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Pharmaceuticals, Volume 13, Issue 3 (March 2020) – 19 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Targeted imaging in oncology can provide tumor-type specific non-invasive diagnosis and the precise [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
4-Amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione as a Promising Scaffold for the Inhibition of Serine and Metallo-β-Lactamases
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030052 - 24 Mar 2020
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Abstract
The emergence of bacteria that co-express serine- and metallo- carbapenemases is a threat to the efficacy of the available β-lactam antibiotic armamentarium. The 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione scaffold has been selected as the starting chemical moiety in the design of a small library of β [...] Read more.
The emergence of bacteria that co-express serine- and metallo- carbapenemases is a threat to the efficacy of the available β-lactam antibiotic armamentarium. The 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione scaffold has been selected as the starting chemical moiety in the design of a small library of β-Lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) with extended activity profiles. The synthesised compounds have been validated in vitro against class A serine β−Lactamase (SBLs) KPC-2 and class B1 metallo β−Lactamases (MBLs) VIM-1 and IMP-1. Of the synthesised derivatives, four compounds showed cross-class micromolar inhibition potency and therefore underwent in silico analyses to elucidate their binding mode within the catalytic pockets of serine- and metallo-BLs. Moreover, several members of the synthesised library have been evaluated, in combination with meropenem (MEM), against clinical strains that overexpress BLs for their ability to synergise carbapenems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommentary
Emetine, Ipecac, Ipecac Alkaloids and Analogues as Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030051 (registering DOI) - 21 Mar 2020
Viewed by 537
Abstract
The COVID-19 coronavirus is currently spreading around the globe with limited treatment options available. This article presents the rationale for potentially using old drugs (emetine, other ipecac alkaloids or analogues) that have been used to treat amoebiasis in the treatment of COVID-19. Emetine [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 coronavirus is currently spreading around the globe with limited treatment options available. This article presents the rationale for potentially using old drugs (emetine, other ipecac alkaloids or analogues) that have been used to treat amoebiasis in the treatment of COVID-19. Emetine had amongst the lowest reported half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) from over 290 agents screened for the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses. While EC50 concentrations of emetine are achievable in the blood, studies show that concentrations of emetine can be almost 300 times higher in the lungs. Furthermore, based on the relative EC50s of emetine towards the coronaviruses compared with Entamoeba histolytica, emetine could be much more effective as an anti-coronavirus agent than it is against amoebiasis. This paper also discusses the known side effects of emetine and related compounds, how those side effects can be managed, and the optimal method of administration for the potential treatment of COVID-19. Given the serious and immediate threat that the COVID-19 coronavirus poses, our long history with emetine and the likely ability of emetine to reach therapeutic concentrations within the lungs, ipecac, emetine, and other analogues should be considered as potential treatment options, especially if in vitro studies confirm viral sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Old Pharmaceuticals with New Applications)
Open AccessArticle
Unveiling Pharmacological Responses and Potential Targets Insights of Identified Bioactive Constituents of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Leaves through In Vivo and In Silico Approaches
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030050 (registering DOI) - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is traditionally used by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh to treat different diseases, such as pain, edema, tumor, jaundice, and skin infections. This study tested neuro-pharmacological, anti-nociceptive, and antidiarrheal activities by in vivo and in silico experiments for the metabolites [...] Read more.
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is traditionally used by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh to treat different diseases, such as pain, edema, tumor, jaundice, and skin infections. This study tested neuro-pharmacological, anti-nociceptive, and antidiarrheal activities by in vivo and in silico experiments for the metabolites extracted (methanol) from the leaves of Cuscuta reflexa (MECR). During the anxiolytic evaluation analyzed by elevated plus maze and hole board tests, MECR (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of anxiety-like behavior in mice. Similarly, mice treated with MECR demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in the time of immobility in both forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In addition, anti-nociceptive activity was assessed by the chemical-induced (acetic acid and formalin) pain models. In both cases, 400 mg/kg was found to be most effective and significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited acetic acid stimulated writhing and formalin-induced licking (pain response) in mice. Furthermore, antidiarrheal efficacy determined by the castor-oil induced diarrheal model manifested an evident inhibition of diarrheal stool frequency. In parallel, previously isolated bioactive compounds were documented based on the biological activities and subjected to in silico studies to correlate with the current pharmacological outcomes. The selected isolated compounds (15) displayed favorable binding affinities to potassium channels, human serotonin receptor, COX-1, COX-2, M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and 5-HT3 receptor proteins. Additionally, the ADME/T and toxicological properties were justified to unveil their drug-like properties and toxicity level. Overall, Cuscuta reflexa is bioactive and could be a potential source for the development of alternative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Regenerative Injections Including 5% Dextrose and Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030049 - 18 Mar 2020
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Abstract
This network meta-analysis aimed to integrate the available direct and indirect evidence on regenerative injections—including 5% dextrose (D5W) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP)—for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Literature reports comparing D5W and PRP injections with non-surgical managements of CTS were systematically [...] Read more.
