borne Pathogens: A Questionnaire-Based Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050891 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Blood-borne infections represent an important occupational health issue in health care settings. The aim of this study was to analyze behaviors of health care workers (HCWs) in the field of needlestick injuries (NSIs) as well as to learn about their attitudes to patients [...] Read more.
Blood-borne infections represent an important occupational health issue in health care settings. The aim of this study was to analyze behaviors of health care workers (HCWs) in the field of needlestick injuries (NSIs) as well as to learn about their attitudes to patients infected with blood-borne viruses. A total of 487 HCWs based at 26 hospitals in Poland completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in the period of October–December 2015. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. Of the HCWs, 44.8% suffered superficial wounds, and 17.9% HCWs were cut deeply at least once. The most frequent causes of injuries were: rush (31.4%), unpredictable patient behavior (29%), and lack of attention (27%). The rate of underreporting NSIs was 45.2%. Males showed more than three times higher chance of not reporting injuries (odds ratio (OR) 3.495, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.65–7.49). The nurses more often took off their protective gloves to make the procedure easier (p = 0.036). Taking off protective clothes was positively associated with long work experience (OR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.995–1.36). Recapping concerned 15.5% of doctors, 8.2% of nurses, and 11.2% of paramedics. 25.9% HCWs feared infection in the workplace, and every tenth HCW refused to help the infected patient. The longer the work experience, the greater the concern about the possibility of infection (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 0.99–1.78). Most HCWs were more cautious when dealing with an infected patient and in their opinion infected patients should be required to inform HCWs of their serological status and such information should be compulsorily transferred between different health institutions. The emphasis in the training of HCWs in the future should be on classes perfecting practical skills like paying more attention to reporting NSIs, improving occupational behaviors like avoiding needle recapping, and on the development of appropriate attitudes towards patients infected with HIV, HBV, or HCV. Full article
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Article
Anger Suppression and Rumination Sequentially Mediates the Effect of Emotional Labor in Korean Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050799 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
The degree of emotional labor in nurses has been associated with negative physical and psychological health indices. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional labor and depressive and anxiety symptoms in nurses. Specifically, the study addressed the question [...] Read more.
The degree of emotional labor in nurses has been associated with negative physical and psychological health indices. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional labor and depressive and anxiety symptoms in nurses. Specifically, the study addressed the question of whether anger suppression and anger rumination sequentially mediated the relationship. A total of 99 nurses was recruited from a university hospital in Korea. The questionnaires included instruments assessing emotional labor, anger suppression, anger rumination, as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms. Consistent with our hypothesis, there was a significant indirect effect of anger suppression and anger rumination on the relationship between emotional labor and depressive symptoms, as well as on the relationship between emotional labor and anxiety symptoms. The nurses’ degree of emotional labor, anger suppression, and anger rumination was associated with psychological adjustment. Thus, the impact of nurses’ negative affect needs to be adequately addressed, as inadequate resolution of anger may increase their vulnerability to experience depressive and anxiety symptoms. These findings may contribute to developing a strategy for enhancing nurses’ psychological health. Full article
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Article
Risk Assessment for Musculoskeletal Disorders in Forestry: A Comparison between RULA and REBA in the Manual Feeding of a Wood-Chipper
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050793 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2742
Abstract
The analysis of the postural attitude of workers during the interaction with workstation’s elements and working environment is essential in the evaluation and prevention of biomechanical overload risk in workplaces. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) and REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) are the [...] Read more.
The analysis of the postural attitude of workers during the interaction with workstation’s elements and working environment is essential in the evaluation and prevention of biomechanical overload risk in workplaces. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) and REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) are the two easiest methods for postural risk assessment in the workplace. Few studies investigated postural risk in forestry sector with regard to human–machine interaction, in particular manually fed wood-chippers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the postures assumed by an operator during the manual feeding of a wood-chipper, and to compare RULA and REBA, in order to identify the more effective and appropriate method for the assessment of the risk of biomechanical postural overload. The results pointed out several postural issues of the upper limbs, and showed that RULA is a more precautionary method to protect operator’s health during the targeted tasks. Implications to improve the human–wood-chipper interaction are discussed. Full article
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Article
Warning against Critical Slopes in Agriculture: Comprehension of Targeted Safety Signs in a Group of Machinery Operators in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040611 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Steep slopes are the main cause of rollover incidents in agriculture. Targeted safety signs have been developed to warn machinery operators against risky slopes. However, machinery user’s manuals and road signs report information regarding slope steepness in two different ways, by using the [...] Read more.
