Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical state variable of land surface energy equilibrium and a key indicator of environmental change such as climate change, urban heat island, and freezing-thawing hazard. The high spatial and temporal resolution datasets are urgently needed for a
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Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical state variable of land surface energy equilibrium and a key indicator of environmental change such as climate change, urban heat island, and freezing-thawing hazard. The high spatial and temporal resolution datasets are urgently needed for a variety of environmental change studies, especially in remote areas with few LST observation stations. MODIS and Landsat satellites have complementary characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal resolution for LST retrieval. To make full use of their respective advantages, this paper developed a pixel-based multi-spatial resolution adaptive fusion modeling framework (called pMSRAFM). As an instance of this framework, the data fusion model for joint retrieval of LST from Landsat-8 and MODIS data was implemented to generate the synthetic LST with Landsat-like spatial resolution and MODIS temporal information. The performance of pMSRAFM was tested and validated in the Heihe River Basin located in China. The results of six experiments showed that the fused LST was high similarity to the direct Landsat-derived LST with structural similarity index (SSIM
) of 0.83 and the index of agreement (d
) of 0.84. The range of SSIM
was 0.65–0.88, the root mean square error (RMSE)
yielded a range of 1.6–3.4 °C, and the averaged bias
was 0.6 °C. Furthermore, the temporal information of MODIS LST was retained and optimized in the synthetic LST. The RMSE
ranged from 0.7 °C to 1.5 °C with an average value of 1.1 °C. When compared with in situ LST observations, the mean absolute error and bias
were reduced after fusion with the mean absolute bias of 1.3 °C. The validation results that fused LST possesses the spatial pattern of Landsat-derived LSTs and inherits most of the temporal properties of MODIS LSTs at the same time, so it can provide more accurate and credible information. Consequently, pMSRAFM can be served as a promising and practical fusion framework to prepare a high-quality LST spatiotemporal dataset for various applications in environment studies.