This network meta-analysis aimed to integrate the available direct and indirect evidence on regenerative injections—including 5% dextrose (D5W) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP)—for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Literature reports comparing D5W and PRP injections with non-surgical managements of CTS were systematically reviewed. The main outcome was the standardized mean difference (SMD) of the symptom severity and functional status scales of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire at three months after injections. Ranking probabilities of the SMD of each treatment were acquired by using simulation. Ten studies with 497 patients and comparing five treatments (D5W, PRP, splinting, corticosteroid, and normal saline) were included. The results of the simulation of rank probabilities showed that D5W injection was likely to be the best treatment, followed by PRP injection, in terms of clinical effectiveness in providing symptom relief. With respect to functional improvement, splinting ranked higher than PRP and D5W injections. Lastly, corticosteroid and saline injections were consistently ranked fourth and fifth in terms of therapeutic effects on symptom severity and functional status. D5W and PRP injections are more effective than splinting and corticosteroid or saline injection for relieving the symptoms of CTS. Compared with splinting, D5W and PRP injections do not provide better functional recovery. More studies investigating the long-term effectiveness of regenerative injections in CTS are needed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutics Agents for Neural Repair)
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Open AccessArticle
Administration of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide during Early Postnatal Ontogenesis Induces Transient Impairment of Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity Associated with Behavioral Abnormalities in Young Rats
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030048 - 18 Mar 2020
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Infectious diseases in early postnatal ontogenesis often result in cognitive impairments, particularly learning and memory. The essential foundation of learning and memory is long-term synaptic plasticity, which depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In the present study, bacterial infection was modeled by treating rat [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases in early postnatal ontogenesis often result in cognitive impairments, particularly learning and memory. The essential foundation of learning and memory is long-term synaptic plasticity, which depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In the present study, bacterial infection was modeled by treating rat pups with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 25 µg/kg) three times, during either the first or the third week of life. These time points are critical for the maturation of NMDA receptors. We assessed the effects of LPS treatments on the properties of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 hippocampus of young (21–23 days) and adolescent (51–55 days) rats. LTP magnitude was found to be significantly reduced in both groups of young rats, which also exhibited investigative and motor behavior disturbances in the open field test. No changes were observed in the main characteristics of synaptic transmission, although the LTP induction mechanism was disturbed. In rats treated with LPS during the third week, the NMDA-dependent form of LTP was completely suppressed, and LTP switched to the Type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1)-dependent form. These impairments of synaptic plasticity and behavior were temporary. In adolescent rats, no difference was observed in LTP properties between the control and experimental groups. Lastly, the investigative and motor behavior parameters in both groups of adult rats were similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Choices of the Journal)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anti-Prostate Cancer Activity of Two Ebselen Analogues
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030047 - 17 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Scientific research has been underway for decades in order to develop an effective anticancer drug, and it has become crucial to find a novel and effective chemotherapeutics in the case of prostate cancer treatment. Ebselen derivatives have been shown to possess a variety [...] Read more.