Steep slopes are the main cause of rollover incidents in agriculture. Targeted safety signs have been developed to warn machinery operators against risky slopes. However, machinery user’s manuals and road signs report information regarding slope steepness in two different ways, by using the tilt angle in degrees and the slope percentage, respectively. In this study, we investigated the comprehension of safety signs depicting critical slopes, either in degrees or as percent values in a group of Italian agricultural machinery operators while considering the possible influence of previous experience with agricultural machinery, previous incidents, and on-farm occupation. Eighteen tractor and self-propelled machinery operators were administered graphical representations of seven slope angles in a randomized order and then were asked to estimate the slope steepness as both a tilt angle and a slope percentage. The participants tended to overestimate slope steepness in degrees, whereas the opposite was true for percentages. Farmers who were previously involved in a machinery-related incident were more accurate in their estimates. The present results raise some considerations regarding the need to redesign safety communication and to promote targeted training interventions. Full article
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Article
Development of the Fatigue Risk Assessment and Management in High-Risk Environments (FRAME) Survey: A Participatory Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040522 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Existing risk assessment tools are not effective or sustainable in identifying Oil and Gas Extraction (OGE) workers at high risk of fatigue-related injuries or incidents. We developed a comprehensive Fatigue Risk Assessment and Management in high-risk Environments (FRAME) survey through an industry-academic participatory [...] Read more.
Existing risk assessment tools are not effective or sustainable in identifying Oil and Gas Extraction (OGE) workers at high risk of fatigue-related injuries or incidents. We developed a comprehensive Fatigue Risk Assessment and Management in high-risk Environments (FRAME) survey through an industry-academic participatory approach. The FRAME survey was developed through: (1) systematic gathering of existing fatigue scales; (2) refining the inventory using the Delphi Consensus technique; and (3) further refinement through employee/worker focus groups. The participatory approach resulted in a final FRAME survey across four fatigue dimensions—sleep, shiftwork, physical, and mental fatigue, and was composed of 26 items. The FRAME survey was founded on occupational fatigue science and refined and tailored to the OGE industry, through rigorous industry stakeholder input, for safer, effective, practical, and sustainable fatigue assessment and management efforts. Full article
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Article
Localization of Vehicle Back-Up Alarms by Users of Level-Dependent Hearing Protectors under Industrial Noise Conditions Generated at a Forge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030394 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
The use of hearing protectors in various noisy workplaces is often necessary. For safety reasons, auditory information may be required to correctly localize the direction of an auditory danger signal. The purpose of this study was to verify if the selection of a [...] Read more.
The use of hearing protectors in various noisy workplaces is often necessary. For safety reasons, auditory information may be required to correctly localize the direction of an auditory danger signal. The purpose of this study was to verify if the selection of a specific level-dependent hearing protector may be important for the ability to localize a vehicle back-up alarm signal. The laboratory conditions reflected industrial conditions, under which an impulse noise was emitted against a background of continuous noise. A passive mode and a level-dependent mode (maximum and incomplete amplification) were considered. Four different models of level-dependent earmuffs and one model of level-dependent earplugs were included in the tests. The tests enabled differentiation between the individual hearing protectors. The use of earplugs in level-dependent mode did not significantly affect the ability to correctly localize the back-up alarm signal. For the earmuffs, the global assessment of the impact of a mode change revealed that, depending on the model of the earmuffs, the impact may be insignificant, but may also result in considerable impairment of the ability to localize the back-up alarm signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
The Safe Use of Pesticides: A Risk Assessment Procedure for the Enhancement of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030310 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3120
Abstract
The attention paid to the use of pesticides has increased notably in recent years as demonstrated by the issue of laws and regulations requiring their safe and environmentally-conscious use (e.g. Directive 2009/128/EC and Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008). Despite the benefits that can be [...] Read more.
