Special Issue "Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Sergio Garbarino
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics and Maternal/Child Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Interests: public health; sleep disorders and sleep medicine; circadian rhythms; obstructive sleep apnea; sleep genetics; mental health; sleepiness; insomnia; sleep debt; sleep deprivation; nap; consciousness; coma; neurology; neurophysiology; polysomnography; health promotion; risk assessment; safety; epidemiology and public health; shiftwork; work-related stress; mental health; transport; police; healthcare; health and safety; determination health risk assessment; health impact assessment; occupational epidemiology; occupational health and disease; aging and work; near miss and road accident; alcohol and drug

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on "Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective" in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). IJERPH is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes research articles examining the intersection of the environment and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to:https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

The Special Issue is focused on sleep disorders across different periods of life, from childhood to older age, encompassing adolescence and adulthood, and working life, and their impact on health, wellbeing and quality of life. Sleep disorders have become a global endemic across contexts and among different groups. The essential questions this Special Issue will seek to address are:

  1. Why the same sleep disorders affect different age groups in different ways? What are the different pathophysiologies?
  2. How are age-related differences in sleep–wake symptoms and in sleep disorders associated with health outcomes?
  3. What are the main age-related preventive strategies to deal with sleep disorders and sleep-related health problems?

The current Special Issue, entitled "Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective" will provide a venue to discuss these three fundamental questions.

This Special Issue is open to original research, review articles, short reports, brief commentaries, case reports, meta-analyses, simulation studies, and epidemiologic models related to sleep disorders and their impact on health and quality of life. The keywords listed below suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

We invite you to submit articles on sleep disorders in the following areas:

  • Genetic and environmental effects
  • Epidemiology
  • Gender
  • Sleep habits and sleep-wake cycle
  • Sleep health and sleep-related health conditions
  • Sleep disorders, sleepiness
  • Co-morbidity and mortality
  • Work organization and shift work
  • Public health
  • Occupational health
  • Prevention and management
Dr. Sergio Garbarino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sleep disorders
  • sleepiness
  • sleep apnea
  • shiftwork
  • health
  • wellbeing
  • quality of life
  • safe
  • age
  • workplace
  • lifespan
  • prevention