Scientific research has been underway for decades in order to develop an effective anticancer drug, and it has become crucial to find a novel and effective chemotherapeutics in the case of prostate cancer treatment. Ebselen derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including cytostatic and cytotoxic action against tumor cells. In this study, the cytotoxic effect and anticancer mechanism of action of two organoselenium compounds— (N-allyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one (N-allyl-BS) and N-(3-methylbutyl)-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) (N-(3-mb)-BS)—were investigated on two phenotypically different prostate cancer cell lines DU 145 and PC-3. The influence of analyzed compounds on the viability parameter was also assessed on normal prostate cell line PNT1A. The results showed that both organoselenium compounds (OSCs) efficiently inhibited cancer cell proliferation, whereas normal PNT1A cells were less sensitive to the analazyed ebselen analouges. Both OSCs induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and prompted cell death through apoptosis. The detection of cleaved Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) confirmed this. In addition, N-allyl-BS and N-(3-m)-b-BS increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, however only N-allyl-BS induced DNA damage. Based on our data, we assume that OSCs’ anticancer action can be associated with oxidative stress induction and inactivation of the Akt- dependent signalling pathway. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ebselen derivatives showed strong cytotoxic efficiency towards prostate cancer cells and may be elucidated as a novel, potent anticancer agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Old Pharmaceuticals with New Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Products Derived from Buchenavia tetraphylla Leaves Have In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Protect Tenebrio molitor Larvae against Escherichia coli-Induced Injury
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030046 - 16 Mar 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
The relevance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several diseases (including inflammatory disorders) has traditionally led to the search for new sources of antioxidant compounds. In this work, we report the selection of fractions with high antioxidant action from B. tetraphylla (BT) [...] Read more.
The relevance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several diseases (including inflammatory disorders) has traditionally led to the search for new sources of antioxidant compounds. In this work, we report the selection of fractions with high antioxidant action from B. tetraphylla (BT) leaf extracts. In vitro methods (DPPH and ABTS assays; determination of phenolic and flavonoid contents) were used to select products derived from B. tetraphylla with high antioxidant action. Then, the samples with the highest potentials were evaluated in a model of injury based on the inoculation of a lethal dose of heat-inactivated Escherichia coli in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Due to its higher antioxidant properties, the methanolic extract (BTME) was chosen to be fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column-based chromatography. Two fractions from BTME (BTFC and BTFD) were the most active fractions. Pre-treatment with these fractions protected larvae of T. molitor from the stress induced by inoculation of heat-inactivated E. coli. Similarly, BTFC and BTFD increased the lifespan of larvae infected with a lethal dose of enteroaggregative E. coli 042. NMR data indicated the presence of aliphatic compounds (terpenes, fatty acids, carbohydrates) and aromatic compounds (phenolic compounds). These findings suggested that products derived from B. tetraphylla leaves are promising candidates for the development of antioxidant and anti-infective agents able to treat oxidative-related dysfunctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Antibacterial Agents)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of an Adaptogenic Extract on Electrical Activity of the Brain in Elderly Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Armed Cross-Over Study
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030045 - 14 Mar 2020
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Background: The current and potential uses of adaptogens are mainly related to treatment of stress-induced fatigue, impaired cognitive function, mental illness, and behavioral- and age-related disorders. However, clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of adaptogens is limited. The primary aim of this study is [...] Read more.
Background: The current and potential uses of adaptogens are mainly related to treatment of stress-induced fatigue, impaired cognitive function, mental illness, and behavioral- and age-related disorders. However, clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of adaptogens is limited. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether a combination of adaptogenic plant extracts from Andrographis paniculata and Withania somnifera (Adaptra® Forte) could be used as effective and safe treatment for impaired cognitive, memory, or learning ability functions and sleep disorders. Methods: The changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) frequency ranges in 17 different brain regions, psychometric tests of cognitive performance, as well as standard questionnaires of assessment of mood and sleep were measured after single and repeated administration of Adaptra® or placebo for four weeks and after a two-week treatment-free follow-up period within a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled two-armed cross-over study. Results: Adaptra® Forte significantly improved cognitive performance in the d2-Test for attention and the concentration performance test after four weeks’ treatment, and was positively correlated with increases in δ and θ power in the quantitative EEG compared with placebo during cognitive challenges. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Adaptra® Forte exhibits a calming and anxiolytic effect without sedation, and is associated with overall stress-protective activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Cisplatin-Loaded Polybutylcyanoacrylate Nanoparticles with Improved In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Activities