The attention paid to the use of pesticides has increased notably in recent years as demonstrated by the issue of laws and regulations requiring their safe and environmentally-conscious use (e.g. Directive 2009/128/EC and Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008). Despite the benefits that can be achieved by pursuing the targets of stricter legislative framework, the difficulties for farmers in complying with it are remarkable, especially for small-sized companies. In fact, in contrast to other occupational health and safety (OHS) contexts, in the case of pesticides even a preliminary analysis on the relationship between pesticide use and the consequent exposure risks for the workers is a complex task. In order to reduce the above-mentioned gap, the present study is focused on the development of an easy-to-use tool for carrying out occupational risk assessment of agricultural activities related to the use of pesticides. The procedure was developed by starting from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) approach and its improvements, and continuing to the thorough development of a tool for preliminary risk assessment, providing a simplified model for its practical application by farmers. A case study concerning olive cultivation was used for its first verification. The results achieved should be considered as an initial step for the promotion of safer practices when using pesticides, providing a consistent base for their further validation. Full article
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Article
Correction Workers’ Burnout and Outcomes: A Bayesian Network Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020282 - 20 Jan 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2796
Abstract
The present study seeks to demonstrate how Bayesian Network analysis can be used to support Total Worker Health® research on correction workers by (1) revealing the most probable scenario of how psychosocial and behavioral outcome variables in corrections work are interrelated and [...] Read more.
The present study seeks to demonstrate how Bayesian Network analysis can be used to support Total Worker Health® research on correction workers by (1) revealing the most probable scenario of how psychosocial and behavioral outcome variables in corrections work are interrelated and (2) identifying the key contributing factors of this interdependency relationship within the unique occupational context of corrections work. The data from 353 correction workers from a state department of corrections in the United States were utilized. A Bayesian Network analysis approach was used to probabilistically sort out potential interrelations among various psychosocial and behavioral variables. The identified model revealed that work-related exhaustion may serve as a primary driver of occupational stress and impaired workability, and also that exhaustion limits the ability of correction workers to get regular physical exercise, while their interrelations with depressed mood, a lack of work engagement, and poor work-family balance were also noted. The results suggest the importance of joint consideration of psychosocial and behavioral factors when investigating variables that may impact health and wellbeing of correction workers. Also, they supported the value of adopting the Total Worker Health® framework, a holistic strategy to integrate prevention of work-related injury and illness and the facilitation of worker well-being, when considering integrated health protection and promotion interventions for workers in high-risk occupations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Living the 14/14 Schedule: Qualitative Analysis of the Challenges and Coping Strategies among Families of Offshore Wind Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020241 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2088
Abstract
Offshore wind workers in Germany usually spend 14 days offshore, alternating with 14 days of spare time at home. The offshore lifestyle may considerably affect offshore workers’ partners and families. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the psychosocial adaptation among offshore [...] Read more.
Offshore wind workers in Germany usually spend 14 days offshore, alternating with 14 days of spare time at home. The offshore lifestyle may considerably affect offshore workers’ partners and families. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the psychosocial adaptation among offshore wind couples living the 14/14 schedule. The present study intended to offer a contemporary view on the topic from the perspective of the women of offshore workers. Our aim was (1) to examine the perceived features of living the 14/14 schedule, (2) explore women’s coping strategies, and (3) investigate their views on the reconciliation of offshore work and partnership/family life. The women reported differentiated views on the benefits and costs associated with their living situation, and stated various coping strategies that facilitated psychosocial adaptation. Despite some burdens, overall, most of the women seemed to have adapted relatively favourably to their lifestyle. This was particularly eased by recent sociological and technological advances, e.g., improved communication technologies. Full article
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Article
Trends in Workplace Injuries in Slovak Forest Enterprises
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010141 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to analyse the effect of key factors affecting the risk of workplace injuries and to identify the most common workplace accidents regarding injured body parts with respect to anthropometric data measurements of the population. Data associated with [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to analyse the effect of key factors affecting the risk of workplace injuries and to identify the most common workplace accidents regarding injured body parts with respect to anthropometric data measurements of the population. Data associated with workplace accidents over the years 2000–2016 were drawn from the records of the state enterprise Forests of the Slovak Republic, situated in Banská Bystrica. Gathered data were processed and entered into the database complemented by the data on accidents of the self-employed working in the forestry industry. A total of 1874 workplace accidents in the state enterprise were recorded and statistically evaluated during the analysis period. A method for contingency table was used to analyse correlation between qualitative (categorical) variables in the dataset. A Poisson regression model was used to determine the injury rate. Forest harvesting is considered the most risky phase of the process of harvesting, processing, and transport. The highest number of workplace accidents (31.8% of all recorded workplace accidents) occurred during the forest harvesting phase during the analysis period. Timber skidding, with 16% of recorded accidents, was the second highest-risk phase. The workplace injury rate in the forest industry in Slovakia decreased over the course of the years 2000–2016. Head and facial injuries were those with the highest rate (67.1% injuries of these body parts) during the phase of harvesting and skidding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Impact of Obesity on Employment and Wages among Young Adults: Observational Study with Panel Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010139 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
This paper assesses the relationship between obesity and the job market by focusing on young adults early on in their careers, while considering the factor of gender and the individuals’ job qualifications. This study extracted data on high school students for four years [...] Read more.