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Effects of 25-Min Nap Opportunity during Ramadan Observance on the 5-m Shuttle Run Performance and the Perception of Fatigue in Physically Active Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093135 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the effects of a 25-min nap opportunity on physical performance during the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT), feelings (i.e., evaluated by the feeling scale), attention (i.e., evaluated by the digit cancellation test) and the perception of fatigue (i.e., recorded [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the effects of a 25-min nap opportunity on physical performance during the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT), feelings (i.e., evaluated by the feeling scale), attention (i.e., evaluated by the digit cancellation test) and the perception of fatigue (i.e., recorded by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)) during Ramadan observance. Twelve physically active men (age: 21.1 ± 3.2 yrs, height: 1.76 ± 0.05 m, body-mass: 71.2 ± 9.3 kg) voluntarily participated in five test sessions: 15 days before Ramadan (BR), the first 10 days of Ramadan (FR), the last 10 days of Ramadan (ER), 10 days after Ramadan (10AR) and 20 days after Ramadan (20AR). During each test session, participants performed the digit cancellation test, a 5-min standard warm-up, the 5mSRT (6 × 30-s with 35-s intervals-between) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after no-nap (N0) and 25-min nap opportunity (N25) conditions. Participants also completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) during each period. The total distance covered during the 5mSRT did not differ significantly before, during or after Ramadan, but was significantly greater after N25 compared to N0 at 10AR (687.5 ± 23.0 m vs. 725.6 ± 41.1 m; p = 0.018) and 20AR (698.3 ± 19.8 m vs. 742.6 ± 58.3 m; p = 0.003). The attention scores were higher after N25 in comparison with N0 at 10AR (p = 0.04) and 20AR (p = 0.02). RPE scores were not significantly different between N25 and N0 conditions. Feelings scores were higher after N25 compared to N0 during both FR (p = 0.007) and 20AR (p = 0.04). A significant deterioration of sleep quality was recorded during Ramadan (i.e., PSQI scores were significantly higher during and after compared to BR (p < 0.0005)). A 25-min nap opportunity was beneficial for physical and cognitive performance after Ramadan observance; however, any effect is insufficient to show significant beneficial impacts during Ramadan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Elderly Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031120 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea (POSA) in elderly patients (≥65 years old). Adult (range 19-65 years old) and elderly patients were also compared in order to show differences in the incidence of [...] Read more.
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea (POSA) in elderly patients (≥65 years old). Adult (range 19-65 years old) and elderly patients were also compared in order to show differences in the incidence of POSA between these two groups of patients. Methods A prospective bi-center study was performed between January 2018 and May 2019. A total of 434 participants underwent polysomnography (PSG) study at home (Embletta MPR). Body position during the PSG recordings was determined. Patients were subdivided in two groups: those aged between 19 and 65 years old (adult patients) and ≥65 years old (elderly patients). POSA patients were defined using Cartwright’s system, Bignold classification, and the new Amsterdam Positional OSA Classification (APOC). Results The prevalence of POSA in elderly patients differed according to the classification system used: 49.3% using Cartwright’s classification system, 20.5% with the Bignold classification, and 22.6%, 38.9%, and 5.4% of APOC 1, APOC 2, and APOC3 sub-classes were respectively identified for the APOC classification system. No difference between adult and elderly patients regarding the prevalence of POSA was observed. No statistical differences emerged between the two groups of patients in terms of supine (p = 0.9) and non-supine AHI (p = 0.4). Conclusions A significant number of elderly patients could be considered treatable with positional therapy according to the APOC classification. However, the efficacy and applicability of positional therapy in elderly patients must be confirmed by further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Diagnosis in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using the Pepsin Salivary Test
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112056 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: To investigate the presence of laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) employing the salivary pepsin concentration method. To compare the results of pepsin concentration with the severity of the pathology. Methods: Seventy-five OSA patients (44 males, 31 females) were [...] Read more.
Background: To investigate the presence of laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) employing the salivary pepsin concentration method. To compare the results of pepsin concentration with the severity of the pathology. Methods: Seventy-five OSA patients (44 males, 31 females) were enrolled in the study. For each patient, the AHI (apnea–hypopnea index) and the BMI (body mass index) were initially evaluated. All the patients enrolled were assessed using the reflux symptom index (RSI) and the reflux finding score (RFS) in order to perform a clinical diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux. In all patients a salivary sample was taken to estimate the presence of pepsin and its concentration. Results: The incidence of LPR (laryngopharyngeal reflux) in OSA patients, evaluated using the salivary pepsin concentration test (PEP-test), was found to be 32% of cases. Linear regression testing did not show any correlation between AHI and pepsin concentration in salivary samples (p = 0.1). Conclusion: A high number of patients with OSA seem to show positivity for salivary pepsin, correlated to an LPR. There does not appear to be a correlation between the severity of apnea and the grade of salivary pepsin reflux. On the other hand, direct correlation between BMI and the value of pepsin in salivary specimens was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Sedentary Behaviour and 12 Sleep Problem Indicators among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081422 - 20 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to assess the association of sedentary behaviour with 12 different sleep problem indicators among rural middle-aged and elderly adults in South Africa. Cross-sectional data were analysed from the “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation was to assess the association of sedentary behaviour with 12 different sleep problem indicators among rural middle-aged and elderly adults in South Africa. Cross-sectional data were analysed from the “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa” (HAALSI) baseline survey. Participants responded to a questionnaire, including sociodemographic, health, anthropometric measures, sedentary behaviour and 12 different sleep problem indicators. The sample included 4782 individuals 40 years and older (median 61 years, interquartile range = 20 years). Overall, participants engaged <4 h (55.9%), 4–<8 h (34.1%), 8 or more hours a day (9.9%) sedentary time a day. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, 8 h of more sedentary time was associated with short and long sleep. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, high sedentary time was positively associated with snoring, gasping, breathing stops and restless sleep and negatively associated with insufficient sleep and sleep problems due to a traumatic event. In combined analysis, compared to persons with low or moderate sedentary behaviour and moderate or high physical activity, persons with high sedentary behaviour and low physical activity were more likely to have long sleep, insufficient sleep, snoring, gasping, breathing stops, and restless sleep and less likely to have sleep problems due to traumatic events. Findings show an association between sedentary behaviour and/or combined sedentary behaviour and low physical activity with seven of 12 sleep problem indicators (short sleep, long sleep, insufficient sleep, snoring, gasping, breathing stops, and restless sleep). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Restless Legs Syndrome across the Lifespan: Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Management and Daily Life Impact of the Different Patterns of Disease Presentation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103658 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
Restless legs syndrome is a common but still underdiagnosed neurologic disorder, characterized by peculiar symptoms typically occurring in the evening and at night, and resulting in sleep disruption and daily functioning impairment. This disease can affect subjects of all age ranges and of [...] Read more.
Restless legs syndrome is a common but still underdiagnosed neurologic disorder, characterized by peculiar symptoms typically occurring in the evening and at night, and resulting in sleep disruption and daily functioning impairment. This disease can affect subjects of all age ranges and of both sexes, manifesting itself with a broad spectrum of severity and deserving special attention in certain patient categories, in order to achieve a correct diagnosis and an effective treatment. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome can be challenging in some patients, especially children and elderly people, and an effective treatment might be far from being easy to achieve after some years of drug therapy, notably when dopaminergic agents are used. Moreover, the pathophysiology of this disorder offers an interesting example of interaction between genetics and the environment, considering strong iron metabolism involvement and its interaction with recognized individual genetic factors. Therefore, this syndrome allows clinicians to verify how lifespan and time can modify diagnosis and treatment of a neurological disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
Open AccessReview
Sleep Disturbances Rate among Medical and Allied Health Professions Students in Iran: Implications from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031011 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
Medicine and healthcare professions are prestigious and valued careers and, at the same time, demanding, challenging, and arduous jobs. Medical and allied health professions students, experiencing a stressful academic and clinical workload, may suffer from sleep disturbances. In Iran, several studies have been [...] Read more.
Medicine and healthcare professions are prestigious and valued careers and, at the same time, demanding, challenging, and arduous jobs. Medical and allied health professions students, experiencing a stressful academic and clinical workload, may suffer from sleep disturbances. In Iran, several studies have been conducted to explore the prevalence rate among medical and healthcare professions students. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantitatively and rigorously summarize the existing scholarly literature, providing the decision- and policy-makers and educators with an updated, evidence-based synthesis. Only studies utilizing a reliable psychometric instrument, such as the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), were included, in order to have comparable measurements and estimates. Seventeen investigations were retained in the present systematic review and meta-analysis, totaling a sample of 3586 students. Studies were conducted between 2008 and 2018 and reported an overall rate of sleep disturbances of 58% (95% confidence interval or CI 45–70). No evidence of publication bias could be found, but formal analyses on determinants of sleep disturbances could not be run due to the dearth of information that could be extracted from studies. Poor sleep is highly prevalent among Iranian medical and healthcare professions students. Based on the limitations of the present study, high-quality investigations are urgently needed to better capture the determinants of poor sleep quality among medical and healthcare professions students, given the importance and the implications of such a topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
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Open AccessReview
Mental Sleep Activity and Disturbing Dreams in the Lifespan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193658 - 29 Sep 2019
Abstract
Sleep significantly changes across the lifespan, and several studies underline its crucial role in cognitive functioning. Similarly, mental activity during sleep tends to covary with age. This review aims to analyze the characteristics of dreaming and disturbing dreams at different age brackets. On [...] Read more.
Sleep significantly changes across the lifespan, and several studies underline its crucial role in cognitive functioning. Similarly, mental activity during sleep tends to covary with age. This review aims to analyze the characteristics of dreaming and disturbing dreams at different age brackets. On the one hand, dreams may be considered an expression of brain maturation and cognitive development, showing relations with memory and visuo-spatial abilities. Some investigations reveal that specific electrophysiological patterns, such as frontal theta oscillations, underlie dreams during sleep, as well as episodic memories in the waking state, both in young and older adults. On the other hand, considering the role of dreaming in emotional processing and regulation, the available literature suggests that mental sleep activity could have a beneficial role when stressful events occur at different age ranges. We highlight that nightmares and bad dreams might represent an attempt to cope the adverse events, and the degrees of cognitive-brain maturation could impact on these mechanisms across the lifespan. Future investigations are necessary to clarify these relations. Clinical protocols could be designed to improve cognitive functioning and emotional regulation by modifying the dream contents or the ability to recall/non-recall them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