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030044 - 11 Mar 2020
Viewed by 291
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the cisplatin encapsulated into polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) nanoparticles for the treatment of kidney cancer. The nanoformulation was successfully developed using the miniemulsion polymerization method and characterized in terms of size, size distribution, drug loading and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the cisplatin encapsulated into polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) nanoparticles for the treatment of kidney cancer. The nanoformulation was successfully developed using the miniemulsion polymerization method and characterized in terms of size, size distribution, drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies, drug release behavior, in vitro cytotoxicity effects, in vivo toxicity, and therapeutic effects. Cisplatin-loaded PBCA nanoparticles were confirmed to be in nanoscale with the drug entrapment efficiency of 23% and controlled drug release profile, in which only 9% of the loaded drug was released after 48 h. The nanoparticles caused an increase in the cytotoxicity effects of cisplatin against renal cell adenocarcinoma cells (ACHN) (2.3-fold) and considerably decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations when compared to the standard cisplatin (1.6-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively). The nanoformulation also caused an increase in the therapeutic effects of cisplatin by 1.8-fold, in which a reduction in the mean tumor size was seen (3.5 mm vs. 6.5 mm) when compared to the standard cisplatin receiver rats. Overall, cisplatin-loaded PBCA nanoparticles can be considered as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of kidney cancer due to its potency to reduce the side effects of cisplatin and its toxicity and therapeutic effects on cancer-bearing Wistar rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biopharmaceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acid Amides Synthesized from Andiroba Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) Exhibit Anticonvulsant Action with Modulation on GABA-A Receptor in Mice: A Putative Therapeutic Option
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030043 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterized by excessive neuronal activity leading to seizure; about 30% of affected patients suffer from the refractory and pharmacoresistant form of the disease. The anticonvulsant drugs currently used for seizure control are associated with adverse reactions, making [...] Read more.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterized by excessive neuronal activity leading to seizure; about 30% of affected patients suffer from the refractory and pharmacoresistant form of the disease. The anticonvulsant drugs currently used for seizure control are associated with adverse reactions, making it important to search for more effective drugs with fewer adverse reactions. There is increasing evidence that endocannabinoids can pharmacologically modulate action against seizure and antiepileptic disorders. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of fatty acid amides (FAAs) in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model in mice. FAAs (FAA1 and FAA2) are obtained from Carapa guianensis oil by biocatalysis and are characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Only FAA1 is effective in controlling the increased latency time of the first myoclonic jerk and in significantly decreasing the total duration of tonic-clonic seizures relative to the pentylenetetrazol model. Also, electrocortical alterations produced by pentylenetetrazol are reduced when treated by FAA1 that subsequently decreased wave amplitude and energy in Beta rhythm. The anticonvulsant effects of FAA1 are reversed by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-A (GABA-A) receptors, indicating a mode of action via the benzodiazepine site of these receptors. To conclude, the FAA obtained from C. guianensis oil is promising against PTZ-induced seizures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutics Agents for Neural Repair)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Is There a Role for the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Colistin? An Overview
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030042 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Colistin is used as a last-line antibiotic for the treatment of Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria. Due to its high nephrotoxicity, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is recommended for dose adjustment. We aimed to evaluate the available evidence of TDM in patients given colistin to treat [...] Read more.
Colistin is used as a last-line antibiotic for the treatment of Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria. Due to its high nephrotoxicity, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is recommended for dose adjustment. We aimed to evaluate the available evidence of TDM in patients given colistin to treat Gram-negative infections. In this paper, we offer an overview, using an electronic search of the literature (published up to June 2019, without language restrictions) that compares the clinical outcomes and measurements of colistin TDM. Ultimately, the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of colistin in Plasma could prevent nephrotoxicity risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection The Story of Successful Drugs and Recent FDA-Approved Molecules)
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Open AccessArticle
Opipramol Inhibits Lipolysis in Human Adipocytes without Altering Glucose Uptake and Differently from Antipsychotic and Antidepressant Drugs with Adverse Effects on Body Weight Control
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030041 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Treatment with several antipsychotic drugs exhibits a tendency to induce weight gain and diabetic complications. The proposed mechanisms by which the atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine increases body weight include central dysregulations leading to hyperphagia and direct peripheral impairment of fat cell lipolysis. Several [...] Read more.