This paper assesses the relationship between obesity and the job market by focusing on young adults early on in their careers, while considering the factor of gender and the individuals’ job qualifications. This study extracted data on high school students for four years from the Korean Education and Employment Panel (from 2010 to 2013), a nationally representative dataset comprising of 2000 middle school students and 4000 high school seniors. The individual-level fixed effects were controlled using conditional logistic regression models and an ordinary least squares model. Obese and overweight men were 1.46 times more likely to be placed in professional jobs and had 13.9% higher monthly wages than their normal-weight counterparts. However, obese and overweight women were 0.33 times less likely to have service jobs, earned 9.0% lower monthly wages, and half as likely to have jobs with bonuses than that of their normal-weight counterparts. However, such penalty among women was found only when they had none of the assessed job market qualifications. Given that initial jobs and job conditions have lingering impacts in long-term job performance, the cumulative penalty for overweight or obesity could be more substantial for young adults in particular. Full article
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Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in a Cohort of Australian Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010061 - 27 Dec 2018
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 8209
Abstract
Nurses remain at the forefront of patient care. However, their heavy workload as a career can leave them overworked and stressed. The demanding nature of the occupation exposes nurses to a higher risk of developing negative mental states such as depression, anxiety, and [...] Read more.
Nurses remain at the forefront of patient care. However, their heavy workload as a career can leave them overworked and stressed. The demanding nature of the occupation exposes nurses to a higher risk of developing negative mental states such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of these mental states in a representative sample of Australian nurses. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered to 102 nurses. Information about demographic and work characteristics were obtained using lifestyle and in-house designed questionnaires. Prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, and stress were found to be 32.4%, 41.2%, and 41.2% respectively. Binominal logistic regressions for depression and stress were significant (p = 0.007, p = 0.009). Job dissatisfaction significantly predicted a higher risk of nurses developing symptoms of depression and stress respectively (p = 0.009, p = 0.011). Poor mental health among nurses may not only be detrimental to the individual but may also hinder professional performance and in turn, the quality of patient care provided. Further research in the area is required to identify support strategies and interventions that may improve the health and wellbeing of nursing professionals and hence the quality of care delivered. Full article
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Article
Six Years of Sick Leave Spells in a Group of University Civil Workers. Can Modern Work Bring Them a New Health Problem?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010017 - 21 Dec 2018
Viewed by 1572
Abstract
The objective of this study is to analyse sick leave episodes of a university’s collective of statutory workers in the State of São Paulo, between January 2010 and December 2015. For this, a descriptive study analysed 5776 registered spells of sick leave of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to analyse sick leave episodes of a university’s collective of statutory workers in the State of São Paulo, between January 2010 and December 2015. For this, a descriptive study analysed 5776 registered spells of sick leave of four university units: agricultural sciences; human health, health and animal reproduction, and biological sciences; an administrative unit; and a university hospital. The medical expert assessment was carried out by general practitioners and psychiatrists who managed sick leave and return to work cases. Around 52% had up to three sick leave episodes, and 10% of the workers had 20 or more episodes. Each spell of sickness absence lasted a median of 30 days (IQR 8–60 days). Among all of sick leaves, 35% had as a primary cause mental or behavioural diseases, of which 30% were depressive disorders, followed by around 18% related to the musculoskeletal system and the connective tissues. In the medical reports, 80% of the workers reported pain and 30% reported psychological symptoms. The collective, seen as privileged by many for their job stability, has a high percentage of sick leave due to mental illness, with extended periods which affect the levels of disability and reduce possibilities of return. Full article
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Article
A Profile of Knee Injuries Suffered by Australian Army Reserve Soldiers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010012 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Despite having to perform the same occupational tasks as full-time soldiers, part-time soldiers may have lower levels of physical conditioning and report higher rates of injury per unit exposure to active service. The purpose of this study was to profile the leading body [...] Read more.
