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An Energy Efficient Routing Approach for IoT Enabled Underwater WSNs in Smart Cities

A Secure Communication in IoT Enabled Underwater and Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Cities

Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran 61441, Saudi Arabia
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Sahiwal Campus, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of ICT, Balochistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta 87300, Balochistan, Pakistan
School of Computing and Communications, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4309;
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 26 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 2 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of IoT and Machine Learning in Smart Cities)
Nowadays, there is a growing trend in smart cities. Therefore, the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Underwater and Wireless Sensor Networks (I-UWSN) are mostly used for monitoring and exploring the environment with the help of smart technology, such as smart cities. The acoustic medium is used in underwater communication and radio frequency is mostly used for wireless sensor networks to make communication more reliable. Therefore, some challenging tasks still exist in I-UWSN, i.e., selection of multiple nodes’ reliable paths towards the sink nodes; and efficient topology of the network. In this research, the novel routing protocol, namely Time Based Reliable Link (TBRL), for dynamic topology is proposed to support smart city. TBRL works in three phases. In the first phase, it discovers the topology of each node in network area using a topology discovery algorithm. In the second phase, the reliability of each established link has been determined while using two nodes reliable model for a smart environment. This reliability model reduces the chances of horizontal and higher depth level communication between nodes and selects next reliable forwarders. In the third phase, all paths are examined and the most reliable path is selected to send data packets. TBRL is simulated with the help of a network simulator tool (NS-2 AquaSim). The TBRL is compared with other well known routing protocols, i.e., Depth Based Routing (DBR) and Reliable Energy-efficient Routing Protocol (R-ERP2R), to check the performance in terms of end to end delay, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption of a network. Furthermore, the reliability of TBRL is compared with 2H-ACK and 3H-RM. The simulation results proved that TBRL performs approximately 15% better as compared to DBR and 10% better as compared to R-ERP2R in terms of aforementioned performance metrics. View Full-Text
Keywords: topology discover; reliable; routing protocol; smart cities topology discover; reliable; routing protocol; smart cities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, T.; Irfan, M.; Shaf, A.; Saeed Alwadie, A.; Sajid, A.; Awais, M.; Aamir, M. A Secure Communication in IoT Enabled Underwater and Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Cities. Sensors 2020, 20, 4309.

AMA Style

Ali T, Irfan M, Shaf A, Saeed Alwadie A, Sajid A, Awais M, Aamir M. A Secure Communication in IoT Enabled Underwater and Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Cities. Sensors. 2020; 20(15):4309.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ali, Tariq, Muhammad Irfan, Ahmad Shaf, Abdullah Saeed Alwadie, Ahthasham Sajid, Muhammad Awais, and Muhammad Aamir. 2020. "A Secure Communication in IoT Enabled Underwater and Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Cities" Sensors 20, no. 15: 4309.

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