Treatment with several antipsychotic drugs exhibits a tendency to induce weight gain and diabetic complications. The proposed mechanisms by which the atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine increases body weight include central dysregulations leading to hyperphagia and direct peripheral impairment of fat cell lipolysis. Several investigations have reproduced in vitro direct actions of antipsychotics on rodent adipocytes, cultured preadipocytes, or human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. However, to our knowledge, no such direct action has been described in human mature adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to compare in human adipocytes the putative direct alterations of lipolysis by antipsychotics (haloperidol, olanzapine, ziprazidone, risperidone), antidepressants (pargyline, phenelzine), or anxiolytics (opipramol). Lipolytic responses to the tested drugs, and to recognized lipolytic (e.g., isoprenaline) or antilipolytic agents (e.g., insulin) were determined, together with glucose transport and amine oxidase activities in abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from individuals undergoing plastic surgery. None of the tested drugs were lipolytic. Surprisingly, only opipramol exhibited substantial antilipolytic properties in the micromolar to millimolar range. An opipramol antilipolytic effect was evident against isoprenaline-, forskolin-, or atrial natriuretic peptide-stimulated lipolysis. Opipramol did not impair insulin activation of glucose transport but inhibited monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity to the same extent as antidepressants recognized as MAO inhibitors (pargyline, harmine, or phenelzine), whereas antipsychotics were inefficient. Considering its unique properties, opipramol, which is not associated with weight gain in treated patients, is a good candidate for drug repurposing because it limits exaggerated lipolysis, prevents hydrogen peroxide release by amine oxidases in adipocytes, and is thereby of potential use to limit lipotoxicity and oxidative stress, two deleterious complications of diabetes and obesity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
2019 FDA TIDES (Peptides and Oligonucleotides) Harvest
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030040 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 468
Abstract
2019 has been an excellent year in terms of peptides and oligonucleotides (TIDES) approved by the FDA. Despite the drop in the number of total drugs approved by the FDA in 2019 in comparison with 2018 (48 vs. 59), the total number of [...] Read more.
2019 has been an excellent year in terms of peptides and oligonucleotides (TIDES) approved by the FDA. Despite the drop in the number of total drugs approved by the FDA in 2019 in comparison with 2018 (48 vs. 59), the total number of TIDES authorized increased (seven vs. three). Year after year, TIDES are increasingly present in therapy, as imaging agents, theragnostic and constituent moieties of other complex drugs, such as antibody drug conjugates. This means a consolidation of these kinds of drugs in the pharmaceutical arena, paving the way in the coming years for the approval of others for diverse medical indications. Here the TIDES approved in 2019 are analyzed in terms of chemical structure, medical target, mode of action, and adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection The Story of Successful Drugs and Recent FDA-Approved Molecules)
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Open AccessReview
(Radio)Theranostic Patient Management in Oncology Exemplified by Neuroendocrine Neoplasms, Prostate Cancer, and Breast Cancer
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030039 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The role of nuclear medicine in the management of oncological patients has expanded during last two decades. The number of radiopharmaceuticals contributing to the realization of theranostics/radiotheranostics in the context of personalized medicine is increasing. This review is focused on the examples of [...] Read more.
The role of nuclear medicine in the management of oncological patients has expanded during last two decades. The number of radiopharmaceuticals contributing to the realization of theranostics/radiotheranostics in the context of personalized medicine is increasing. This review is focused on the examples of targeted (radio)pharmaceuticals for the imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), prostate cancer, and breast cancer. These examples strongly demonstrate the tendency of nuclear medicine development towards personalized medicine. Full article
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Open AccessReview
[68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC: The First FDA-Approved 68Ga-Radiopharmaceutical for PET Imaging
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030038 - 03 Mar 2020
Viewed by 450
Abstract
In the United States, [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2019 as the first 68Ga-radiopharmaceutical for imaging of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors while employing positron emission tomography (PET). In Europe (Austria, [...] Read more.
In the United States, [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2019 as the first 68Ga-radiopharmaceutical for imaging of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors while employing positron emission tomography (PET). In Europe (Austria, Germany, France), [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC was already approved back in 2016. This radiopharmaceutical combines the radionuclide 68Ga with the somatostatin analogue DOTA-TOC for specific imaging of tumor cells expressing SSTRs. Such a targeting approach can also be used for therapy planning in the case of both localized as well as disseminated disease and potentially for the evaluation of treatment response. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection The Story of Successful Drugs and Recent FDA-Approved Molecules)
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Open AccessReview
Synthesis of Imidazole-Based Medicinal Molecules Utilizing the van Leusen Imidazole Synthesis
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030037 - 03 Mar 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Imidazole and its derivatives are one of the most vital and universal heterocycles in medicinal chemistry. Owing to their special structural features, these compounds exhibit a widespread spectrum of significant pharmacological or biological activities, and are widely researched and applied by pharmaceutical companies [...] Read more.