Despite having to perform the same occupational tasks as full-time soldiers, part-time soldiers may have lower levels of physical conditioning and report higher rates of injury per unit exposure to active service. The purpose of this study was to profile the leading body site of injury occurring in part-time soldiers to inform injury prevention strategies. Injury data from the Australian Army Reserve (ARES) spanning a two-year period were obtained from the Department of Defence Workplace Health, Safety, Compensation and Reporting database pertaining to locations, nature, mechanisms, and the activity being performed at the time of injury. Among the 1434 injuries reported by ARES personnel, the knee was the most common injury site (n = 228, 16%). Soft tissue injury due to trauma or unknown causes was the most common nature of knee injury (n = 177, 78%). Combat training was the most common activity being performed when soft tissue injuries occurred at the knee (n = 73, 42%), with physical training the second most common (n = 51, 30%), due to muscular stress (n = 36, 71%) and falls (n = 8, 16%). Targeted intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to injury minimization strategies for soft tissue knee injuries during combat and physical training should be designed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Occupational Diseases among Workers in Lower and Higher Socioeconomic Positions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122849 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Background: To determine differences between workers in lower and higher socioeconomic positions (SEP) in incidences of occupational disease (OD) and incapacity for work due to ODs. Methods: From a Dutch dynamic prospective cohort of occupational physicians (OPs), ODs assessed by OPs were retrieved [...] Read more.
Background: To determine differences between workers in lower and higher socioeconomic positions (SEP) in incidences of occupational disease (OD) and incapacity for work due to ODs. Methods: From a Dutch dynamic prospective cohort of occupational physicians (OPs), ODs assessed by OPs were retrieved for lower and higher SEP groups. Results: Among the lower SEP, musculoskeletal disorders, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) comprised two-thirds of the OD diagnoses. Among the higher SEP, stress/burnout comprised 60% of the OD diagnoses. Temporary and permanent incapacity for work due to work-related lower back disorders and repetitive strain injuries differed significantly between workers in lower compared to higher SEP. Conclusions: Occupational diseases occur at a 2.7 higher incidence rate for workers in lower SEP compared with higher SEP. Incapacity for work varies between the type of OD and the level of SEP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Executive Stress Management: Physiological Load of Stress and Recovery in Executives on Workdays
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122847 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2640
Abstract
Objective: The use of high-performance sports technology to describe the physiological load of stress and the quality of recovery in a population of executives during the workday. Methodology: Heart rate variability values were recorded during 48 h from which the relationship [...] Read more.
Objective: The use of high-performance sports technology to describe the physiological load of stress and the quality of recovery in a population of executives during the workday. Methodology: Heart rate variability values were recorded during 48 h from which the relationship between stress/recovery quality (stress balance) was obtained for three differentiated time slots: work, after work, and night in a workday. Results: We observed a negative stress balance during the 24 h of measurement in the course of a workday, being negative at work and after work, and positive at night. The stress generated or maintained outside working hours correlates significantly with a lower quality of recovery during the 24 h workday. Conclusions: It is necessary to prioritize strategies that help improve stress management in executives through the improvement of tools and strategies that mainly promote greater relaxation outside working hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Does Instruction of Oral Health Behavior for Workers Improve Work Performance?—Quasi-Randomized Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122630 - 24 Nov 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Oral disease can cause economic loss due to impaired work performance. Therefore, improvement of oral health status and prevention of oral disease is essential among workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether oral health-related behavioral modification intervention influences work performance [...] Read more.