Open AccessReview
Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children: State of the Art
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183235 - 04 Sep 2019
Abstract
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represents only part of a large group of pathologies of variable entity called respiratory sleep disorders (RSD) which include simple snoring and increased upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Although the etiopathogenesis of adult OSAS is well known, [...] Read more.
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represents only part of a large group of pathologies of variable entity called respiratory sleep disorders (RSD) which include simple snoring and increased upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Although the etiopathogenesis of adult OSAS is well known, many aspects of this syndrome in children are still debated. Its prevalence is about 2% in children from 2 to 8 years of age, mostly related to the size of the upper airways adenoid tissue. Several risk factors linked to the development of OSAS are typical of the pediatric age. The object of this paper is to analyze the state of the art on this specific topic, discussing its implications in terms of diagnosis and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
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Open AccessReview
Circadian Rhythms and Measures of CNS/Autonomic Interaction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132336 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The physiological role and relevance of the mechanisms sustaining circadian rhythms have been acknowledged. Abnormalities of the circadian and/or sleep-wakefulness cycles can result in major metabolic disorders or behavioral/professional inadequacies and stand as independent risk factors for metabolic, psychiatric, and cerebrovascular disorders and [...] Read more.
The physiological role and relevance of the mechanisms sustaining circadian rhythms have been acknowledged. Abnormalities of the circadian and/or sleep-wakefulness cycles can result in major metabolic disorders or behavioral/professional inadequacies and stand as independent risk factors for metabolic, psychiatric, and cerebrovascular disorders and early markers of disease. Neuroimaging and clinical evidence have documented functional interactions between autonomic (ANS) and CNS structures that are described by a concept model (Central Autonomic Network) based on the brain-heart two-way interplay. The circadian rhythms of autonomic function, ANS-mediated processes, and ANS/CNS interaction appear to be sources of variability adding to a variety of environmental factors, and may become crucial when considering the ANS major role in internal environment constancy and adaptation that are fundamental to homeostasis. The CNS/ANS interaction has not yet obtained full attention and systematic investigation remains overdue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
Open AccessReview
Sleep Quality among Police Officers: Implications and Insights from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050885 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Poor sleep is associated with bad health outcomes, worse wellbeing and decreases in performance, productivity and safety at work. Police officers are exposed to several risk factors including extended work schedules, shift work, occupational stress, dangerous and traumatic events and can, as such, [...] Read more.
Poor sleep is associated with bad health outcomes, worse wellbeing and decreases in performance, productivity and safety at work. Police officers are exposed to several risk factors including extended work schedules, shift work, occupational stress, dangerous and traumatic events and can, as such, develop sleep problems. The aim of the present study was to analyze the sleep quality among police officers. A systematic literature search, in PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, ISI/Web of Science (WoS) and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Original articles, published in English, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, the primary objective of which was the evaluation of the quality of sleep through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in Police Forces, were selected. From an initial sample of 1,149 studies, 13 articles were included in the meta-analysis (3,722 police officers). The pooled prevalence of bad sleep quality in police officers was 51% [95%CI 42–60%]. The pooled global score of the PSQI was 5.6 [95%CI 5.0–6.3], corresponding to a low average quality. At the meta-regressions, statistically significant associations could be found for work seniority (in terms of years of service) and being on shift. The poor quality of sleep in police officers could have negative consequences for workers’ health and for the safety of third parts. The implementation of health and sleep hygiene promotion programs in police forces is strongly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
SleepOMICS: How Big Data Can Revolutionize Sleep Science
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020291 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Sleep disorders have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, affecting the youth as well as the elderly, crossing the entire lifespan in both developed and developing countries. “Real-life” behavioral (sensor-based), molecular, digital, and epidemiological big data represent a source of an impressive wealth of information [...] Read more.
Sleep disorders have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, affecting the youth as well as the elderly, crossing the entire lifespan in both developed and developing countries. “Real-life” behavioral (sensor-based), molecular, digital, and epidemiological big data represent a source of an impressive wealth of information that can be exploited in order to advance the field of sleep research. It can be anticipated that big data will have a profound impact, potentially enabling the dissection of differences and oscillations in sleep dynamics and architecture at the individual level (“sleepOMICS”), thus paving the way for a targeted, “one-size-does-not-fit-all” management of sleep disorders (“precision sleep medicine”). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Different Perspective)
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