Imidazole and its derivatives are one of the most vital and universal heterocycles in medicinal chemistry. Owing to their special structural features, these compounds exhibit a widespread spectrum of significant pharmacological or biological activities, and are widely researched and applied by pharmaceutical companies for drug discovery. The van Leusen reaction based on tosylmethylisocyanides (TosMICs) is one of the most appropriate strategies to synthetize imidazole-based medicinal molecules, which has been increasingly developed on account of its advantages. In this review, we summarize the recent developments of the chemical synthesis and bioactivity of imidazole-containing medicinal small molecules, utilizing the van Leusen imidazole synthesis from 1977. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Bioisosteric Replacement as a Tool in Anti-HIV Drug Design
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030036 - 28 Feb 2020
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Bioisosteric replacement is a powerful tool for modulating the drug-like properties, toxicity, and chemical space of experimental therapeutics. In this review, we focus on selected cases where bioisosteric replacement and scaffold hopping have been used in the development of new anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. Moreover, [...] Read more.
Bioisosteric replacement is a powerful tool for modulating the drug-like properties, toxicity, and chemical space of experimental therapeutics. In this review, we focus on selected cases where bioisosteric replacement and scaffold hopping have been used in the development of new anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. Moreover, we cover field-based, computational methodologies for bioisosteric replacement, using studies from our group as an example. It is our hope that this review will serve to highlight the utility and potential of bioisosteric replacement in the continuing search for new and improved anti-HIV drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Effective Application of Bioisosterism)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Bacteriophages Against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Mastitis
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030035 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 395
Abstract
The lytic efficacy of bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine milk was investigated in vitro, regarding possible applications in the therapy of udder inflammation caused by bacterial infections (mastitis). The host range of sequenced, lytic bacteriophages was determined against a collection of [...] Read more.
The lytic efficacy of bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine milk was investigated in vitro, regarding possible applications in the therapy of udder inflammation caused by bacterial infections (mastitis). The host range of sequenced, lytic bacteriophages was determined against a collection of 92 Staphylococcus (S.) aureus isolates. The isolates originated from quarter foremilk samples of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases. A spot test and a subsequent plaque assay were used to determine the phage host range. According to their host range, propagation and storage properties, three phages, STA1.ST29, EB1.ST11, and EB1.ST27, were selected for preparing a bacteriophage mixture (1:1:1), which was examined for its lytic activity against S. aureus in pasteurized and raw milk. It was found that almost two thirds of the isolates could be lysed by at least one of the tested phages. The bacteriophage mixture was able to reduce the S. aureus germ density in pasteurized milk and its reduction ability was maintained in raw milk, with only a moderate decrease compared to the results in pasteurized milk. The significant reduction ability of the phage mixture in raw milk promotes further in vivo investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Therapy and Phage-Mediated Biological Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Targeted Protein Degradation by Chimeric Compounds using Hydrophobic E3 Ligands and Adamantane Moiety
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13030034 - 25 Feb 2020
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Targeted protein degradation using small chimeric molecules, such as proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) and specific and nongenetic inhibitors of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent protein erasers (SNIPERs), is a promising technology in drug discovery. We recently developed a novel class of chimeric compounds that recruit the [...] Read more.
Targeted protein degradation using small chimeric molecules, such as proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) and specific and nongenetic inhibitors of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent protein erasers (SNIPERs), is a promising technology in drug discovery. We recently developed a novel class of chimeric compounds that recruit the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) E3 ligase complex and induce the AhR-dependent degradation of target proteins. However, these chimeras contain a hydrophobic AhR E3 ligand, and thus, degrade target proteins even in cells that do not express AhR. In this study, we synthesized new compounds in which the AhR ligands were replaced with a hydrophobic adamantane moiety to investigate the mechanisms of AhR-independent degradation. Our results showed that the compounds, 2, 3, and 16 induced significant degradation of some target proteins in cells that do not express AhR, similar to the chimeras containing AhR ligands. However, in cells expressing AhR, 2, 3, and 16 did not induce the degradation of other target proteins, in contrast with their response to chimeras containing AhR ligands. Overall, it was suggested that target proteins susceptible to the hydrophobic tagging system are degraded by chimeras containing hydrophobic AhR ligands even without AhR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Protein Degradation: From Chemical Biology to Drug Discovery)
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