Oral disease can cause economic loss due to impaired work performance. Therefore, improvement of oral health status and prevention of oral disease is essential among workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether oral health-related behavioral modification intervention influences work performance or improves oral health behavior and oral health status among Japanese workers. We quasi-randomly separated participants into the intervention group or the control group at baseline. The intervention group received intensive oral health instruction at baseline and a self-assessment every three months. Both groups received oral examinations and answered the self-questionnaire at baseline and at one-year follow-up. At follow-up, the prevalence of subjects who use fluoride toothpastes and interdental brushes/dental floss were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Three variables (tooth brushing in workplace, using fluoride toothpaste, and experience of receiving tooth brushing instruction in a dental clinic) showed significant improvement only in the intervention group. On the other hand, work performance and oral status did not significantly change in either group. Our intensive oral health-related behavioral modification intervention improved oral health behavior, but neither work performance nor oral status, among Japanese workers. Full article
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Article
Multidisciplinary Intervention and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Return-to-Work and Increased Employability among Patients with Mental Illness and/or Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112424 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3022
Abstract
Background: People on long-term sick leave often have a long-lasting process back to work, where the individuals may be in multiple and recurrent states; i.e., receiving different social security benefits or working, and over time they may shift between these states. The purpose [...] Read more.
Background: People on long-term sick leave often have a long-lasting process back to work, where the individuals may be in multiple and recurrent states; i.e., receiving different social security benefits or working, and over time they may shift between these states. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two vocational rehabilitation programs, compared to a control, on return-to-work (RTW) or increased employability in patients on long-term sick leave due to mental illness and/or chronic pain. Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 427 women and men were allocated to either (1) multidisciplinary team management, i.e., multidisciplinary assessments and individual rehabilitation management, (2) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or (3) control. A positive outcome was defined as RTW or increased employability. The outcome was considered negative if the (part-time) wage was reduced or ceased, or if there was an indication of decreased employability. The outcome was measured one year after entry in the project and analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regressions. Results: Participants in the multidisciplinary team group reported having RTW odds ratio (OR) 3.31 (95% CI 1.39–7.87) compared to the control group in adjusted models. Participants in the ACT group reported having increased employability OR 3.22 (95% CI 1.13–9.15) compared to the control group in adjusted models. Conclusions: This study of vocational rehabilitation in mainly female patients on long-term sick leave due to mental illness and/or chronic pain suggests that multidisciplinary team assessments and individually adapted rehabilitation interventions increased RTW and employability. Solely receiving the ACT intervention also increased employability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Reduced Lung Function among Workers in Primary Coffee Processing Factories in Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112415 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Dust exposure is one of the major risk factors for respiratory health in many workplaces, including coffee factories. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function reduction among workers in Ethiopian primary coffee processing factories, [...] Read more.
Dust exposure is one of the major risk factors for respiratory health in many workplaces, including coffee factories. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function reduction among workers in Ethiopian primary coffee processing factories, compared to a control group of workers. A total of 115 coffee workers and 110 water bottling workers were involved in this study, from 12 coffee and 3 water bottling factories in Ethiopia, respectively. The chronic respiratory symptoms were assessed using a structured interview, using a standardized questionnaire adopted from the American Thoracic Society (ATS). The lung function tests were performed according to the ATS recommendation for spirometry. The coffee workers had a significantly higher prevalence of coughing, coughing with sputum, breathlessness, work-related shortness of breath, and wheezing compared with the controls. The prevalence ratio of work-related shortness of breath (PR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.6–8.7) and wheezing (PR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3–8.4) was significantly higher for the coffee workers compared to the controls. The coffee workers in the age groups 28–39 years and ≥40 years, had a significantly lower forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s compared to the controls in the similar age groups. The findings indicated the need for longitudinal studies on the possible effect of coffee dust on respiratory health of coffee production workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
The Epidemiology, Cost, and Occupational Context of Spinal Injuries Sustained While ‘Working for Income’ in NSW: A Record-Linkage Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102121 - 27 Sep 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2175
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics, the occupational context, and the cost of hospitalised work-related traumatic spinal injuries, across New South Wales, Australia. A record-linkage study of hospitalised cases of work-related spinal injury (ICD10-AM code U73.0 or workers compensation) was conducted. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics, the occupational context, and the cost of hospitalised work-related traumatic spinal injuries, across New South Wales, Australia. A record-linkage study of hospitalised cases of work-related spinal injury (ICD10-AM code U73.0 or workers compensation) was conducted. Study period 2013–2016. Eight hundred and twenty-four individuals sustained work-related spinal injuries; 86.2% of whom were males and had a mean age of 46.6 years. Falls led to 50% of the injuries; predominantly falls from building/structures, ladders or between levels. Falls occurred predominantly in the construction industry (78%). Transport crashes caused 31% of injuries and 24% in heavy vehicles. Half of all the transport injuries occurred ‘off road’. The external cause was coded as ‘non-specific work activity’ in 44.5% of cases; missing in 11.5%. Acute care bed days numbered at 13,302; total cost $19,500,000. High numbers of work-related spinal injuries occurred in the construction industry; particularly falling from a height. Off-road transport-related injuries were significant and likely unaddressed by ‘on-road’ prevention policies. Medical record documentation was insufficient in injury mechanism and context specificity. Workers in the construction industry or those using vehicles off-road were at high risk of spinal injury, suggesting inefficient systems approaches or ineffective prevention policies. Reducing the use of non-specific external cause codes in patients’ medical records would improve the measurement of policy effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Data-Driven Approach to Improving the Risk Assessment Process of Medical Failures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102069 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
In recent decades, many researchers have focused on the issue of medical failures in the healthcare industry. A variety of techniques have been employed to assess the risk of medical failure and to generate strategies to reduce the frequency of medical failures. Considering [...] Read more.
In recent decades, many researchers have focused on the issue of medical failures in the healthcare industry. A variety of techniques have been employed to assess the risk of medical failure and to generate strategies to reduce the frequency of medical failures. Considering the limitations of the traditional method—failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)—for risk assessment and quality improvement, this paper presents two models developed using data envelopment analysis (DEA). One is called the slacks-based measure DEA (SBM-DEA) model, and the other is a novel data-driven approach (NDA) that combines FMEA and DEA. The relative advantages of the three models are compared. In this paper, an infant security case consisting of 16 failure modes at Western Wake Medical Center in Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S., was employed. The results indicate that both SBM-DEA and NDA may improve the discrimination and accuracy of detection compared to the traditional method of FMEA. However, NDA was found to have a relative advantage over SBM-DEA due to its risk assessment capability and precise detection of medical failures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Article
Nurses’ Occupational and Medical Risks Factors of Leaving the Profession in Nursing Homes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091850 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2762
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the association between intention to leave work, and working conditions and health status among female care-staff in nursing homes. A multicenter cross-sectional study included female care-staff in 105 nursing homes for the elderly. We used validated questionnaires to [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the association between intention to leave work, and working conditions and health status among female care-staff in nursing homes. A multicenter cross-sectional study included female care-staff in 105 nursing homes for the elderly. We used validated questionnaires to assess occupational, psychosocial and medical data in a multicenter transverse study. Univariate analysis on chi² test was performed with stratification according to job (nurse, nursing assistant), and variables found to be significant on each dimension were included on multivariate models. 1428 nursing assistants and 342 registered nurses were included. 391 nursing assistants and 85 registered nurses intended to leave their work with the elderly. The registered nurses’ intention to leave was associated with deteriorated care-team or residents relations, and with perceived elevated hardship due to the proximity of residents’ death. The nursing assistants’ intention to leave was associated with deteriorated management relation, with job insecurity and elevated hardship due to the residents’ intellectual deterioration. Impaired physical or psychological health status also correlated with this intention. Policy to reduce voluntary turnover of care-staff in nursing homes for the elderly could be based on multifactorial management, acting on work organization and reducing psychosocial stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Differences in Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence by Employment Type and Sex
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091798 - 21 Aug 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Workers may sometimes do the same work, but differ in their risk of health-related problems depending on whether the employment type is standard or non-standard. Furthermore, even with similar job and employment types, there may be differences in risk factors for health-related problems [...] Read more.
Workers may sometimes do the same work, but differ in their risk of health-related problems depending on whether the employment type is standard or non-standard. Furthermore, even with similar job and employment types, there may be differences in risk factors for health-related problems depending on sex. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by employment type and sex using data from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅴ) (2010–2012) and KNHANES Ⅵ (2013–2015) conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overall, 9523 adult wage workers (5523 standard workers and 4000 non-standard workers) aged ≥ 19 years were analyzed. To determine MetS prevalence odds ratios according to employment type, logistic regression analysis was performed disaggregated by sex. The prevalence of MetS significantly increased with age (p < 0.001), being married (p < 0.05), current smoking status (p < 0.05), and high-risk drinking (p < 0.001) among male subjects. The prevalence of MetS significantly increased among female manual workers (p < 0.001), those with lower educational level and household income (p < 0.001). Non-standard workers of either sex showed higher MetS prevalence than standard workers; only females showed significant difference (p < 0.001). Female non-standard workers showed 1.44, 1.33, and 1.34 (all p < 0.001) times higher odds of MetS prevalence in Models 1, 2, and 3, respectively, compared to standard workers, suggesting a difference in risk factors of MetS according to sex. Also, that employment type affects MetS prevalence suggests that employment pattern is an important risk factor especially in females. Therefore, to manage MetS in female non-standard workers, individual health care as well as social effort may be necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Relationships of Lower Lung Fibrosis, Pleural Disease, and Lung Mass with Occupational, Household, Neighborhood, and Slate Roof-Dense Area Residential Asbestos Exposure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081638 - 02 Aug 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between various asbestos exposure routes and asbestos-related disorders (ARDs). The study population comprised 11,186 residents of a metropolitan city who lived near asbestos factories, shipyards, or in slate roof-dense areas. ARDs were determined from chest X-rays [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between various asbestos exposure routes and asbestos-related disorders (ARDs). The study population comprised 11,186 residents of a metropolitan city who lived near asbestos factories, shipyards, or in slate roof-dense areas. ARDs were determined from chest X-rays indicating lower lung fibrosis (LFF), pleural disease (PD), and lung masses (LMs). Of the subjects, 11.2%, 10.4%, 67.2% and 8.3% were exposed to asbestos via occupational, household, neighborhood, and slate roof routes, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of PD from household exposure (i.e., living with asbestos-producing workers) was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.9–4.2), and those of LLF and PD from neighborhood exposure, or residing near asbestos factories) for <19 or >20 years, or near a mine, were 4.1 (2.8–5.8) and 4.8 (3.4–6.7), 8.3 (5.5–12.3) and 8.0 (5.5–11.6), and 4.8 (2.7–8.5) and 9.0 (5.6–14.4), respectively. The ORs of LLF, PD, and LM among those residing in slate-dense areas were 5.5 (3.3–9.0), 8.8 (5.6–13.8), and 20.5 (10.4–40.4), respectively. Substantial proportions of citizens residing in industrialized cities have potentially been exposed to asbestos, and various exposure routes are associated with the development of ARDs. Given the limitations of this study, including potential confounders such as socioeconomic status, further research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
Article
Aberrant Driving Behaviour, Risk Involvement, and Their Related Factors Among Taxi Drivers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081626 - 01 Aug 2018
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
The current study aims to investigate the aberrant driving behaviour and risk involvement of Iranian taxi drivers. The sample comprised 405 Iranian taxi drivers, who were recruited with a cross-sectional design, using a self-completion questionnaire survey during October and November 2016. We contribute [...] Read more.
The current study aims to investigate the aberrant driving behaviour and risk involvement of Iranian taxi drivers. The sample comprised 405 Iranian taxi drivers, who were recruited with a cross-sectional design, using a self-completion questionnaire survey during October and November 2016. We contribute to the literature by understanding how and to what extent the socioeconomic, demographic, driving, and aberrant driving behaviours influence risk involvement (accident involvement and traffic tickets). The validated 27-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) was applied to measure aberrant driving behaviour. The results from valid observations (n = 381) explored a four-factor solution (including errors, ordinary violations, lapses, and aggressive violations) of the DBQ. The results also showed that being a single driver, having a high annual driving mileage, and a high number of daily taxi trips were positively associated with accident involvement. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the more ordinary violations and aggressive violations and accident involvement. Establishing better training and qualification mechanisms for taxi drivers could be considered by traffic safety experts in order to reduce ordinary and aggressive violations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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